US 1683877 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 11, 1928.
L. A. EDBLOM ET AL mums FOR TREATING BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS Filed March 3, 1927 INVENTORS. LeSZErHEab/om Q A TTORNEYS.
Patented Sept. 11, 1928.
UNITED sTAr s PATENT Ol 'l 'i MEANS FOR TREATING BLOOD-STREAM INFECTIONS.
Application filed March 3,
v Our invention relates to the art ofsurgery and medicine and has for its object the provision of anovel method and means for treating blood stream infections and other pathologic-blood conditions, and to this end is ell cctive to destroy infect-ions bacteria, to stimulate normal blood cellsand to inactivate toxic serum, by the use of ultra violet rays.
These phenomena of ultra violet radiation are generally known and are utilized in the treatment of external infections, and one of the principal. objects of. our invention there- 'fore, is to use ell'cctively these phenomena in the treatment of blood strean'i infections. We ha ve discovered further that all toxins in the blood stream that we have exposed to ultra violet radiation, have been inactivated.
The treatment of blood in thecirculatory system is rendered difiicult because all of the blood vessels are encased in a layer of tissue constituting the walls of the vessel, and such layer of tissue is not permeable to the range of ultra violet radiation having bactericidal properties. -Whenbacteria. have thus entered the blood stream or become otherwise lodged under even the thinnest layer of tissue, they are protected against the bactericidal effect of radiation and can be destroyed only by the indirect manner of stimulating normal cells tocombat such infectious organisms by their increased activity.
. Clinical experiments have further determined that l'ienelicial energy is stored up in the rayed blood tenmorarily, and if such blood can be returned to the blood stream inm'icdiatelyalt'cr it has been rayed, it will throw oil secondary radiations which will stimulate and energize the patient.
o attain our object in av practical manner by tapping one of the patients blood vessels, ren'ioving a small portion of blood in a closed air-tight conduit having one section permea'ble to the ultra violet rays possessing bactericidal power, and by forcing such blood thru such section while it is exposed to ultra violet radiation of the lengths mentioned, then retijirning the rayed blood in'nnediately to another vessel in the body. This process is prcleral'ily carried on contini-iously over a period of time so that a predetermined portion of blood is raycd' and renderedbacteriw free, and in this manner a large amount of blood can be witlulrawn and rayed Without lowering the patients vitality to a very great degree. The portion raycd at one operation is determined by the patients vitality, his
1927. Serial no. 172,358.
power to throw oil the organisms thus killed and remaining as foreign proteins in the blood stream, and by the condition to be corrected. The operation is repeated at intervals until a sull'icicnt number oi the infectiousbacteria have been killed, suilicie'nt normal cells have been stimulated, and/or a sullicient amount of toxic scrum has been in activated, to permit the normal bodily functions to take -are of the pathological condition without further external aid.
The preferred apparatus for utilizing this method comprises a veni-puncture needle which is inserted into a. vein, the butt end of the needle being attached to a new of tubing of required length into which a container of citrate or oxylate solution is connected. The other end of such tubing is attached to a transfusion pump, which is connected at its outlet side to an exposure chamber covered by a quartz lens or other substance permcable to ultra violet rays. A gencrator of rays between 18OU-1000 A. U. is arranged to direct such rays thru such quartz lens upon the blood stream. Such exposure chamber is constructed to produce turbulence toprevent setting out of the constituent parts of the blood, and the uniform and thorough raying thereof.
The outlet end of such chamber is connected by tubing to another vein-puncture needle which inserted into another vessel of the same patient. If the method is used in blood transfusion to insure the purity of the blood, the second vein-puncture needle would, of course, be inserted into the patient to whom the blood was being given. The operation is performed in a room in which the temperature is i'i'iaintaincd at such heat as to prevent a change in temperature ol the blood being rayed, the apparatus is thoroughly sterilized, and great care is taken to prevent any air from entering the closed circuit.
The different bacteria to be destroyed contain various amounts of the photo-sensitive amino acids mentioneth'and it is desirable to force the blood being'treated thru the exposure chamber in the shortest possible time and thus each blood stream infection has its optimum OXPOSHI'U period. During this period the in lcctious bacteria are coagulated by the chemical action of the ultra violet rays and normal cells are stimulated by the longer length rays to better perform their functions. ()vcr-stinndation oi such cells causes their ultimate destruction but happily, observathm the means in which it to provide the desired flexibility.
citrate or oxylate,
' with the balile has proven, there is a wide gap between the timeofchemical destruction of foreign bactcria and the impairment or physical breakdown of normal cells due to over stimulation, somewhat in the relation of five seconds to two hundred and forty-five seconds.
The details of our improved method and is embodied and ciliciently performed, are hereinafter described in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of the mechanism used, such devices comprising the latter being shown connected together;
Fig. 2 is a larger scaled plan view of the exposure chamber moved;
Fig.3 is a cross-section of such exposure chamber, and shown'in relationto a quartz lamp; and l igs..4 and 5 are alternative forms of ex} posure chambers which might be used but are not considered. as desirable as the one shown in the other figures.
The devices used are two veni -pu-ncture needles a and I), the needle a serving as the inlet end of the closed'conduit and the needle 6 as the outlet end. The butt end of the needle a is connected to the exposure chamber by a piece oil tubing d, preferably rubber, Connected a container 0 for solution, which solution is introduced into the bloodstream to prevent coaginto such tubing is ulation and is a'comnion expedient in blood transfusion technique. A second piece of tubing 9' connects the outlet .end of the exposure chamber ate. the needle I).
A force pump f, of the type used in blood transfusion also is connected in such tubing 03 so as to move such blood 'thru the exposure at a predetermined rate of flow.
be exposure CllltH'll'JCl' 0 comprises a cupshapcd body 0 having a plurality of laterally extending, substantially parallel baillev walls 0 defining a tortuous passageway of uniform crosssection from the inlet 0 to the outlet c" of such exposure chamber. Such exposure chamber 0 preferably is-set up on its edge walls extending in a horizontal plane. The walls are spaced alternately from the opposite sides of the body, and thus when blood is forced'thru such body, it is requiredto flow over the ends of such baillcs and to be agitated thereby. Inasmuch as the walls are thus arranged in a vertical stack the 'blood flows in a continuous descending path and thus the cells are not permitted to settle out and to form thrombi. As is shown inv Fig. 3, the connection between the walls and the bottom of the cup-shaped body is filleted, as ate, to eliminate a sharp corner in which particles might become lodged, and subsequently become loosened. and carried along by the blood stream. The ends of the with the quartz lens re-' permeable to battle walls 0 are connected by rounded pottions 0 also to eliminate this possibility of thrombi formation, and also to eliminate a sudden corner around which the force of the flow might whip out the solid particles carried by the stream, and thus destroy the nice uniform mixture of the latter.
The entire chamber, or at least the portionsv thereof in contact with the blood stream, is made of a material with which the blood will not react chemically, such for example as silver or glass. The passageway also is of uniform depth which depth is less than the depth of effective radiation and preferably is approximately one centimeter.
he tortuous passageway 0 causes the blood to be gently agitated so that the turbulence thus created turns all of the particles carried in suspension to the ultra violet rays so that the latter will be enabled to ell'ect its beneficial influence on all of the blood cells and its lethal influence u 301] infectious bacteria carried by such stream.
. A lens of quartz a", or of other material ultra violet radiation, is fitted air-tight upon the open top a oi the cxposure chamber and thru the lens the ultra violet rays are directed by erably of the water-cooled type capable of tie livering rays between 18003000 A. U. and having a large proportion of such rays in the region of 2540 A. U.
There may be one or more of such exposure chambers c and generators 71. con nerted in series or in parallel, to produce the ideal condition to the blood leaving the circulatory system and being returned thereto bacteria-free. stimulated and with no active toxins present but physically unchanged can ccpt diluted slightly, and to effect this result in the shortestpossible time and with the least amount of blood withdrawn from the circulatory system at one time.
It'is to be understood also that altho the particular form of exposure chamber is prefcrable,'it is not essential. A straigl'it or flat spiral, or a reversed tube, as shown as i and 7', respectively, in Figs. 4 andb, can be used altho they are not believed to be as practical as the one shown inl igs. l to 3, because of their increased cost and frailty, and dillicul'ty of manufacture and because of a less e'il'icient mixture of the blood stream attained, while the latter is passing under the influence of the beneficial ray. It is believed essential in every exposure chamber that the bore be smooth but that means he provided for causing the cells to be agitated gently so that all cells and bacteria be exposed to the ultra violet radiation.
In our experimentations we have used an exposure chamber of the type shown in Figs. 1 to 3, inclusive, in which the passageway is approximately 1 square centimeter in cross scctionalarea, and about 1 centimeter deep,
a generator, prefice and a fiat uartz lens approximately one quarter centimeter thick was sealed tightly over the chamber. A water cooled type Uviarc quartz tube, located as close as possible, was used as the generator of the ultra violet radiation, the generator being operated at volts, and approximately 4 amperes', and the room temperature was maintained at about 90 degrees F.
Under such conditions, smallquantities of human blood in which cultures of Sta )h. aureus were mixed, were rayed for the tol- 160180'220-260280 seconds' Cultures obtained, taken after each exposure showed growth only on the first three exposures, and no rowth after 10 seconds exposure.
T mm was no change in the forms of the blood cells up to seconds exposure, then slight poiklocytosis noted which condition disappeared after seconds. The cells were normal and-no change wasnoted until 280 seconds then disintegration of a mild. degree was noted. Achromogenises also noted at 280 seconds.
1. Apparatus of the character described for treating blood stream infections, comprising in combination with a generator of ultra violet radiation between 1800-4000 .A. U., an airtight conduit 7 having veni-puncture needles at the ends thereof, an exposure chamber connected in said conduit,-intermediatc such ends,- a pump element connected to said conduit and adapted to cause vfiow therethrough at aprede'termined rate, such exposure chamber having a portion permeable to ultra violet radiation, and such portion being arranged relatively to such generator as to permit the rays directed from the latter to pass therethrough.
2. Apparatus of the character described for treating blood stream infections. comprising in combination with a generator of ultra violet radiation between 1800 l000 A. U., an airi ight conduit having veal-puncture needles at the ends thereof, an exposure chamber connected in said conduit, intermediate such ends, a pump element connected to said conduit and-adapted to cause flow thcrcthrough at a predetermined rate,-such exposure cl1amher having a portion permeable to ultra violet radiation, and such portion being arranged relatively to such generator as to permit the rays directed from the latter to pass therethrough, and provided with means for producing turbulence in the blood passing by such permeable portion, for the purpose specified.
3. Apparatus of the character described for treatin blood stream infections, comprising in comliination with a generator of ultra violet radiation between 18004000 A. U., an airtight conduit having vein-puncture needles at the ends thereof, an exposure Chamber connected in said conduit, interiniuliute such ends, a pump element connected to said con duit and adapted to cause flow therethrough at a predetermined rate, such exposure chain her having a portion permeable to ultra violet radiation, and such portion being arranged relatively to such generator as to permit the rays-directed from the latter to pass thercthrough, and the portions of the conduit in the exposure chamber being; formed to produce turbulence in the blood passing by such permeable portion, for the purpose specified.
4. Apparatus of the character described for treating blood stream infections, comprising in combination with a generator of ultra violet radiation between 1800-4000 A. U., an airtight conduit having vein-puncture needles at the ends thereof, an exposure chamber connected in said conduit, 'llltGllnEtlittiQ such ends, means for snp 'ilying u diluting medium into such conduit arranged adjacent said exposure chamber, a pump clement connected to said conduit and adapted to. cause flow therethrough at a predetermined rate, such exposure chamber having a portion permeable to ultra violet radiation, and such portion being arranged relatively to such generator as to permit the rays directed from the latter to pass therethrough and provided with means for producing turbulence in the blood passing by such permeable portion, for
meable to ultra violet radiation, and such portion being arranged relatively to such generator as to permit the rays directed from the latter to ass therethrough, and provided with side we lsforlned to produce turbulence in the blood passing by suchpermeable portion, for the purpose specified.
6. An exposure chamber of the character described, comprising a body defining a tortuous passageway of substantially uniform cross-section, one portion of said body separatin' the passageway from the exterior thereoi being made of a material pern'ieable to ultra violet radiation of 1800-4000 A. U.
7. An exposure chamber of the character described, comprising a body defining a tortuous smooth-bored passageway oi substautially uniform cross-section, and descending progressively in a vertical plane, one portion of said body separating the passageway from the exterior thereof being made of a material permeable to ultra violet radiation of 1800-4000 'A. U. v
8. An exposure chamber of the character described, comprising a body defining a tortuous passageway of substantially IlIllfOIH'l cross-section, one portion of said body separating :the passageway from the exterior thereof being made of quartz pern'ie'al'ile to ultra violet radiation of 1800-4000 A. U.
9. An exposure chamber of the character described, comprising a bodydetining a tortuous si'i'iooth-bored passageway descending progressively in a vertical plane, one portion of the latter separating the passageway from the exterior thereof being made of a matcrial pcrn'ieable to ultra violet radiation of 18004000 A. U.
10. In apparatus for treating blood stream infections, in combination 7 with devices adapted to be connected with a blood vessel of a patient to be treated including a tubular conduit having a section permeable to ultra violet radiation, means for pumping blood at a predetermined rate from said vessel thru such section, and means for directing ultra violet radiation of 18004000 A. U. upon the blood passing thru such section.
'11. In apparatus for treating blood stream infections, airtight withdrawing and con,- taining devices adapted to remove from the circulatory system a predetermim-d quantity of blood, means for exposing the same radiation of 1800-4000 A. U. and return ng; such rayed blood to the circulatory system.
LES'llCIt A. EDBLOllfl. Ell [MET K. KNOTT