US 1685392 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Spt. 25 1928. 1,685,392
a. w. BEADLE PRESERVATIVE PACKAGE AND PROCESS OF MAKING THE SAME Original Filed Aug. 12, 1925 i W//1;TORNEYJY Patna: Sept, 25, me
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
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rusimva'nvn momma am) rnocnss or name an m' Application filed Apguat 12, 1825, Serial No. 49,880. Renewed December 17, 1887.
This invention relates to the treatment of articles, materials, etc.. mainly with the view to checking deterioration or decay, the invention having special reference to the preserva- 5 .tion of skin covered articles such as variouskinds of fruits and vegetables, in order toprolong the maximum edible period of said ar ticles after being picked, although the invention is applicable to other articles and materials with the view to their preservation, maintenance of sanitary conditions, and 'the prevention of dehydration.
In accordance with my invention the article to be treated is completely enclosd in and surrounded by a homogeneous covering or envelope embracing the articleunder "sustained tension and thereby exerting a comprcssive force on the same,said coveringbeing preferably transparent, or substantially so, in
' order to enable the surface of the article to be seen and its character and condition determined, and said covering being preferably non-adherent to the skin or surface of the article so as to enable the covering to be readily removed when the article is to be used; and the invention consists in the novel preservative package or covered article per se; in the improved method of treating articles and substances for the purpose above mentioned; in
the process of forming the material of which the covering is made; and in the improved and novel material composing the covering, all of which features of the invention will be set forth in the detailed description to follow,
and the novel parts thereof pointed out in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 illustrates an article enclosed in a preservative covering or envelope in accordance with my invention. 4
Fig. 2 is a perspective view showing a-modi- 'fied form of the covering previous to its application.
Fig. 3 is a similar view of the article en- Referring to the drawing:
The covered article illustrating by way of example the use and advantages of my invention is a skin covered fruit, in this instance a cantaloupe A, which is completely surrounded by and enclosed in a covering or envelope B which seals the cantaloupe against the escape of its natural moisture content and against the entrance of air or bacteria and there y be prevents dehydration. V i
45 closed in said modified form of covering.
In accordance with the invention this covering is made of amaterial which when applied to the article, as will be later described in detail, will shrink thereon with great force and will thereby exert a sustained compressive peripheral force on the article, which force will compress the skin of the calntalo circumferentially or in the direction of its surface. Such compressive force, when employed 1n connection with articles having pores in their skin, will act to close the pores and will thereby prevent the escape of the moisture and the entrance of air or bacteria. Preferably this covering material is transparent to enable the character of the article and its condition to be observed, and the material is of a character, which, although subjecting the article to compressive force, will be entirely non-adherent to the skin of the article, whereby the covering can be readily removed when the article is to be used, and without marring or injuring the natural skin or surface.
A material which I have found suitable for this purpose and possessing the above described characteristics, is a hydrated cellulose of improved form which is prepared in the improved manner now to be described.
Sulphite pulp sheets are preferably provided to furnish the cellulose material, which sheets are dried to reduce the moisture content to about 4%, and are then immersed in a bath of caustic soda solution of alstrength of about 17.6% by weight, in which bath the sheets are allowed to remain for. about two hours. The temperature of this bath should be about 20 (3., although it may be of a lower tem erature when employin a soda solution of less strength than that above indicated. The effect of the bath on the material is to cause it to swell about 33% of its original bulk, the chemical reaction of the soda solution on the I cellulose converting the pulp into sodium salt the later stages of the process from becoming too brittle and cracking. A suitable preservative which will possess these properties, I have found to be a mixture of 4% white rosin and 6% sodium tetraborate.
The disintegrated material from the grinder is next stored for from about sixtythree to ninety-six hours in a temperature of about 18 (3., in order to permit the chemical reactionbetween the cellulose, soda and preservative compound to be completed.
After its storage under the temperature conditions mentioned, the material is placed in a rotarydr'um-or churn, together with a solution of carbon disulfide of a specific gravity of about 1.29, and the two subjected to a mixing and churning action for a period of from two to. three and one-half hours, and
resulting in the following chemical reaction, and forming the mass into jelly-like gelatinous flakes reddish yellow in color.
com-o. CIHQOONB C5: C=S
. S-Na The material after its removal from the churn is placed in a mixing kettle provided with a rotary beater, and there is introduced with the material a weaksolution of caustic soda of from 3 to 6% strength, together with a solution of sodium sulphite, this latter ingredient being for the purpose of causing the rapid coagulation of the viscose cellulose solution when appliedto the article to be coated inthe later stage of the process, as will be presently described. The weak solution of caustic soda is for the purpose of controlling the viscosity of the mixture in the kettle; and the material after treatment in the kettle is brown in color and of the syrupy consistency of molasses.
The material from the kettle is next filtered to remove such solid impurities as may exist in the form of small particles of iron or other foreign substances. This filtering may be conveniently effected in a filter press employing as a filtering medium, linen and cotton flannel or other'suitable filtering material.
This completes the preparation of the hydrated cellulose material for its application to the articles to be coated, the solution at this stage being of a syrupy consistency.
The completed cellulose solution may be applied to the articles to be coated, for instance to various fruits and to various vegetables and other articles, in different ways. For instance the article to be coated may be immersed in a bath of the solution and the surplus solution allowed to drainofl'. until a uniform thickness of the covering is obtained; or the article may be sprayed with the coating solution, which spraying may be eifected by means of a spray gun as the article falls through space; or the article may be rolled in a cloth saturated with the solution; or other methods of applying a continuous covering of the solution to the article may be employed. The coated article is next subjected to treatment to partially coagulate the coating so as to change it from a syrupy consistency to a more condensed or self-holding condition. This treatment may be effected by immersing the coated article in a coagulating bath of a neutral salt solution, for instance a bath of ammonium sulphate of say 11% strength, in which bath the article is allowed to remain for from about eight to ten minutes. Any neutral ammonium salt solution will answer to e'il'ect the degree of coagulation given the covering at this stage ofthe process.
The article with the covering partially coagulated is now subjected to treatment to finsh and completely coagulate the same. This may be effected by immersing the article in a bath of sulphuric acid of a strength of say from .15 to 25%, the effect of this bath being to complete the coagulation of the coating as stated, and of removing such impurities as may be present, the covering by such treatment being changed from a light brown color to. a milky translucent appearance. The article should remain in this bath for from about eight to ten minutes, and the chemical eifect is to neutralize the residual caustic soda present in the regenerated cellulose.
The article with the completely eoagulated covering is now placed in a weak solution of caustic soda of a strength of about .05 in order to neutralize'the acid, and it is allowed to remain in this bath only momentarily, and after leaving the bath it is washed in water and dried.
When completely dried the covering becomes transparent and shrinks and contracts with great force on the article, thereby subjecting the same to sustained compressive force exerted peripherally or in the direction of the surface ofthe skin of the article. Such compressive force on the skin of such articles as fruits and vegetables in which pores exist, will have the efi'ect of effectually: closing and sealing the pores against the escape of the natural moisture of the article and the en'- trance of air as hereinbefore described; whereby by reason of the sealing character of the homogeneous covering, the edible period after'the article is picked or plucked is prolonged to the maximum extent.
The sealing covering formed and applied as above described completely encloses the article, is homogeneous and continuous throughout, is non-adherent to the skin of the article, andtightly embraces the same unervation of such peris'hable fruits as cantaloupes which, under the present methodof handling are picked in unripe condition, and
. when transported long distances, as from the western to the eastern coast of the country,
are fully ripe when reaching their destinat1on, and must be used within two or three days to preventde'cay.v In the transportaand 140.00
tion of cantaloupes from the Pacific coast t9 the Atlantic coast the expense of refrigeratlon runs as high as $88.00 per car by express, per car when shipped by freight, there being a Waste of about after the fruit is unloaded and in getting the same from the wholesaler to the retailer and finally to the'consumer. By the use of my improved sealing covering I am enabled. to ship ripe cantaloupes known as full those partially ripe and known as half slip without refrigeration, and am enabled to p'ro-v long the edible period after the arrival of the shipments, to from ten days to two weeks, thereby saving thegreat expense of refrigeration and also tioned. i
Instead of applying the covering to the ar ticle as a continuous homogeneous coating'in the first instance as above described, it may be applied in the form of sections C, C, Fig. 2, previously molded or shaped into hollow form from the hydrated cellulose material, to receive the article and conjointly enclose the same. These sections are slipped over the ends of the article and are overlapped at their inner adjacent edges as shown at D, Fig. 3, it being understood that the material is in wet-condition corresponding to its condi tion just before the drying operation in the first instance described. On drying, the overlapping surfaces of the two sections will coalesce with and flow into each other and become firmly cemented together, and will thus form in effect a continuous homogeneous covering, which, in the drying action, will shrink on the article and subject the same to a sustained compressive force similar to the action of the homogeneous covering first described, and functioning with similar results and advantages.
I A transparent sealing covering of the character hereinbefore described possesses the further advantage of facilitating the marking or brandingof the goods in a durable manner.
.Under the present practice it is the custom to paste on such articles as cantaloupes, oranges. and the like, a label displaying the shippcrs name or the brand or trade-mark which the article is known by. In practice it has been found very difficult, if not impossible, to prevent the labels from peeling off, or from becoming displaced in the handling slip as well as the great wastage above men tion for use.
of the goods and in their transportation by coming in contact with each other and'with extraneous objects. These objections are overcome by the use of my improved transparent sealing covering, as the label E, which is pasted or fastened to the skin ofthe cantaloupe or other article as shown in Fig. 1, will covered and protected by the homogeneous tou h transparent covering A and the label wil. be at -all times clearly'visiblethrough the covering, but will be prevented from coming in contact with extraneous objects, or from being otherwise injured or displaced. In the handling of such articles as cantaloupes and oranges for instance, this brand marking of the goods in a permanent manner is a very important considerat on, since if brands become displaced and the goods are offered without their proper marking showing their origin, an intended. purchaser depending on the marking of the goods to assure him that he is buying the article or brand he desires, will refuse to take the goods.
While in the drawings I have illustrated by way of example the homogeneous sealing cov cring applied to a cantaloupe, itwill be manifest that the invention is applicable in connection with other fruits, and in connection with vegetables, and other perishable articles, such as eggs, in'order to prevent dehydration, and preserve them in proper and sanitary condi- It will be understood therefore that the invention is not limited to any particular details with respect to the several phases thereof, except in so far as such limitations are specified in the claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is:
1. An article of manufacture consisting of fruits, vegetables and the like having a nonadherent, initially tensioned, homogeneous sealing covering of cellulose completely enclosing. said article :with compressive force exerted peripherally thereof.
2. An article of manufacture consisting of a skin covered article having pores in its skin, and a non-adherent initially tensioned homogeneous Y scaling covering ofcellulose completely enclosing said article with compressive force exerted peripherally thereof and acting to close said pores against the escape of moisture and entrance of air.
3. The method of preserving perishable articles such as fruits, vegetables and the like, which includes applying thereto so as to com' pletely enclose the same, a homogeneous coating of hydrated cellulose in liquid condition, treating the exterior surface of said coating while on the article to coagulate the coating, and drying the treated coating to cause it to shrink and exert pressure on the article.
4. The method of preserving perishable articles such as fruits, vegetables and the like,
which includes applying thereto so. as to a completely enclose the same, a homogeneous coating of hydrated cellulose in liquid COIldltion, treating the exterior surface of said and finally drying the covering to cause it to shrink and exert pressurepn the article. 8. The method of treatlng perishable articoating while on the article to coagulate and cles such as fruits, vegetables and the like,
purify the coating and cause it to become transparent, and drying thetreated coating to cause itto shrink and exert pressure on the article. Y
5. The method of preserving perishable articles such as fruits, vegetables and the like,
- which includes applying thereto so as to completely enclose the saine, a homogeneous covering composed of hydrated cellulose in liquid condition, subjecting the exterior surface of said coating to treatment to coagulate the same, subjecting the coagulated coating to treatment to purify the coating and render it transparent, and finally drying the treated coating to cause it to shrink and exert pressure on the article.
6. The method of treating perishable articles such as fruits, vegetables and the like,
to preserve the same, which includes completely enclosing the article in a homogeneous covering composed of hydrated cellulose in liquid condition, subjecting the covering to treatment to partially coagulate the same, subjecting the partially coagulated coating to further treatment to complete the coagulation, and finally drying the coagulated covering to cause it to shrink and exert pressure on the article. r
7. The-methodof treating perishable articles such as fruits, vegetables and the like, to preserve the same, which includes com pletely enclosing the article in a homogeneous covering of hydrated cellulose in liquid condition, subjecting the covering to the action of a neutral salt solution to partially coagulate the same, treating the coagulated covering with an acid to complete the coagulation,
to preserve the same, which method consists incompletely enclosing the article in a homogeneous covering composed of hydrated cellulose in liquid condition, subjecting the covering to the action of alneutral salt solutionand then to the action ofan acid to ccagu- *late and purify the coating, washing the covering to the action of sulfuric acid to conuplete the coagulation, and finally drying the covering to cause it to shrink and exert pressure on the article.
10. .The'method' of treating perishable aiti cles such as fruits, vegetables and the like, to preserve the same, which includes completely enclosing the article in a homogeneous covering of hydrated'cellulose in liquid'condition, subjecting the covering to treatment to, partiallycoagulate'the same, treating the partially coagulated ,coverlng with an acid tocomplete the coagulation, treating the coagulated covering to neutralize the acid, and
finally drying the covering to cause it to shrink and exert pressure on the article.
In testimony whereof, I have aflixed my signature hereto.
, GEORGE W BEADLE.