US 1685557 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept; 25, 1 928. 1,685,557
H. REGELSBERGER APPARATUS FOR ANALYSING THE ALVEOLAR AIR PRO! THE LUNGS Filed Sept. 9, 1926 i 25 bonic acid or carbon dioxide and of oxygen that the operatoris'umilerthe necessity of di- 5o tongueof the patient and the portion of the Therefore, 'e above-mentioned technical Patented Sept. 25, 1928.
' EEBIANN BEGFLSJBEBGEB; r nmlauermismaux. mum ra answer we meow 4m mam LWQS- App ication ales ep ember 9 1926; Se ia flbflit and 1' Ger any September 15,, 1935.
invention relates to apparatus for asusual. Obviously, it is important with a alyz g e e la i fr m the lung wr oabt i ing'pure alveolar air that this and it is an object of my invention to pro: delivery to the'hurette should be effected imv ce apparatus ofthe kind described which mediately at theend of the expiration, or,in 6
such air is analyzed automatically. other words, immediately before the begin- To this end I rovide means which are 'conning of the following respiration. i 1 trolled by the ow of the air of respiration Automatic me'ans have also been proposed or by the rythmic motion of'the partsof the for effectin the sainpling'without the coopbody which'partalre in respiration, and which eration of thepatient; device for this pur 65 10 toward the end of each respiration open "and pose is the so called nasal valve. "This is a close a suction pipe connected with the, short glass pipewith minimum volume from respiratory organs until a 'i'nea'surinq vessel, which extend two pipes adapted to be infor instance a burette, has been filfid with sorted in the nostrils, and a light but tightthe desired quantity ot'alveolar air, operate closingvalveis provided'a't each end of the 70 an analyzing and registering apparatus and pipe. "Both valves are check valves, one of cause the vessel to berecharged with neasurthem opening upon respiration but closing i lli id when expiration starts, and the other valve An'y suitable means, and preferably an elecoperating conversely, that is; closing at the tromagnet control, may be provided for open beginning of respiration and opening at the 7 ing and closing the suction'pipe, and thecirbeginningof exairation. The valve which cuit of such control may be opened and broken opens zit-expiration delivers to the above-menby means of contacts which are bridgedby the tloneld' tube or ipe from which the sample of measuringliqe l d; alveolarair is rawn intothebuie'tte;
The variations in the percentage of car- Devices pf this type involve the drawback contained in the blood are very-importantfor recting his attentionexclusivelyto the'analyzmany investigations of theoretical and pracing operations which generally are effected tica-l medicine. The air on which such inwithin short intervals oftimeand this'is all vestigations are performed is that which is the more inconvenient as the"observation 30 discharged from the lungs during theendoften extends through a full day or night, of the respiration, its volume being aboutlt) This drawback is overcome by my'in-ye'ntion cubic centimetres; This: percentage of the in which the samples are tested automatically total volume. of respiration-which is the andthis has never been suggested nor pracalveolar air referred toisat balanced presticed. v
35 sure with the blood flowing in the alveoles It is true that apparatus have already been (Henry-Dalton rule) and therefore by anaproposed for automatically determining and lyzing this alveolar air'as distinguished from indicating'the percentage of carbon dioxide the total volume involved in the respiration in furnace gases, and registering apmratus its content of'carbon dioxide and oxygen will of this kind are also old, for instance the 40 supply an indication of the composition of the ()rsat. i
gases in the'blood which is substantially equal 7 The explanation why'such apparatus have toan indirect analysis ofthe bloo v never bcenappliedfor" the purpose of-the Apparatus for analyzing'the alveolar air present invention is that in the ap'paratus' havealreadybeen proposed; Such appamentioned the tot-alvolume of exhaust-gases 5 ratus may comprise a rubber tubeor a glass for a given period is analyzed whereasrin the pipe containing not less than 10 cubic c'entipresent invention the object is to analyze-a. metres. At the end of each expiration this definite perc'entageofa periodically delivered tube or glass pipe is closed against the ex} volume, viz, the expired air, and onlya fracpiration opening by a valve or th'elik'e or the tion of'this percentage, viz, the alveolar air; tube or pipe atthe rear of theexpiration openmethods cannot be applied here without aling will contain exclusively alveolarair. A teration. 4 v
sample ofthis air is taken by a capillary-tube The apparatus according to my inventipn is in the vicinity of the expiration opening and designed and operatedon the followinglmes: 11
55 delivering toabu'rette'or the like where upon When the expiration valve, .thatis, the it is anatyzed for carbon dioxide or oxygen check valve which closes upon-inspiration, is
, has been collected in the burettc at any suit- ,the operation of sampling is V II, and III,
- I tromagnet M and able pressure, preterably atmospheric. v
Then this volume has been collected, alveolar air is no longer tapped but the gases are analyzed automatically and after the analysis repeated, etc. The determination and registration of the percentage of gas may be effected by graphi- :al means on a volumetric base or by photographic registration.
When the analysis has been completed, and the burette has been recharged with measuring liquid the mechanism is automatically set tor another cycle of operations, that is, a sample of air is taken again and analyzed, rogistered etc.
My invention will be better understood by 7 reference to the accompanying drawings in which an apparatus of the kind described is illustrated diagrammatically by way of example.
Figure 1 is a schematic representation of a device embodying my invention, and
Figure 2 is a fragmentary view oi the expiration tube, illustrated diagrammatically.
The mechanism comprises three cii'cuits,I, which are operatively connected by a system of relays and locking means as requiredby their cooperation. Circuit No. I comprises a batter 1 E a valve V, an eleca contact K Circuit No. II comprises a battery E an electromagnet M and a contact K which is adapted to move about D The armature A of the electromagnet M is connected with a spring which normally, that is, when the magnet is not energized, compresses the rubber tube for drawingoff the alveolar air against'a fixed block. In operation, themain switch H, is thrown in and the circuit I is closed by the closing of the valve V, and opened when the valve s r of example, an extension of opened at the beginning of-the expiration. v In orderto connect the circuit No. I with the circuit No. II and thereby enabling the air to be drawn into the burette a short immersion of the contact K is effected by the armature A being attracted- As shown by way slides past an extension of contact support K When the patient is breathing into the expiration tube T the valve V is open and consequently the circuit I is also open, and the air of expiration willpass through the expiration tube. At the end of the expiration, the valve the armature A 7 V will be closed by the beginning of the inspiration, thereby closing" the circuit I. When the valve V closes, thelast portion of theair of expiration, namely the alveolar air, is trapped in the expiration tube which is so formed that the air cannot readily or quickly escape therefrom.
When the circuit I is closedby the expiration valve, the magnet M is energized and attracts the armature A which pivots and moves the contact K about the pivot D and closes the circuit II, thereby. energizing the magnet M and releasing the clip A from the rubber tube and allowing a portion of the alveolar air to be drawn tromthe expiration tube into the bruette B. As the armature A reaches the end of its movement the contact K is released and the circuit II is opened, allowing the clip A to close the rubber tube. The end of the contact K is provided with a downwardly swinging spring pressed portion S which is depressed by the. armature A on its return movement, thereby allowing the armature to move past the contact K and be in position to raise the end of the contact when it is again attracted by the magnet M It will be seen that the time during which the rubber tube is held open may be regulated by varying the depth to which the contactK is immersed, or by any other time controlled means.
Circuit No. III is providedwith the object 0t interrupting the operation of drawing in alveolar air during the analysis. The. circuit is branched and comprises a'battery E5, two contacts m and 0 in the burette at the highest and lowest level of the liquid in the burette the permanent contact at, and electromagnets h andM in each branch. 7
- The magnet M of one branch closes circuit No. I by attracting the spring pressed armature A and immersing the end of the con tact K which is supported by the armature A in the contact K The armature A is also held down by the endot thearinature S which is provided at its end by a spring pressed downwardly swinging catch which allows the armature A to pass on its downward motion. .The armature S is held in position by the magnet M 7 When the liquid in the burette has fallen below the contact O, the branch of the circuit- III containing the magnet M 1 is o'pened,-and the armature A released, The contact K K is not broken, however, as the catch S -still engages the armature A and holds it down. When the liquid has fallen below is when the requiredquantity of air has collected in the burette, the branch of the circuit III containing the magnetM is broken, releasingthe catch S and allowing the spring to raise the armature A and remove the con tact K from the contact K thereby opening circuit No. I. From this time, the remaining alveolar air escapes into the atmosphere, as
none can be withdrawn with the circuit N o. I open, and as this circuit is not closed until the liquid has risen to the contact and the magnet has pulled the armature past the catch 8,. When the apparatus is inthisposition it is ready for the next cycle or operation.
For raising and lowering the-liquid in the burette, I have illustrated diagrammatically, a leveling bottle N of the usual construction, although it will be obvious that any other arrangement for accomplishing this purpose may be utilized.
Instead of providing a valve V in combination with a contact, and operating the valve by the varying pressure of the respirated 'air, a part of the body which moves rythmically in time with the respiration, may be used for controlling the mechanism. Obviously, any other means may be provided for closing the rubber tube instead of a clip. Instead of the illustrated time contact K other means may beprovided. Finally, the arrangement of circuits, contacts, and relays may be varied as desired without departing from the spirit of my invention.
1. Apparatus for analyzing alveolar air comprising a burette, a pipe, a suction tube connecting said pipe and burette, a valve in said pipe, said valve being opened and closed by the air of respiration and means operated by the movement of said valve to open and close the suction tube to allow air to be conveyed to the burette.
2. Apparatus for analyzing alveolar air comprising a burette, a pipe adapted to receive the air of respiration, a suction tube connecting said pipe and burette and means to open and close the suction tube whereby the alveolar air will be drawn into the burette.
3. Apparatus for analyzing alveolar air comprising a burette, a pipe adapted to receive the air of respiration, a suction tube connecting the pipe and burette and means comprising an electromagnet, a time contact, and
a member movable by the passage of the air of respiration through the pipe for opening and closing the suction tube, to allow the alveolar air to be drawn into the burette for analyzing.
4. Apparatus for analyzing alveolar air comprising a burette, a pipe to receive the air of respiration, a suction tube connecting the burette .and the pipe, means comprising an electromagnet, a time contact and a member moved by the passage of the air of respiration through the pipe for opening and closing the suction tubeto allow the alveolar airto be drawn into the burette for analyzing, and means for recharging the burette with liquid after the analysis has been completed.
5. Apparatus for analyzing alveolar aircomprising a burette, a pipe to receive the air of respiration, a suction tube connecting the burette and the pipe, a circuit including an electromagnet, a time contact and a' contact moved by the passage of the air of respiration through the pipe for opening and closing the suction pipe, and means operated by the rise and fall of the liquid in the burette for making and breaking said circuit.
6. Apparatus for analyzing alveolar air comprising a burette, a pipe to receive the air of respiration, means connecting the pipe and burette, means timed to convey a portion of the alveolar air to the burette for analyzing and; means to reset the apparatus for another cyc e.
7 Apparatus for analyzing alveolar air comprising a burette, a pipe to receive the air of respiration, a suction tube connecting the pipe and burette, a circuit including an electromagnet and a time contact, means operated by the air of respiration in the pipe for oper-' ating the time contact to open and close the suction tube through the agency of the electromagnet, whereby the alveolar air will be conveyed to the burette for analyzing, and means controlled by the rise and fall of the liquid in the burette for making and breaking the circuit.
In testimony whereof I name to this specification.
have signed my