|Publication number||US1689623 A|
|Publication date||Oct 30, 1928|
|Filing date||Nov 15, 1927|
|Priority date||May 8, 1924|
|Publication number||US 1689623 A, US 1689623A, US-A-1689623, US1689623 A, US1689623A|
|Inventors||August Eskilson Sven|
|Original Assignee||American Gasaccumulator Compan|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
am A a 3 a I 12 26 f I H i I S. A. ESKILSON PENDULUM LENS APPARATUS Oct. 30, 1928. 1,689,623
Filed Nov. 15. 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 1? Z91 NTOI? BY *5 W ATTORNEY Oct. 30, 1928. Y 1,689,623 7 s. A. ESKILSON I PENDULUM LENS APPARATUS Filed Nov. 15. 1927 2 Sheets-Sheet A TTORNE Y Patented Get. 39, 1928.
Unll'ili stares PATENT OFFICE.
SVEN AUGUST ESKILSON, OF STOOKHOLM, Sl/VEIDEN, ASSIGNOR TO AMERICAN GAS- ACCUMULATOR COMPANY, OF ELIZABETH, Ill-3V1 JERSEY, A CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
PENDULUM LENS APPARATUS.
Application filed November 15, 1927, Serial No. 233,392, and in Sweden May 8, 1924.
Applications for Letters Patent were filed in Sweden, May 8, 1924:; in Germany, March 12, 1927; in France, March 17, 1927; and in England, March 23, 1927.
In the case of signaling mcans,-such as lights associated with a lens apparatus, mounted upon ships, boats, buoys or the like, floating upon bodies of water such as oceans or lake-s, it is customary to provide means for rendering said signaling means independent of the rolling or pitchingmovements of the said ship, boat, vbuoy or the like which movements are due to the waves of the water. One means widely'used consists in locating or suspending a pendulum at a point place in the ship, boat or buoy where the motions thereof are comparatively small and connecting the same with the signaling means, such as a lens apparatus, by suitable transm ssionor connecting devices. Although by such means the motions of the lens apparatus or other signaling means generally will be small and of short duration, it has been found that the pendulum under certain circumstances, as when the ship, boat or buoy is caused to move suddenly in a horizontal direction or when the movements of the pendulum and the ship, boat. buoy or other floating support are in synchrony with each other, the movements of the pendulum may be relatively great whereby relatively great angular movements will be imparted to the lens apparatus or other I signaling means connected thereto. Such relatively great movements of the signaling means for example, lens apparatus, are objcctionahle and it is a general object ofmy invention. to provide means whereby the movements of the pendulum may be retarded and the extent of the vibrations thereof decreased and the periods during which the.
vibrations continue shortened, similar char- 7 acteristics being impressed upon the signaling means by the transmission or connecting devices previously referred to.
It also is an object of the invention to pro vide a plurality of pendulums related to each othr r in novel manner and associated with means whereby the independent movements thereof react to lessen the extent of the vibrations thereof and to shorten the period of such vibrations and whereby also a like effect is produced upon the lens or other signaling apparatus by reason of the connections between the pendulum apparatus and the signaling apparatus.
A further object of the invention is to provide a plurality of pendulums which are adapted to vibrate at dilierent rates of speed and through arcs of different lengths in com bination with means whereby resistance to relative movements between the said pendulums is olfered.
In one form of construction embodying my invention, I have employed a plurality of pendulums suspended one within the other, the latter being of bowl-shape and having a concave spherical. inner, surface and the former having a convex spherical lower or outer surface, located a short distance from the said spherical, concaved inner sui ace, with which pendulums means is associated for retarding the relative movement-s thereof and consequently the combined resultant movements thereof.
in order that the invention may be more readily and clearly understood and its many features of advantage rendered .more apparent, reference should be had to the accompanying drawings in which I have illustrated certain forms of embodiment thereof. However, it will be understood that the invention is susceptible of embodii'nent in other forms of construction than are shown herein anal that various changes in the details of construction maybe made within the scope of the claims without departing from the principle of the said invention.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a view partly in vertical section and partly in elevation of a pendulum lens Fig. 6 is a view partly lIl central verticalsec tion and partly in elevation of the modified construction of pendulum shown in Fig. 5;
In the drawings I have shown posts or standards 1 mounted upon a stationarypart like where there is least motion due to the rolling or pitching of the ship caused by the waves of the ocean or lake upon which the same may be floating.
A lens apparatus is indicated generically r broadly at 2 which is supported upon the central or inner member 3 of a Cardan oint or other universal joint structure, which member is provided with trunnions 41 located diametrically with respect to each other, which trunnions are journale'd in bearings upon a rin 5 constituting an outer portion of the Cardan joint structure. The ring 5 is provided with trunnions 6 which are journaled in hearings upon a support 7 mounted upon the upper end portions of the posts or standards 1. I
In the construction as shown the controlling pendulum structure is mounted directly underneath the Cardan joint structure upon which the lens apparatus 2 is supported, but this relationship, it will be understood, does not always exist and is not necessary.
The pendulum structure comprises a bowlshaped pendulum 10 which is provided with trunnions 11 diametrically located, which trunnions are supported in bearings 12 pro- 'v'id-ed upon an annular or ring member 13, which also is pivotally supported upon lugs 'or projections 14 mounted upon the inner sides of the lower end portions of the supporting posts or standards 1. The said projections 14 extend intov bearings 15 provided upon the annular or ring member 13. The bearings 15 which engage the projections 14 are located in diametrically opposed relation to each other. The axes of the projections 14 and the trunnions 11, when the parts are assembled as shown in the drawings, extend at right angles to each other. The concaved inner surface 16 of. the bowl-shaped pendulum 10 is spherical.
A bar 20 is mounted upon and extends diametrically across the top of the bowlshaped pendulum 10. A pendulum 21, which in the construction shown, is in the form of a segment of a sphere is suspended from the middle of the bar 20. The said pendulum 21 is suspended from the bar 20 by means of a connection comprising a universal joint at- 22, the said oint being in the form of a Cardan joint. The universal joint connection 22 is located concentrically of the spherical inner surface 16 of the pendulum 10. The lower, outer convex spherical surface 23 ofthe pendulum 21 is located in close but spaced relation with respect tothe concaved spherical surface of the pendulum 10. The bowlshaped pendulum 1O constitutes a receptacle within which a liquid 24. of a more or less viscous character is contained. A portion of The pendulum structure is connected with the lens structure by sultable connections.
Theconnections as employed in the presentstructure, comprise three pro ections 25 mounted upon the underside of the pendulum 10 and projectmg laterally and upwardly therefrom, so that the upper outer ends thereof are located outside of the annular or ring member 13. There are three of these projections and they are located in triangular relation to each other. Two of these projections are located on opposite sides of one of the trunnions 11 of the pendulum 10, while the third of the said projections is located in alinement with the other of said trunnions. This relationship is shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings. Rods or wires 26 extend from the upper ends of these projections of the Cardan joint supporting structure for the lens apparatus 2 and are connected thereto by means of Cardan joints 26 as shown in Fig. 1 of the drawings. V
In Figs. 5 and 6 I have shown a construc tion similar to that shown in Figs. 1 to 4 and in which certain parts are substantially identical with parts correspondingly numbered in Figs. 1, 2 and 8. I i e The construction as illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6 differs from that shown in Figs. 1 to 1 inclusive in that the "means for causingcoaction between the pendulums 10 and 21 is of different construction. In these Figs. 5 and 6 I have provided a plurality of devices, preferably three, located 120 degrees apart and interposed between the said pendulums shown in Fig. 6. Each of these devices comprises a tubular member 30 closed at both ends. A projection 81 extends from one thereof, the lower end in the construction shown, and is connected by a universal joint connection at 32 to the top side of the pendulum 21. A piston 33 is mounted within the said tubular member and is provided with a connecting rod 34 which extends through an opening in the outer, upper end of. said tubular member and is connected at 35 by means of a universal joint connection to the plate 20 near its outer edge which plate is secured to the top of the pendulum 10. The piston 33 is provided with a small or restricted opening 36 by means of which communication is estab'- lished between the portions of the tubular member 30 upon opposite sides of the said piston. A liquid 37 of greater or less viscosity is bers 30.
In both forms of construction the pendulums 10 and 21 arerof difierent lengths, the pendulum 21 being shortertha'n the penduprovided in each of the tubular memlum 10. This being the case, it is well understood that the said pendulums vibrate or tend to vibrate at different rates of speed and also it is understood that the amplitude of or eX- tent of vibration of the shorter pendulum is less than that of the longer pendulum. The lengths of these pendulums preferably should be so chosen that the periodicity of their swinging or vibrating movements is different from the swinging or rolling movements of the ship, boat or buoy on which they may be supported, but if it should happen that one of them is caused to vibrate or swing in synchrony with or with the same periodicity as the ship or other support provided therefor, the means embodying my invention will quickly, by its retarding action, change the mannerof vibration so as to produce anonsynchronous condition.
As previously described, I have provided, in the form of construction shown in Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive, a. liquid 24 of greater or less viscosity within the pendulum 10, within wl'iich the pendulum 21 is submerged. The lower, convex spherical surface of the pendulum 21 being spaced a short distance from the opposing concaved spherical. surface of the pendulum 10, it follows that the space between the opposing surfaces of these two pendulunis is filled with the said liquid;
If it should happen that the ship, boat or buoy is given a movement as a result of which vibratory or oscillatory movements are 11nparted to the pendulums l and 21, the latter will tend to vibrate more rapidly than the former. In other words, there will be relative movement between the two pendulums. Such relative movements will be retarded by the presence of a portion of the liquid 24 between the adjoining opposing surfaces of the said pendulum. Such retardation will tend to bring the said. pendulums into stationary. vertical position and will operate to shorten the period of vibration which may result from a violent or unusual movement of the ship or other support upon which the pendulum lens apparatus is mounted.
In the construction as illustrated in and 6 the same result is obtained. by the devices comprising the tubular members by means of which. the pendulums are connected in v the manner illustrated and as described. The pendulums being of different lengths vibrate or tend to vibrate at different rates of speed and through arcs of different lengths. but the interposed yielding connections between the two pendulums operate to retard the relative movements between the said pendulums. The difference in the rate of speed and the amplitudes of vibration of the two pendulums causes or tends to cause rela tive movements between the tubular members 30 and the pistons 33 of the said devices. Such movements cause atransference of the liquid 37 within the tubular members 30 from one side to the other of the pistons 33 through the openings 36 therein. These openings be ing of restricted size in transverse area it is apparent that resistance to relative movethe yielding connecting devices between the pendulums 10 and 21 in Figs. 5 and 6 in effecting retardation of the relative movements between the said penduluins and of the resulting movements thereof is the same or suliistuntially the same as is effected, by the presence of the liquid 24 in the pendulum 10 as disclosed in the construction illustrated in Fi 'l to f of the drawings.
lVhile I have shown two forms of apparatus embodyingmy invention, I desire it to be understood that said invention is susceptible of embodiment in other forms of construction than those shown and that the es sential characteristic of my invention is that means is provided wl'iereby retardation of the vibratory movements of the pendulum structure is effected whereby the lens apparatus is maintained practically at all times with its axis in a substantially vertical position and independent of the rolling, pitching or other movements of the floating ship, boat, buoy or the like.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. An apparatus of the character described including a pendulum structure, which comprises swinging relatively movable parts, and means for retarding the relative movements between the same.
2. The combination of a pendulum structure, comprising swinging relatively moval'ilc parts, with fluid means interposed between said parts forretarding the relative movements between the same,
3. A pendulum lens apparatus, adapted to be mounted upon a floating ship, boat, buoy or the like, comprising, in combination, signaling means, a plurality of pendulums one of which adapted to vibrate more rapidly and tlirough arcs of shorter length than the other of said pendulums, connections between one of said nendulums and the said signaling means, and means interposed between the said pendulums to effect retardation of the relative movements thereof.
4. A pendulum lens apparatus, adapted to be mounted upon a floating ship boat. buoy or the like, comprising, in combination. a lens apparatus, a plurality of pendulums, connections between one of said pendulums and the said lens apparatus, one of said pendulums being longer than the other whereby when vibrations are imparted to the said pendulums they vibrate at diflierent relative movements between the same.
5. A pendulum lens apparatus, adapted to be mounted upon a floating ship, boat, buoy or the like, comprising in COlIllJlIlZItldl], a lens apparatus, a plurality of pendulums, connections between one of said pendulums and the said lens apparatus, one of said pendulums being longer than the other whereby when vibrations are imparted to the said pendulums they vibrate at different rates of speed. and through arcs of different lengths, and a fluid interposed between the said pendulums to effect retardation of the relative movements between the same. 7
6. An apparatus of the character described, which includes a signaling means, a pendulum and connections between said pendulums and said signaling means, the combination of said pendulum with a second pendulum, the said pendulums being of different lengths, and means interposed between the said pendulums for causing co-action between the same, substantially as described.
7. An apparatus of the character described including a signaling means and apenduluin, the upper surface of which is of concaved spherical shape and operative connections between said pendulum and said signaling means, the combination of said pendulum "with a second pendulum suspended therein,
the point of suspension thereof being concentric with the spherical surface of the said first named pendulum and the lower surface of the second named pendulum being of convex spherical shape and located in parallel relation to the concave surface of the first named pendulum, and a fluid within the first named pendulum, a portion of which occupies the space betweenthe said pendulunis.
8. In a pendulum lens apparatus, the combination of a lens structurc, a pendulum of two members pivotally supported, means interposed between the said n'ienibers for retarding the movements thereof, a pivotally supported device, and connections between the said pendulum structure and said pivotally supported device whereby the position of said pivotally supported device is controlled by-the position of the said pendulum structure. I r
10. An apparatus of the character described mounted upon a floating ship, boat, buoy, or the like, comprising a pivotally supported device, a pendulum structure including a plurality of pendulums which are adapted to vibrate at differentspeeds and through arcs of different lengths, means interposed between the said pendulums to retard the relative movements between. the same and to thereby retard the vibratory movements of the pendulum structure, and connections be-,
tween one of the said pendulums and. the said device whereby the position of the latter with respect to its pivotal support is controlled by. the position of the said pendulum structure. v
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention, I have hereunto signed my name this 19th day of October, A. 1)., 1927.
svnn AUGUST ESKILSON.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US4626852 *||Feb 1, 1984||Dec 2, 1986||Pennwalt Corporation||Buoy lantern system|
|U.S. Classification||441/13, 441/28, 114/191|
|International Classification||B63B22/16, B63B22/00|