US 1692669 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 20, 1928. 1,692,669
, E. LAST ELECTRODE to BE 'APPLIEDTO Tim uimmaom Original File D c 18. 1925 '5 Sheets-Sheet 1 ERWAN LAST.
INVENTOR 1 ATTORNEY Nov. 20, 1 26. 1,692,669
E. LAST swam-nope To BBAPPLIIED TO THE HUMAN BODY b'x'lginal Filed Dec. 18, 1925 3 Stains-Sheet. 2
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E. LAST ELECTRODE TO BE APPLIED TO THE BUIMN BODY Original Filed Dec. 18, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig.7
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Patented Nov. 20, 1928.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ERWIN'LAST, OF VIENNA, AUSTRIA.
ELECTRODE TO BE APPLIED TO THE HUMAN BODY.
Original application filed December 18, 1925, Serial No. 76,165, and in Austria November 14, 1925.
Divided and this: application filed February 17, 192-7.
This invention relates to electrodes for medical purposes and more particularly to electrodes for use in diathermic treatment.
The application of electrodes to any part of the human body, as for instance the face, shoulder, eck, nose, knee or other, must have regard to the irregular configuration of the surface to which the electrode is to be applied, as well as the difliculty of estab lishing intimate and close contact between the electrode and the said surface. For diathermic treatment in which currents of comparatively high intensities are employed this intimate and close contact over the whole surface is of the utmost importance inasmuch as gaps in the said contact are aptvto X cause burns to theskin. Fabrics interwoven with wire or like conductors are consequently altogether unsuitable for use in diathermic treatment. Neither can rigid lead electrodes or electrodes formed with a carrier of leather, textile fabric or other flexible material accommodate themselves to the surface to be treated with a sufficiently intimate and close contact over the whole surface to permit their use for diathermic treatment. Rigid metal electrodes, which are produced by galvanic processes, from a plaster of Paris cast taken of the particular part of the human body, entail considerable discomfort to the patient in taking the cast, while the production of such electrodes is time absorbing and costly. Electrodes of this kind, moreover, suffer from the disadvantage that rectifications which may become necessary to ensure perfect con tact over the whole surface can be effected only with great difficulty.
In order to overcome the disadvantages and difficulties hereinbefore referred. to, it has also been proposed to form such electrodes from tin foil. Although tin foilpossesses the necessary pliability to accommodate it self intimately and closely to the surface of the human body, it is so fragile as to be liable to rupture readily and therefore difficult to applyand not capable of withstanding re peated use, so that it will frequently become necessary to remodel a new electrode.
The present invention has for its object to produce an electrode which combines t e advantages of metal foil and of an electrically non-conductive carrier in such a manner that while possessing sufficient pliability to adapt itself intimately and closely to the whole sur-' face to be treated, it is capable of perma- Serial No. 168,873.
nently maintaining the shape and configuration imparted to it so as to be always ready and to indefinitely sustain repeated use.
According to the invention this object is attained by moulding an electrically non-conductive carrier 07%. a nature which, while possessing suilicient pliability to adapt itself intimately and closely to the whole surface of the part of the humanbody to be treated is capable of maintaining the shape and configuration imparted to it, in combination with an electrically conductive lining of the said carrier connected to a source of electricity.
In the annexed drawings an embodiment of my invention is illustrated by way of example. The drawing shows an electrode for the diathermic treatment of the human face which is the part of the human body richest 1n irregular curvatures. Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the electrode, Fig. 2 is a section of the same on the line 11-11 Fig. 1. Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 show the main parts of which the carrier of the electrode is composed. Fig. 8 illustrates the way in which the main parts of the electrode are connected with each other.
As will be seen from Figs. 1 and 2 the electrode consists of a carrier 1 moulded in the manner to be fully described later on to nicely fit the part of the patients body, as shown the face or other region of the body. Suitable openings 2 are provided in the carrier for those parts of the face which are not to be eX- posed to the action of the current for instance the eyes, or which serve for respiration as the mouth and the nose. On the side next to the face the carrier is provided with a lining 3 made of metal foil such as tin foil. The lining 3 is somewhat greater than the surface of the carrier to be lined. The parts of the lining projecting beyond the carrier are folded round the edge of the carrier onto the side of the latter remotest from the face of the patient and are secured there to the carrier by any. suitable means say by sticking plaster-strips i. At any suitable point for instance near the chin a tin foil patch 5 is secured to the side of the carrier remotest from the face of the patient and is in good electrical connection with the metal foil lining 3, and serves for ill) bands to prevent it from shifting during treatment. The source. of electricity is connected on the one hand to the lining 3 of the electrode and on the other hand to a metal part not shown brought into intimate contact with a suitable part of the body of the patient. The circuit is then closed and the current intensity is gradually increased. If the patient feels a pricking even at a comparatively low intensity of current then the electrode does not fit nicely at all points. This is remedied by slightly lifting the metal foil off the carrier and inserting between the two a filler or backing of wad or similar yielding substance as shown in Fig. 2 at 7. If no pricking is felt the current intensity is increased to the maximum value determined for each individual case. Owing to the strong carrier the improved electrode is sufficiently firm to be used over and over again after it has been made to nicely fit the part of the body of the patient to be treated.
The process of making an electrode as above described will now be more fully described for the sake of completeness, an
electrode for the diathermic treatment of the face being selected as an example. First of all three strips of a suitable fabric, preferably starched gauze in common use for surgical purposes are used, each about 6 centimeters in width and each comprising a suitable num ber of layers, say 9 to 12.
The first strip 10 Figs. 3 and 4 extends from one ear across the forehead to the other ear and will be called hereinafter the forehead strip. The second strip Figs. 5 and 6, the nose strip extends from one ear across the nose to the other ear and the third strip 25 Fig. 7 extends from one ear across the chin to the other ear. The strips are thoroughly moistened in hot water and a rapidly setting substance for instance a paste of plaster of Paris is interposed between successive layers. The whole is dried if desired at a gentle heat, so far that while the strips are slightly stiff, yet they are plastic or pliable. The face of the patient is rubbed with petroleum jelly more particularly in the neighborhood of the eyebrows and the hairs on the temple and the hairy parts of the head are covered by a suitable cap, shawl or the like. The patient is seated on a chair having a head support and has his or her head inclined backwards. The three strips are then brought into position on the patients face in succession. Preferably the nose strip 15 is the first and is so placed that it extends from ear to ear across the nose. an assistant holding the ends of the strip in the proper position. In order that the strip may be in uniform contact with the face an oblique cut 16 and another cut 17 at right angles to the cut 16 is made in the strip on either side of and near the middle of the strip and the flaps 18 resulting therefrom are folded outwards along the dotted line 19 on the nose. Thereby the inner eye corners are left uncovered and at the same time the part of the strip covering the upper part of the nose is strengthened and a strong projection extending to the forehead is formed which is required for forming a reliable connection with the forehead strip. Similarly by folding down the triangular flap 20 along the dotted line 21 the lower eyelid which was covered by the strip is uncovered. Besides at the lower edge of the strip on both sides of the wings of the nose the two cuts 22 are provided and the flaps 23, 24 thus formed are folded outwards for permitting the wings of the nose to be modelled. While the two ends of the strip are held near the ears by the assistant by applying a layer of a thick paste of plaster of Paris and by rubbing and kneading the parts of the strip are caused to nicely fit the configuration in the proximity of the nose. This modeling is continued until the strip has set to such extent as to retain unaltered the shape into which it has been brought. Now the forehead strip 10 is placed across the forehead from one ear to the other. For accom- IIlOCltltlIlg the curvature of the forehead cuts 11, 12 have to be provided in the lower edge of the strip. As shown in Fig. 8 the ends of the nose strip 15 and the forehead strip 10 are placed the one above the other near the ears and may be readily held in position by the assistant. The modeling of the forehead strip 10 takes place in the same way as the modeling of the nose strip a layer of a thick paste of plaster of Paris being applied thereto. Then the projection of the nose strip strengthened by folding the flaps 18 is bent down over the lower edge of the forehead strip 10. and thus a firm connection between the nose strip 15 and the forehead strip 10 is secured, and this connection may be strengthened if desired by a piece of gauze dipped into a paste of plaster of Paris. hen the forehead strip has sufficiently hardened under continuous rubbing and kneading, the chin strip 25 Fig. 7 is brought into the position shown in Fig. 8 so that it extends from one ear to the other and may be held by the assistant. The chin strip is modelled to nicely fit the lower part of the face. The mouth is left uncovered, but if desired the upper lip may be covered by a small strip 8 of gauze dipped into paste of plaster of Paris and secured to the nose strip. For firmly connecting the three strips which up to this moment had been held in position by the assistant a strip of starched gauze moistened in hot water is wound from one temple across the chin to the other temple and back again, a thick paste of plaster of Paris being interposed between the successive layers of strips and strengthening the same. Similarly the strip is wound across the forehead for sufiiciently strengthening this part too. IVhereVer two strips cross each other it is important to establish a firm conncction between them. The electrode carrier which resembles a mask is then permitted to dry on the face of the patient, which requires about 20 to 25 minutes, whereupon the carrier is removed and finally dried for instance on a heated metal plate.
To the inside of the completely dried carrier an electrically conductive lining is applied which may consist of tin foil cemented thereto, or the electrically conductive lining may be applied by electrodeposition or by atomizing a fusedmetal or alloy. In any case the lining 3 must be applied with the greatest nicety any projecting points or folds and any holes being carefully avoided as they might result in injury to the skin. Irregularities in applying tin foil may be removed by polishing with a hot iron rod having a spherical end. The tin foil lining should project beyond the edge of the carrier by about 1 centimeters. This projecting tin foil'edge is folded down on the outside of the carrier and secured thereto by any suitable means for instance by a strip at of sticking plaster. At a suitable part of the carrier, for instance near the chin portion of the same a patch 5 of tin foil is secured and electrically connected to the lining and to the source of electricity.
What I claim is:
1. In an electrode to be applied to the human body for diathermic treatment, the combination of an electrically non-conductive carrier molded from a. material of a nature possessing sufficient pliability to adapt itself intimately and closely to the surface to be treated and capable of maintaining its molded shape and configuration, an electrically conductive lining on the side of such carrier next to the said part of the body and means for electrically connecting such lining with a source of electric current.
2. In an electrode to be applied to the human body for diathermic treatment, the combination of an electrically non-conductive carrier molded from a material of a. nature possessing sufficient pliability to adapt itself intimately and closely to the surface to be treated and capable of maintaining its molded shape and configuration and consisting of a pliable material hardened by a setting addition thereto, an electrically conductive lining on the side of such carrier next to the said part of the body and means for electrically connecting such lining with a source of electric current.
3. In an electrode to be applied to the human body for diathermic treatment, the combination of an electrically non-conductive carrier molded from a material of a nature possessing sufficient pliability to adapt itself intimately and closely to the surface to be treated and capable of maintaining its molded shape and configuration and consisting of a. fabric impregnated with a stiffening medium, an electrically conductive lining on the side of such carrier next to the said part of the body and means for electrically connecting such lining with a source of electric current.
4. In an electrode to be applied to the human body for diathermic treatment, the combination of an electrically non-conductive carrier molded from a material of a nature possessing sufiicient pliability to adapt itself intimately and closely to the surface to be treated and capable of maintaining its molded shape and configuration, a metal foil lining applied to the side of such carrier next to the. said part of the body and means for electrically connecting such lining with a source of electric current.
5. In an electrode to be applied to the human body for diathermic treatment, the combination of an electrically non-conductive carrier consisting of strips of starched gauze to which a paste of plaster of Paris is applied, an electrically conductive lining on the side of such carrier next tothe said part of the body and means for electrically connecting such lining with a source of electric current.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
DR. ERWIN LAST.