US 1693159 A
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G. RICKELMANN AEROPLANE Filed pt. 7, 1927 .N P KIR ATTORNEY T 1 EF WITNESS Patented Nov 27, 1928.
GUSTAV RICKELMANN 0F HALEDQN, NEW JERSEY.
Application filed September 7, 1927. Serial No. 217,960.
Aeroplanes have been proposed in which a fore-and-aft-extending substantially cylindrical hollow body or structure forms the lifting medium or a part of such medium of the machine. According to this invention, I utilize such a structure and combine therewith plane or lifting surfaces placed at front and rear of the structure, preferably within it, at different elevations and inclined. The object is to increase the lifting power of such a machine and also its inherent stability, which latter will follow if the plane-forming ele ments are within the cylindrical structure as chords thereof and connect it as braces.
In the drawing,
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the invention;
. Fig. 2 is a front elevation; and
Fig. 3 a view illustrating, more or less diagrammatically, certain direction control-- ling devices and their controlling means.
The hollow cylindrical structure is shown at 1 and as having spiders 2 composed of radial links. These spiders reinforce the tubular or cylindrical wall of the structure 1 and afford support for the motor 3, which may be of the rotary type, the propeller being indicated at 4; this latter, however, is not material to the invention, since any other type of motor and any other means for supporting it may be resorted to.
Two sets of rigid or substantially inflexible planes are shown, one, 5 at the forward end, and the other, 6, at the rear end, of the structure 1. In each set the planes are arranged horizontally as viewed lengthwise of the machine and one above another and spaced from each other and they are forwardly uptilted. i. e., in the forward direction, or to the left in Fig. 1. They form walls lying in chords of and are rigidly secured to the cylindrical wall of the structure, so that they assist in bracing or reinforcing the latter.
At the rear edge of each plane 5 or 6 is arranged, pivoted to said edge and its own for ward edge, a pair of plane-extensions 5 6 each of which functions and useful substantially the same as the aileron of the plane or wing of an ordinary aeroplane.
For changing the course of the machine up or down there is a horizontal rudder 8 pivotally supported on a horizontal shaft 7 fixed at its ends in the cylindrical structure. For changing the course of the machine laterally there is the vertical rudder 9 in two parts,
one above and the other below rudder 8, pivotally supported on a vertical shaft 10 fixed at its ends in said structure. these rudders makes it possible to cause the machine to travel in any direction, as will be apparent.
Suitably suspended from the cylindrical structure may be a fuselage or cabin l1 hav- 1ng running gear 12 adapting the machine for running on the ground at the start and finish of a flight.
Shifting of the plane-extensions and the rudders may be accomplished as follows: Around pulleys 13 in the structure 1 and the fuselage is a wire, rope or equivalent 14 which 1s attached to the horizontal rudder 8 in a manner to form therewith an endless control, the lever or handle for shifting which is shown at 15 fulcrumed within the fuselage. Substantially similar means may be employed for shifting the vertical rudders and the forward and rearward plane-extensions,- in which in Fig. 3 16 is the wire, rope or equivalent for the vertical-rudder, 17 that for the forward set of plane-extensions at one side of the machine, and 18 that for the rearwardset of plane-extensions at said side of the machine, the connections of course being such in the case of the parts of the vertical rudder and that ofthe members of each set of superposed plane-extensions that they move in unison.
The placing of the planes 5 and 6 within the cylindrical body 1 so that they span it horizontally and brace it contributes to the strength and stability of the whole structure formed by said body and planes. Placing \said planes within said body also results in the air bein confined within said body to act with full effect on the planes, i. e., without losses or disturbing influences incident to the action of the propeller and extraneous causes, so that the lifting action of these planes is a factor that is constant unless, only, the air pressure developed against these planes in the substantially longitudinal direction changes Manipulation of on account, for example, of change in speed of the motor.
1. An aeroplane including a hollow cylindrical body arranged horizontally and having aforward and a rear end and planes arranged within said body so as to stand horizontally as viewed lengthwise and a rear plane-extension for each plane pivotally movviewed lengthwise of the same, a plane-exable on a horizontal axis at the forward part tension for each plane pivotally movable on 10 of such plane-extension. a horizontal axis at the forward part of such 2. An aeroplane including a hollow cyplane-extension, and means to shift each 5 lindrical bodyarranged horizontally and plane-extension on its pivot.
having a forward and a rear end, spaced for- In testimony whereof I aflix my signature.
ward and rear planes arranged and held with, in said body so as to stand horizontally as GUSTAV RICKELMANN.