US 1697216 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 1, 1929.
W. E. WUELKER PROCESS OF MAKING REFLECTORS Filed Sept. 14, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet (life: 0 41 Jan. 1, 1929.
1,697,216 w. E. WUELKER PROCESS OF MAKING REFLECTORS Filed Sept 14, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented den. l, i929.
STATES El. WUELKER, OF SAN FRANCISCQ, CALIFORNIA...
PEUCESS OE MAKING REFLECTORS.
application riled September 14, 1925. Serial No. 56,179.
' This invention relates to lamps of the kind employed for spot flood lights for window dispiay work, in theatre work, for use in photographic studios, for use in clinical or dental laboratories for factory or store illumination, or for other likeor similar uses, and the invention also includes a process of producing spot flood lights.
The objects of the present invention are:
1. To provide a lamp which will more properly diffuse the light;
2. To provide a lamp structure which permits of a novel form of ventilation;
3. To rovide a lamp structure which may be detac ably' connected either with glass or colored gelatin diffusion plates;
4. To provide a lamp having a novel form of light reflecting surface operative to give a desired re 'on of bright intensity in the center of the light without bringing the light to a focus"; and
5. To provide a novel method of forming the lamp having the above described characteristics,
Other objects and advantages of the present invention Will be apparent from the description of a preferred form of the lamp embodying the invention and the process of producing the same. Reference is accordingly made to the accompanying drawings, in which a'preferred form of lamp embodying the invention is illustrated.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is an elevationmainly in vertlcal section of a lamp embodying thepresent invention.
Fig. 2' is a plan section on the line 2-2, Fig.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged erspective view of a detachable diffusion p ate means for alternate use of either glass or colored gelatin plates.
Fig, 4 is a'vi'ewof a -modified form of socket supporting member illustrating the socket supporting member artly in side eleration and partly in centra section.
Fig. 5 is a view ofa second modified form of socket supporting member partly in side elevation and partly in central section and illustrating the socket in dotted lines.
Fig. *6 is a similar side elevational and central sectional view of a third modified form Fig. 9 is a top plan View of the socket supporting member shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a similar side elevational and central sectional view of a further modified form of socket supporting member embodied in this invention for employment for exterior use.
Referring to the drawings, the lamp comprises a casing 2 forming a reflecting surface 3 for the lamp, which reflecting surface is of a novel form and particularly adapted for the pr per diffusion and distribution of light. The specific character of this surface, aside from its novel configuration, will be hereinafter described in connection with a description of the process producing it.
The reflecting surface 3 is in the form of two deflecting surfaces 4 and 5,'each being so formed that they are approximately between a parabola and an ellipse. The surface 5'is smaller than the surface 4 and is at the base of the total reflecting surface. The two surfaces 4 and 5 have approximately a coincidental focal point and at substantially this focal point is supported by a filament 6 of a light bulb 7 Above the part of the casing 2 providing such reflecting surface, said casing connects with a fitting for supporting the lamp and bulb 7 and providing for the proper ventilation in order to eliminate overheating of the bulb 7. The casing 2 connects with a socket supporting member 8 which may be of any one of the forms herein.- after set forth or any other desired or preferred form of member adapted to support a socket and connect the same to the casing 2.
- At the lower end of the lamp, as viewed in Fig. 1, the casing member 2 is provided with means for detachably connecting different light diffusion plates therewith, for which purpose the end of such casing member 2 is flanged outwardly as at 21, then again down-v wardly as at 22 to provide an annular shoulder against which a diffusion plate 23 may be seated. Said diffusion plate 23 is engaged by a rim 24 having a plurality of catches 25 thereon which snap over the flange 22, thus retaining the rim 24 and thereby the plate 23 in place. Iuplace of the glass diffusion plate 23, the lamp maybe closed by gelatin colored plates 26 as illustrated in Fig. 3,-for which purpose a retainer 27 is also employed, as shown in Fig. 3, to hold such plate 26 in place, said member 27 being provided with a plurality of cross wires 28 for supporting the colored plates. 4
With the lamp thus described, the light from the element 6 of the bulb 7 is generally focused at the properfocus point of both the different reflecting surfaces ,4 and 5 of the lamp so that the light is sent out with a zone of increased intensity at its center surrounded by a zone of somewhat weakened intensity without, however, the light having to be brou ht to a focus. Moreover, the light sent out is softened and properlydifi'used and distributed by the cojoint, action of the form of the reflectin surface 3, to be later described, and the diusion plates 23 and 26 covering the lamp. j
The apertures-13 in the casing member 8 permit the outlet of air from a ventilating space around the base of the'bulb 7 of the ermitting circulation of such air" lamp throug ventilation of the overheating.
The socket supporting member 15 illustrated in Fig. 1 :comprises a lower casing member 8 and an up r casing member 9. The lowercasing mem r 8has a flange'10 formed at its lower end which fits over the upper end of the upper deflecting surface 5 and is secured thereto by means of set screws 11". The upper casing 9 is crimped to the lower casing member 8 as illustrated at 12". A plurality of bent perforations 13 are formed in the lower casing member 8? and a plurality of vent perforations 14 are formed in the upper casing member9- so as apertures 14" providing a proper lamp. and thus avoiding to permit air circulation for the free ventilation of the lam mounted within the socket 16. The cap 1 a is secured above the perfo' rations 14.- so as to prevent diffusion of light upward through thesaid perforations 14. A ring 18 is secured to the cap 17 and to the upper inwardly extending portion of the casingi) and has exterior. threads 19 to which the socket-'16 is'screw threaded as illustrated at 20?. socket supporting member 15F. employed for a variety of uses, such as a'stand light for showcases, windowlight, offer-exterior use, and hasa supporting arm-21' pivotally secured to the upper cas1ng 9'at a pin 22 which passes through the casing 9 and is maintained in position by means of a nut 23 screw-threaded thereto. A. thumb'screw 24" is employed for securing the socket supporting member- 15 to the supporting arm 21 in any desired adjusted position. The supporting arm 21 .has a right angle section 25*.which is secured toa mounting bracket 26 at a bolt 27 a so that the same may be pivoted or rotated to the desired position.
Thesu'pporting bracket 26 has a plurality of perforations. 28 formed therein through which set screws, bolts, or other fastening devices may be extended;
.The modified form of socket supporting device 15 shown in Fig. 4 is of the ball socket type and comprises a lower casing 8 tapered slightly upwardly and serving as a housing. Any suitable connecting means may be used, the casing 8 being illustrated as flanged outward at 9 and being provided with set screws 10. The upper end of thecasing member 8 forms a head 11 and is secured at the bead 11 to a guide member 12 which serves as a support for steadying the bulb 7. A second or upper casing member 13 is crimped at its lower end and secured to the casing 8' at its lower endi Just below the bead 11' the easing 8'- is provided with a series of circumferentially spaced apertures 14 and the guide member 12 is provided with a series of circumferentially spaced a ertures 16. The casing member 13 is be ed outward at its lower end to provide a space for the passage of air from-the aperture 16' up through the casing 13. The casing 13 is provided at its upper end with a series of circumferentially spaced apertures 17. Said casing 13 suports a bulb socket 18 depending downwardy, as viewed in Fig. 4, which socket is connected by a universal joint 19' we plug 20 by which the" electrical connection may be made with the lamp. Aset-screw 21 is provided for fixing the joint 19 in any desired adjusted position.
The socket supporting device 15 illustrated in Fig. 5 is for the purpose of a drop light and comprises a casing 8 having a se-' curing flange 10" at its lower end which is adapted to fit over'the upper end of the upper deflecting surface 5 and to be secured thereto. by means of set screws 11". The up per end of the casing 8 is formed-outward at 12 and '13 to form a ring channel 14" into which set screws 16 of shade supporting clamps 17 of 'ordinary construction, are
adapted to fit, which shade supporting clamps tions 18of the slots 16. This socket sup inward at 16. to
cured by set screws '11 to 'the'up erend of the upper deflectin member o the lamp.
The upper end oft e casing 89 is perforated as atl3 to properly'vent the interior of the. lamp. The casing 8 has an inwardlyextend? ing ring section'l'i which has; a plurality of rcuate Slo s 16? fo med. the e n adapted' fit over the heads' ofstuds 17ys0 as to. secure the casing 8 ,in vPosition, itlie heads "of the porting member, isextremely well adapted for use g sty-spo ts; the lamp in connection with border. ahdifoot ight sockets oroutlets.
' Thesocketsupportingmemberv or attachment 15,-illustrate d in Fig.- 8, comprises a casing '8 hav ng 18 lower "end flange 10 adapted to be secured bymeans of set screws .11 to theu perend of the. member forming trated in Fig. 10, comprises a casing member 8' havin a circular, flange 10' at its lower end-whic isadapt'ed to be engaged with and secured to the up er end of the member forming the upper dc ecting surface 5 of the lamp by means of set screws 11. The casing 8 is belledoutwardly at .itscentralportion 12 to a ring reinforcing section 13' below which rin reinforcing :section' 13' a plurality of per ,oration's 14". are-formed .forJthe venting of the interior of-thecasing 8- and lamp.
The up or section 1169 .of' the'casingB" extends upwa'r ly is then extended inwardly to form a ring section 1-7';which is'ada ted to be socket cos-baa secured toasocketj18 as illustrate at 19 a I supported within the upper section-1690f ,e casing 89. Thiss'ocket supporting member= 15is extremely-well adapted oruse'in connectionfwith outside fixtures The valuablefeature connection with the 1preseht lamp is the character of the refleeting surfaces 4 and 5. In order to obtain proper-surfaces the lamp is preferably made mt e following manner, that is, the casing member 2 isspun into its desired form from soft aluminum metal in any usual or preferred manner, Said member2 is then dipped in and outof ajhot concentrated solu-' tion of lye in order to cleanse the surface. As
the next step in the process, the casing member 2 is dipped into and'out of an eating solution preferably ofx50% sulphuric acid brushing t 50%"nitric acid and therefrom removed and dipped into hot water. The time of treatme'ntffor thedrying material is preferably about 125 seconds, or until a complete whitening of the reflecting surfaceis observed. The
casing member 2, after being removed from the -hot water, is then'cleaned with sawdust and polished to as high a degree as obtainable; :As-afinal step, the reflecting surface is then washed with a volatile oil, such as gasoline, and then finished by the use of a wire brush wheel. r
The resultant effect is that there is pro" vided a highly polished slightly irregular surface which effects a uniform distribution and diffusion of light from the reflecting surface and materiallysoften s and imp-roves the characterof light sent from the lamp. A
While the methods of forming the improved lamp as herein described are well adapted for accomplishing the objects and advantages of this invention, it is to be understood that various modifications in the method-of producing the same may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and that the'invention includes all such modifications and changes as may come within, thescope of the appendedclaims.
- I claim:
' "1. In a process of the class described, cleansing of an aluminum reflecting surface with a lye solution, then treating the surface with a. surface eating or "pickling solution,
then polishing the surface, and finally brushingthefsurface with a wire brush.
,2; a process of the class described,
a uminum,treating the surface with a lye solution, then treating the surface with a mix ture of sulphuric and nitric acid, subsequently polishin the surface, and finally brushing the sur ace with a wire brush. 3. In a process of the class described, first cleansing an aluminum reflecting surface with a lye solution then treating the surface with a mixture 0 sulphuric and nitric acid, then polishing the surface, and finally esurface with a wire brush. 7 4. In a process of, the class described, spinningan aluminum reflecting surface into form, 0 causing the reflecting surface, then treating the reflecting surface with a mix-- ture .of sulphuric'and nitric acid, then polishing the surface, and subsequently: brushing the surface with a wire brush 5. In a process of the classfdescribed, s inning into form an aluminum alloy reecting surface, cleansin the surface, then treating the surface wit a sul huric and nitric acid solution, olishing t e surface, and. brushing the s ace with a wire brush.
,6. A process of finishin a spun aluminum reflector oomprisin polishing the reflecting surface, and therea ter brush ng the surface with a. wire brush.
spinning the-reflecting surface to form from 4 7. A process of finishing a spun aluminum reflector comprising treating the reflecting surface with a cleansing agent, polishing the reflecting surface, and thereafter brushing the surface with. a Wire brush.
8. A process of finishing a spun aluminun reflector which comprises first clipping the reflector in a cleansing agent, polishing the reflector, again cleaning the reflector, ancl finally brushing the same with a Wire brush,
9. ln a process of the class described, cleansing a metallic reflecting surface, then treating the surface with a surface treating or pickling solution, then polishing the surface, and hnally brushing the surface with a wire brush.
Signed at San Francisco, California, this 31st day of August, 1925.
WILLIAM E. WUELKER.