US 1700178 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Jian. 29, 1929.
JOSEPH Ponznr., or BUrFALo, 'NEW' YORK DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING ELECTROJYTIC OPERATIONS.'
` Application filed September 1, 1923. Serial No. 660,646.
My device relates in general to the control of electro-deposit-ions and more particularly to a means for shielding an anode or cathode in electrolytic operations y to control and distribute the ampere current density, so that. the surface action thereon will be substantially'uniform throughout its area. By the term, ampere current density, I mean the amount of amperes present in a given unit 'of crosssection, or the amount of amperes acting on a Given unit of surface. k Itis well known to those skilled in the art, that `in electrolytic operations, the ampere density varies on the surfaces of the anode or cathode employed in such operations, the density being less toward the. center of the anode or cathode and gradually increases in strength toward the outer edges thereof. Under such conditions, the electrodepositions of metals will not be uniform as to thickness and quality owing to this difference in ampere densityi My invention is designed to be employed in any kind of metallic depositions or any electrolytic combinations or chemical dissociations, requiring an anode 0r cathode surface current-density control. y
The principal object of my invention 'has been to provide a device by which it is possible to create depositions of metal which are uniform as to thickness and quality.
Another object has been to obtain the de-i sired results in a convenientand inexpensive manner. l
1The above objects `and advantages have been accomplished by the device shown in the accompanying drawings, of which.:
' Fig.'1 is a front elevation of my invention,
showing arec-tangular anode or cathode car-l ried by the device.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view, taken on line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a'front elevation of a modified form of device.
Fig. 5 is a side elevation of the same.
Fig. 6 is a frontelevation of another modied form of device.
Fig. 7 is a side elevation of the modification shown'in Fig. 6.
For clearness of illustration in the drawings, I have omitted the electrolyte tank and bath, but it is obvious that my device is to be inserted and supported in an electrolyte tank in' a well lmown manner. y
Referring to my deviceas shownin Figs.
1, 2, and B, 10 represents the bus bars of the electrolyte tank, and 11 are the contact bars which are supported by and cont-act with the bus bars-10. An anode or a cathode 12 of rectangular shape is supported from the contact bar 11 by means of hangers 13.
My device comprises a distributing frame 14, which is made, preferably, of any suitable insulating material, and Ais slightly larger than the anode or cathode 12 with which it is to be used. This frame performs the function of distributing the current so that its density is substantially uniform throughout the entire surface area of the anode or cathode. This function may be performed, however, by other means than the frame -herein shown and described, such as, for example, the diaphragm 26 to be hereinafter referred to. The frame 14has side members 15, the upper ends of Vwhich extend upwardly and have the contact bar 11 disposed therein` whereby the frame is supported. A top 16 is provided for the frame and also a botto-m 17. The bottom 17 may be made to provide a support for the agitators 18. When agitators are used, the nozzles' 19 thereof are preferably extended through the bottom 17, whereby the electrolyte. surrounded by the frame will be agitated. The frame is made very much deeper than the thickness of the anode or cathode' 12 so that its sides 15 and ends 16 and 17 extend a substantial distance beyond the faces of the anode or. cathode (see Fig. 3)whereby the ampere density on the surface of the anode or cathode will bc kept substantially uniform over its entire surface.
In Figs. 4 and 5, the distributing frame 20 isformed with concave edges on its sides 21 and its top and. bottom 22 and 23,' respectively, whereby it is wider at the corners 24 than it is at points midway the length of the sides, top, and bottom. By thus curving the edges of the sides, top, and bottom, I have found that the current-density is more uniformlydistributed over the surface area of the anode or cathode, since the. density in the 4absence of the frame, or equivalent means, is
normally greater at the corners than it is elsewhere over .the surface area.
In Figs. 6 and 7, I haveshown a modified form of my device. In this form, the distributing frame 14 has a diaphragm 26 secured to each of its sideedges. The diaphragm may be of fabric or other suitable material. The diaphragm is so constructed that its/distributing 'qualities may be so con-f ode.
trolled as to produce substantially uniform surface current action on the anode or cath- This is done -by suitably increasing the diaphragm distributing qualities in the region of greater current action or lessening such distributing qualities in the zone of lesser current action, either abruptly or by graduated distribution. In order to bring about such graduated distribution, I provide each of the diaphragms with a plurality of openings 27, which preferably increase in size extending from the outer edge of thev anode or cathode, Where the current-density is greatest, to the center of the anode or cathode, Where the current-density is the least.
Obviously, some modifications of the form of apparatus hercin shown and described may be made Without departing from the spirit of my invention or the scopeof the appended claims; and I do not, therefore, Wish to be limited to the exact embodiment herein shown and described, the form herein shown and described being merely a preferred form thereof.
Having thus described my invent-ion, what I claim is:
l. In a device of the character described,
' the combination with an anode or cathode, of
a distributing frame of insulating material, means for supporting the anode or cathode within the. frame, said frame completely surrounding the anode or cathode and being provided with means beyond the plane of the anode or cathode for controlling the ampere current density of the electrolyte and effecting uniform surface action upon the anode or cathode.
2. A device vlof the character described, comprising a distributing' frame of insulating material, having its sides and ends ex-A tening a substantial distance beyond the faces of the anode or cathode, a diaphragm supported by said frame beyond the surface of and covering the anode or cathode, and means for supporting an anode or cathode Within the frame.
3. A device of the character described, comprising a frame of insulating material, having its sides and ends extending a substantial distance beyond the faces of thel lanode or cathode, a top on the frame, a bottom vfor the frame, the top and bottom, together with the frame, enclosing the anode or cathode, and means for supporting an `anodeor cathode Within the frame.
4. A device of the character described, comprising a frame of insulating material, having its sides and ends extending a substantial distance lbeyond the faces of the anode or cathode throughout the entire extent of the peripheral edges of said anode or cathode, top and bottom members covering said frame and the anode or cathode Within said frame, means for supporting an anodey having its peripheral portions of uniformy character and height and extending a substantial distance above the faces of the anode or cathode, and means for supporting an anode or cathode Within such shielding frame.
In testimony whereof, I have hereunto signed my name. f