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Publication numberUS1701918 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 12, 1929
Filing dateAug 15, 1923
Priority dateAug 15, 1923
Publication numberUS 1701918 A, US 1701918A, US-A-1701918, US1701918 A, US1701918A
InventorsJulius H Gillis
Original AssigneeAnaconda Sales Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process and apparatus for making roofing material
US 1701918 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 12, 1929.

, J. H. GILL-ls PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING ROOFING MATERIAL Filed Aug; 15, 1923 INVENTOR -44 W; Mom 50 ATI'ORNEY5 Patented Feb. 12, 1929.

- UNITED STATES 1,701,918 PATENT" OFFICE.

JULIUS H. GILLIS, F ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY, A SSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASS IG-NHENTB,

TO ANACONIDA SALES COMPANY, A. CORPORATION OI! DELAWARE.

rnoonss AND. nnrnnn ros non. Mannie noorme MATERIAL.

0 Application filed August 15, 1923. Serial No. 657,480.

This invention relates to a process and apparatus for the manufacture of a roofing-material which is to be used in the web or. roll form. The roofing material referred to is shown and described in the co-pendmg a plication of Thomas Robinson, Ser. 0. 657,472, filed Aug. 15, 1923, and n thatapplication this new roofing is descrlbed as consisting of a composition base whlch 1s provided with a protective strip of wear-resisting material. The base which is used in this connection may be formed of any of the compositions which are commonly used at the present time under the general designation of composition roofing. Such roofing may be made of impregnated felt, paper, burlap, or finely divided granular or fibrous material, such as asbestos, held together by a. sultable binder. The binder, or lmpregnating material commonly used is a bituminous composition, although magnesite compounds and fire-proof cements are also used. Such composition roofing is in wide use in the form of long strips or webs of relatlvely flexible 2 material, ordinarily shipped in rolls, and

these strips are unrolled on the roof and attached thereto in any convenient man'ner. Composition roofing is also made in the form of single roofing elements similar-to shingles, tiles, and the like, but in this form the elements have a greater degree of rigidity than the web material. Com osition roofing ma terial of the type above riefly described has the advantage of cheapness over ordinary wood or slate shingles, andthe web type is most conveniently used, particularly at the angles of the roof or in other places where ordinary roofing materials cannot be applied in a continuous layer but must be cut'in ac- 40 point of application. This composition roofing, however is objectionable to some extent byreason of its appearance. Also it has a tendency to deteriorate, due to the volatili-r zation of thelighteroils of the binding compound and the surfaceis somewhat soft so that when subject to wear it is likely to have a shorter life than other harder materials.

Metal roofin haslalso been used to agreat extent but is objectionable on account of the rapidity with which it transmits heat and also because of its cost. In the co-pending application, above referred to, however, there is described a roofing which overcomes the several disadvantages of both types and the roofing is of the web type and the metallic cordance with the shape ofithe roof at the- .that adherence between the strip and the desired object is attained by. applyingto a composition base a wear-resisting, protective stri which is preferably made of a non-corrodlble metal such as copper or zinc. This strip is designed to cover only that area of the web which will be exposed when the latter is in position on the roof. By

the metallic strip to the weather surface only, it is possible to reduce the cost of'the finished product and also to provide for anoverla ping joint construction which is more satlsfactory than would be the case if the metal covered the entire surface of the strip.

Along the edges of the strip is left an uncoated selvage of the base material and when ,the strips are to be used in the various ways made necessary by the configuration of the roof, the joints between adjacent strips or between the strip and adjacent elements of the shingle type, are formed by overlap ing and contacting sections of the base. ince the base material has a relatively soft surface this insures that the two overlapping areas will lie with their surfaces in intimate contact sothat a water-tight joint is produced. Also this selvage portion permits of the use of nails for attaching the strip to the roof proper without producing holes in the composition which would wear lar er under varying temperature conditions an thus resalt in leaks. Furthermore by making the joint between uncoated surfaces of the base it is possible to apply an adhesive compound similar to that used for binding or impregnating processes so as to make a water-proof joint, thus obviating the use of solder, as is necessary in plain metal roofing. Also the use of a joint formed between com osition surfaces prevents leakage due to capillarity. The present invention is intended to provide a process and apparatus for the production. of the roofing material above referred to, and in accordance with this invention a stri of the protective metal is progressively app ied' to the surface of the base web and the two are united by the progressive :appli-. cation of heat and pressure. Iniproducing base, which is necessary in" order that the roofing may be'flexed to conform to thereof surface, I take advantage of the fact that the base is ordinarily coated or-impregnated with a plastic material which may be used as the adhesive. In applying the heat necee- 9 sary to soften this material so that it will wet the strip and upon coolin adhere firmly to it, I localize or confine t e heat to the strip itself in such a way as not to soften the base throughout its entire thickness, and this localization of heat is best carried on by generating heat'in the stripfby means of the electric current. Those steps in the present;

I irregularities of the base resulting during its formation by reason of the character of the material of which the base is formed, or else produced by special treatment for the desired purpose, and thereafter the coating is subected to the localized heating 'so as to prou'ce the desired adherence.

In the present process I prefer to produce the protective material bx electrolytic methods and then progressively lay astrip of such material on the surface of the web. Thereafter the two materials are passed through pressure rolls which serve to maintain them in intimate contact and during the application of such pressure, heat is gener- 1 'ated in the strip by means of an electric ourrent. During this treatment the plastic material in the base softens and expands with a slight bubbling effect with the result that this softened material wets the stri throughout the surface contacting with the ass. The base and strip are maintained under pressure for such a length of time as is necessary to permit the plastic ingredient to set, whereupon the finished product is rolled up in rolls o such length as is desired. In the production of such material it is ossible to make use of a preformed strip of s eet metal of the desired shape and thickness, although I prefer to produce this. protective coating electrolytically for reasons of economy. In the latter case I make use of a rotary cathode having a suitably prepared surface and I cause a layer of the metal to be deposited. on the surface of this cathode in a continuous operation. As the cathode rotates thGdGPOSHG is stripped therefrom and then used directly, or else it may bebuilt up to any desired thickness by passage between s aced anodes in an electrolytic cell. From t e elecrolytic tank the strip may next pass, if desired, through a vat of coloring material, containing chemicals which would produce desired color effects, and thereafter .the strip passes through a trimming device which gives it a smooth edge. It is possible to make use of a rotary cathode of a length substantially equal to the width of the strip, using a separate electrolytic cell for ecah line of heating and pressing rolls, although I prefer to make use of a cathode in the form of a drum on which is deposited a sheet of metal sufficient to from a protective covering for several composition webs. As this sheet is stripped fromthe surface of the drum it is split into the desired widths and the strips so formed may then be led directly to the apparatus for applying the strips to the base material, or else these strips may be Wound into rolls and later be applied to the base. By using a drum cathode ofconsiderable width it is possible to produce the metal more economically and with a greater uniformity in' quality and thickness.

In the accompanying drawings I have illustrated, more or less diagrammatically, a suitable apparatus for carrying on acontinuous process in which the metal strip is formed and directly laid upon and united to the surface of the web of base material. In these drawings,

Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation of the complete apparatus, including a coloring tank,

Fig. 2 is a View similar to Fig. 1, omitting the coloring tank, but showing the necessary modifications for the purpose-of building up the deposit by further electro-deposition,

Fig. 3 is a plan view of a length of the finished product, and j Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional view of the product, showing the protective strip partially torn away. 1

Fig. 5 is a side view of a contact roll used in the new apparatus.

Referring now to these drawings, it will be seen that the apparatus includes an electrolytic tank 5, having a somewhat angular bottom 6, so that the quantity of solution to be used may be as small as possible. Mounted in suitable bearings in the end walls of thetank is a rotary cathode 7 having a smooth surface of lead or'oth'er metal from which the deposit may readily be stripped. This cathode may be of a light metal structure, having those surfaces which pass beneath the surface of the liquor and are not to receive a deposit enameled or coated with an impervious composition so that the metal is not affected by the electrolyte. The dimensions of the cathode will depend on several factors. The diameter of the cathode will determine the peripheral speed which must be given it to produce a stri of the desired thickness under any selected e ectrolytic condltions, and the axial length will be determined by the wldth of the strip to be produced. The cathode may be designed to produce a single strip to be applied to the base web, but preferably is of such length that the deposited materlal may be slit -so as tovform several strips to be apparts of the apparatus.

plied simultaneously to different webs. The cathode is provided with a shaft 8 which is driven from a suitable source of power and the cathode is also provided with electrical connections which, in this case, may take the form of brushes bearing on the surface of the cathode at spaced points arranged so as to produce a uniform distribution of the current throughout the cathode run. These brushes are not illustrated but are of the common type well-known in the art. The cathode drum or Wheel is preferably mounted so that the shaft is above the liquid level in the tank. Located in the tank below the cathode is an arcuate anode 9, which is formed of the metal to be deposited and for convenience will be referred to as copper, although it will be understood that various other metals may be used for producing the strip. The anode is formed on an arc, corresponding to the shape v of the cathode and is located a short distance from the surface of the cathode. The anode is connected with a suitable source of power so that current will flow from the anode into the solution and pass outwardly from the cathode brushes, this current flow producing, a deposit of the metal from the electrolyte on the surface of the cathode in the usual Way.

The cathode is rotated with a slow, uniform movement, and the electrolytic conditions in the tank, that is to say, the current density, the strength of the electrolyte, etc., are so selected that during such rotation there will be deposited a continuous, uniform sheet of metal of the desired thicknesson the surface of the cathode. As the cathode rotates this metal is stripped from its surface at the point 10, which is located slightly above the solution line, and if it is found necessary a stripper blade 11 may be employed at this point.

The stripped sheet is guided over a roller 12,

which insures that the strip produced will be supported above the surface of the electrolyte v so that there is no possibility of the metal in the strip again golng into solution, and the strip then passes over another guide roller (selection of the proper chemicals, according to metal-deposited and the use to which the strip is to be put. The coloring tank is in the form of a vat having a V-shaped bottom. Located just above the apex of the bottom is a roller 15, so that the strip passing out of the electrolytic tank is led down beneath this roller, thence outwardly over a guide roller 16, from which it passes to the various other If desired, suitable washing tanks,similar in general to the coloring tank 14, may also be provided so that when the strip finally passes over the guide roller 16 to receive further treatment the coloring operation will be complete and the trated in the drawings, the pressure is con tinuous, that is the strip is applied to the base web as rapidly as it is formed, but 1nasmuch as the electrolytic operation is slow as compared to the step of applying the strip to the base, one uniting apparatus will serve for several electrolytic tanks and for reasons of. economy it is preferable to take up the strip formeftl in the tank on an arbor and use these rolls of metal in the uniting apparatus as they may be needed. In the drawings the strip is shown as being led directly from the trimming rolls to the uniting devices simply for convenience of illustration.

The uniting apparatus consists of a table 18, the upper surface of which is provided with a series of rolls 19, serving to support the strip in its passage thereover. At the front end of the table is supported a supply of base material, here shown in the form of a roll 20, carried on a suitable arbor. The base web is drawn from this supply roll over a guide roll 21 and passes over the-top of the table underneath the metal strip, the two being held in intimate contact by a series of pressure rolls 22. In the event that a single uniting apparatus is to serve a number of tanks the metal strip in the roll form will be supported at any convenient location near the supply of base material, and the strip and web will be led together over the roll 21 in a-manner similar to thatnow illustrated. a

The base which I prefer to use is a roofing felt impregnated with asphalt and having a coating of asphalt. In the event that such a coating has not been applied, a thin layer of asphalt or the like is applied to the surface of'the base before it comes into contact with the strip. The strip and the base lying in contact, pass over the top of the table and near the front edge thereof pass between a pair of rolls 23 and 24. The lower roll is mounted infixed bearings and is provided witha yielding surface which may be formed of rubber. The upper roll 23 is mounted in adjustable bearings sothat it may be caused to bear on the Web passing thereunder, with a regulated pressure. The roll 23is mounted on journals 45 and has at either end contact rings 46, one of which receives current from a brush 47, while another'brush 48 withdraws rubber. As the material passes between these rolls current is caused to flow from one 'contact, into the metallic strip, thence back to the line through the other contact, and this current is regulated so as to produce a heating efiect which raises the temperature of the metal strip to a degree suflicient to soften the plastic compound on the base and the impregnating material in a thin stratum alon the face upon which the metal has been lai The heating of this material causes it to ,soften and swell so as to wet the surface of the metal which is pressed against the base with a regulated pressure.

Passing from between the rolls 23 and 24, the base and strip enter pressure rolls 22, previously referredto, and are there maintained in intimate contact for a period sufiicient to permit the plastic substance to set and thus V gbind the strip firmly to the base. Inasmuch as the metallic layer is comparatively thin, the heating sufiicient to produce the desired result may be rapidly carried on and one pair of rolls similar to 23, 24 are ordinarily sufficient. However, it is possible to make use of two or more pairs of such rolls to increase the s eed of operation if desired. The heat whic has been generated in the metal does not extend, to any considerable degree into the base itself, but simply softens the plastic substance in a thin stratum of the base while the rest of the base is unaffected. The strip also loses its heat quickly by radiation and this permits the lastic substance to set rapidly.

Passing om the pressure rolls 2 2, 22, which may vary in number in accordance with the needs of the material being produced, and which are adjustable so as to permit of regulation of the pressure applied, the composite web now passes between trimmingrolls 25, similar to the rolls 17 ,these rolls serving to trim theedges of the selvage to produce material of a selected width. In some instances this second trimming step ma also be omitted. From the trimming rol s the material passes through further pressure rolls 26, 26,

and is then led 01f and rolled up, as indicated at 27. I

As has previously 'beenexplained, the rotary cathode is driven from a suitable source of power and certain of the pressure rolls and 1 the heating rolls may also be driven, thus p providing a means for forwarding the material without subjecting. it to undue-tension- ,lheseveral driven elements however, will be 'roperly co-ordinated so that the material is advanced through the-apparatus with a nifd'rm movement and this rate of movement will in turn depend on the rapidit phwith which the deposition is carriedon. eobj ect of such regulation is to produce a strip of the desired thickness and quality and to carry on this production continuously so that the apparatus may be operated without interruption.

In Fig. 1, the apparatus suitable for the production of a deposit suitable for one width of base material has been illustrated, but in the event'that it is desired to use a drum of greater length for the deposition it is only necessary to provide a suitable trimming device to slit this deposit to the desired width, and then pass the different parts of the deposit through heating and pressure rolls which 'are suitably located so that the production of the diflerent webs will not interfere with each other. For this purpose the structures containing the pressure rolls will preferably be of varyingheiglits and placed in staggered relation.

In the apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2 the construction is, in general, similar to that previously described but in this arrangement the strip taken from the rotary cathode is a built up by passage through spaced anodes mounted within the tank. The tank 28 accordingly has a deep portion in which the rotary cathode is supported, and a relatively shallow extension 29 in which s aced anodes 30 are disposed. The strip 31 ta en from the drum passes beneath a guide roll 32 between the first pair of anodes, thence overguide through the trimming device previously'de-.

scribed, is then laid as: fast as it is formed on a web of the base material and thenpasses between heating and pressure rolls to cause the metal to adhere to the base. The con- 'struction of the apparatus for the latter purpose is similar to that previously described.

In Fig. 2 the coloring and wash tanks have been omitted but it is to be understood, of course, that such coloring treatment may be given the strip if desired. "In both Figs. 1 and 2 there is shown a cleanerdevice 35 which maybe in the form of. a sore ror'ibrush bearing against the surface-1o {thecathode and serving to clean it of; .which might resu t the deposit.

In Fig. 3 there is shown 2, str .of the new in breaking the continuity-of.

material of the preferred form; lnthat figare the base material is shown to have selvage portions 36, 36, whilethe protective strip 37 is applied to thebase centrallykthereof. It will be clear that it may be desirable in some .instancesto apply the protective strip along one edge of the base I or in .location's other than that shown. For this purposeit is only necessary to arrangethe sourceofsupplyof the base material so that the strip will be laid thereon in the desired location, the other steps of applying heat and pressure remaining substantially the same with such slight adjustments in the position of the contacts and the trimming rolls as may be necessary for the new product.

Fi 4 illustrates the new product compose of a web of base material 38 to which the protective strip 39 has been applied. It

will be noted, partlcularly at the left in Fig.

4, that'the base is of somewhat varying thickness due to inequalities in the material due 5 to its production. The protective strip, however, owing to its passage through the various adjustable pressure rolls, is caused to conform to the irregularities in the base and is held thereto by reason of. the plastic material which is caused-'to'wet and adhere to the strip.

"While ll'have illustrated an apparatus in which the metallic strip is formed by electrolytic methods and is then laid, as rapidly as it is formed, on the base, material and then united thereto, it is to be understood, of

course, that I may dispense with the electrolytic step and use a preformed metallic strip. In this latter instance a supply of thesheet metal will be mounted in a location similar to the supply of the base Web and the two materials will then be led acrossthe table 18, passed through the heating and pressure rolls and then to the take-up rolls, as has previously been set forth. I prefer to employ the electrolytic method, however for reasons of economy.

It will be seen that I have devised a process and apparatus suitable for the continuous production of the new roofing material by in which such material may be produced with a minimum of expense and attention. The process is carried out without interruption .so long as supplies of thebase and strip are available, or until the anodes are consumed,

4 if the strip is to be led directly from the tank to the u'niting apparatus. In the electrolytic tank the electrolyte will be refreshed from time to time in the tank and new anodes will be mounted in place as the old ones are con sumed. The finished material taken from the uniting apparatus is wound into rolls of comprises moving longitudinally a' web of fibrous material coated with an asphaltic substance in non-adhesive condition, progressively laying a strip of metal on the coated surface of the web, and thereafter progressively uniting the strip and web by electrically generating heat in the metal at one point in the movement of the strip and web, the heat being sufiicient to soften the asphaltic coating on the web'and render it tacky, and by subjecting the strip and web to pressure applied at the point where the heating takes place and also a plied beyond this point.

' 2. The metho of manufacturing sheet material for roofing and other purposes,- which comprises moving longitudinally a web of fibrous material coated with an' asphaltic substance in non-adhesive condition, progressively laying a strip of metal on the coated Surface of the web, and thereafter stance in the coating being in nonadhesive condition, progressively applying pressure to the strip and web to hold the two in intimate contact, simultaneously generating heat electrically in the strip sufficient to soften the plastic coating to renderit tacky, and regu lating the heating to prevent any substantial soflgening of the plastic material within the we i 4. The method of manufacturing sheet material for roofing and other purposes, which comprises laying a strip of metal progres- -progressively uniting the strip and web by sively on the surface of a base coated with a plastic compound'in non-adhesive condition, causingan electric current to flow through the strip after it is so laid along a path moying relatively to the strip in a direction lengthwise of the latter to raise the temperature of themetal to an extent sufficient to soften the plastic coating and min der it tacky, and applying pressure to the strip and web to cause the two to be united by the softened plastic compound.

5. The method of manufacturing sheet material for roofing and other purposes, which comprises movingia strip of metal past a supply of fibrous material in theform. of a web, this material having a coating of a plastic compound in non-adhesive condition, drawing the web material fromthe supply at a speed correspondin to the moyement of the metallic strip, placing the strip in conmaterial being coated on one surface with a plastic compound in-non-adhesive condition, means for continuously laying a strip of metal on the coated surface of the moving web, electrical means for progressively enerating heat in the strip as it moves along in contact with the web,'the heat being suflicient to soften the plastic coating and render it tacky, and means for applying pressure to the strip and web to cause the plastic coating to adhere to the strip to unite the strip and web.

7. Apparatus of the type described, comprising means for setting in motion a web of fibrous material of indefinite length, one surface of this material being coated with a plasticcompound in non-adhesive condition, means for continuously laying a strip or metallic material on the coated surface of the Web, means disposed at one point in the path of, travel of the strip and web for electrically generating heat in the strip while it is in contact with the web sufiicient to soften the plastic coating on the web, the

pressure means acting progressively on the strip and web after the strip has been heated and causing the strip and web to be united by the softened plastic coating ,on the Web.

8. In appara-tus'of the class described, the cofnbination of means for setting in motion a web of base material having one surface coated with a layer of plastic material in non-adhesive condition, means for continuously laying a strip of metal on the coated surface of theweb, means for causing an electric current. to flow through the metal after it is in place on the web, including contact devices bearing on the surface of the strip and pressure devices for applying pressure to the strip and web after the strip has een heated by the passage of the current.

9'.Apparatus of the type described, comprising driven rolls for'drawing a web of fibrous material from a supply, this material having a coating of-plastic material in non-adhesive condition on one surface thereof, means I for continuously laying a strip of metal on the coated surface of the web, .a pair of rolls through which the web and strip are passed, contact members in one of these r'olls connected to a'source of electrical energy and arranged to cause a current to flow across the strip to raise the temperaturethereof, and pressure rolls through which the web and heated strip are passed arranged to force the strip and web into intimate contact. In testimony whereof I alfix my signature.

JULIUS H. GILLIS.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2416427 *Jun 24, 1944Feb 25, 1947Raybestos Manhattan IncManufacture of tractive surface devices
US2439918 *Mar 18, 1944Apr 20, 1948Westinghouse Electric CorpMethod of laminating
US2556008 *Dec 28, 1948Jun 5, 1951William F StahlPlastic-sealing apparatus
US2652863 *May 11, 1948Sep 22, 1953Grabinski Edward EPower-driven table tool with portable vertical-shaft motor
US3276985 *Jul 31, 1962Oct 4, 1966Lancy LabApparatus for electro treating
US3901785 *Jan 3, 1974Aug 26, 1975Bobrov Anatoly BorisoApparatus for producing a metal band
US4110506 *Sep 8, 1976Aug 29, 1978Bhn CorporationThermoplastic control complex
Classifications
U.S. Classification156/273.9, 156/151, 204/208, 264/DIG.460, 205/77
International ClassificationD06N5/00
Cooperative ClassificationD06N5/00, Y10S264/46
European ClassificationD06N5/00