US 1702910 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 19, 1929.
H. C. MALLORY ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM Filed July 2 3. 1921 K w M m W n a M Ma M Patented Feb. 19, 1929.
HARRY G. MALLORY, NEW YORK, N.
Y.; SUE B. MALLORY ADMINISTRATBIX OF SAD) HARRY C. MALLORY, DECEASED.
Application filed July 8,
My present invention comprises improvements in that type of engine cooling system especially adapted for use with automobile and analogous internal combustion engines in which all or practically all of the heat abstracted from the engine by the cooling liquid is normally utilized in vaporizing the cooling liquid and is dissipated in a con-' denser in which the vapor is condensed, with provisions for regulating the capacity of the condenser as required to thereby maintain a constant vapor pressure in the system and a constant temperature of the liquid leaving the jacket.
The general object of the present invention is to provide improved apparatus for the purpose specified characterized in particular by the simple and effective provisions made for maintaining a forced circulation of Q the cooling liquid through the jacket under varying conditions of use, for separating the vapors formed from the unvaporized liquid passing through the jacket and condensing said vapors, and for maintaining in the system cooling liquid in variable excess over the minimum required for. the operation of the system.
The various features of novelty which characterize my invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forminga part of this specification. For
a better understanding of the invention, however, and the advantages possessed by it reference should be had to the accompanying drawings and-descriptive matter in which I have illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of my invention.
Of the drawings: r
Fig. 1 is an elevation with parts broken 40 away and in section of an automobile engine equipped with my-improved cooling system; and
Fig. 2 is a section through the condenser portion of- Fig. 1.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in the drawings, A represents the cool-' ing liquid jacket for the cylinder A of an ordinary internal combustion automobile engine. 'An inlet A is provided at the bottom of the jacket space for the cooling liquid 1921. Serial No. 488,202.
which will ordinarily be water or a water and alcohol mixture, and A represents an upper outlet from the jacket. In the particular construction shown the outlet A opens from the end of the jacket space near its to and is of substantial size. The outletA" is connected .by piping C to a condenser B which may be similar in construction and arrangement to the ordinary radiator employed on a water cooled automobile engine. 60 The piping C comprises an upper branch C opening to the top chamber B of the con-' denser and a lower branch C? running to the bottom header or hot well B of the condenser to which it preferably opens at the under side 05 so that the passage through the branch C is water sealed at its lower end. Flexible couplings C are shown as included in the piping branches C and C. Interposed between the upper chamber B and hot well B of the (0 condenser B are a group of condensing surfaces shown as formed by small open ended horizontal tubes B having their ends expanded and connected together to provide end walls closing the ends of the intertube space. Advantageously the piping C has its vapor outlet C connected to the chamber B at a level appreciably above the normal water level in the system which in the construction shown is located just above the bottom of the outlet A from the jacket. Liquid of condensation formed in the condenser, and unvaporized liquid entering the bottom chamber B of the latter through the branch C are passed to the waterinlet A of the jacket by a conduit D including a pump E. Advantageously in some cases the conduit D is formed as shown with a goose neck portion D extending to the water level which it is desired to maintain in the jacket so as to prevent the jacket from draining when the pump is stopped. To prevent siphon draining the goose neck should be vented as by means of the vapor equalizing connection F from the top of the goose neck into the condenser B. The pump E is driven, in the construction shown, from the engine shaft through a reduction gear conventionally illustrated at E and through which the driving belt G for the fan G is also driven.
Preferably provisions are made for admitting air to and withdrawing air from the condenser as disclosed in my prior Patent No. 1,424,664, August 1, 1922, and in. my prior application, Serial No. 473,439, filed May 28, 1921, and to thereby vary the capacity of the condenser as required to maintain an approximately constant vapor pressure and temperature in the condenser notwithstanding variations of engine load and in the temperature of the external atmosphere. The means shown for this purpose comprises an air pipe H connected through a'steam trap I to the suction intake manifold of the engine to thereby exhaust air from the condenser as required to maintain a minus pres-,
sure therein. As shown the pipe H projects through the condenser and is closed at its front and is formed with an air inlet H at its under side through which air may enter from the intertube space but into which water of condensation draining down from the condensing tubes B will not fall. The minus pressurethus maintained is fixed by the adrate appreciably in excess ofv the rate of evaporation, and the vapor formed in the jacket and the unvaporized portion .of the liquid both pass out of the jacket through the outlet A into the piping G from which the :vapor passes into the condenser chamber B through the branch pipeC', while the unvaporized liquid passes into the hot well or bottom chamber of the condenser through the branchC, entering the latter without appreciable cooling. If desired the iping and particularly branch C, and t e hot well ,walls may be insulated against heat losses thus facilitating the operation of the engine, and articularly the starting of the engine, in'co d weather. as well as reducing the danger oftrouble from freezing. The hot well B is advantageously proportioned to hold a considerable amount of water, and the water thus stored in the system is in excess of that required'for regular operation, and reduces the frequency with which water must be added to the system to make up for liquid and vapor losses. 0 represents a connection through which the system may be charged with cooling li uid and 0' re re-' sents a cap normally closing this connection.
In'the preferred construction and mode of operation contemplated, a free vapor "space is maintained in the upper portion of the engine jacket into which all or the major portion ofthe vapor liberated in the system initially passes. The apparatus operate scribed provisions for admitting air to, and
withdrawing air from the condenser so as to maintain a constant pressure in the latter insures an approximately constant water temperature at the top of the jacket.
With the apparatus disclosed I obtain the advantages of a continuous forced circulation of liquid through the jacket coupled with the temperature control and heat dissipating capacity characteristic of a coolin s stem in which the heat dissipated is w 0 1y or mainly latent heat of evaporation liberated in the condenser, and with a ca acity for holding aconsiderable amount 0 liquid in excess of that re uired for intended operation. The inventlon is ada ted for use with many existing types of engmes without material changes in the engine structures.
' While in accordance with the rovisions of the statutes I have illustrate and described the best forms of my resent invention now known to me, it wil be apparent to those skilled in the art that changes may be made in the form of m invention without departing from the spirit of my invention as set forth in the a pended claims, and that certain features 0 my invention may sometimes. be used to advantage without a corresponding use of other features.
Having now described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. In an engine coolin system, the combination with an engine jac et having an u per outlet, of a condenser forming the main eat dissipating element of the system and having a hot wel lower end, a connection from the jacket to the condenser providing a free vapor path from said outlet to the top of the condenser and a water sealed plath of flow for liquid from said outlet to t e hot well of the condenser, means for passing liquid from the condenser hot well into the jacket at a rate exceeding, that at which liquid is vaporized bythe heat absorbed in the jacket.
2. In an engine cooling system the com bination with an en 'ne jacket upper outlet, of a. con enser forming the main heat dissi ating element of the system and having a ot well for liquid of condensation at its lower end, of a connection from the jacket to the condenser, providing a free path from said outlet to the top of the condenser having an for liquid, of condensation at its and a water sealed path of flow for liquid paeity as required to maintain an approxifrom said outlet to the hot well of the conmately constant pressure therein. denser, means for passing liquid from the Signed at New York in the county of New 10 condenser hot well to the bottom of the jacket York and State of New York this 7th day of r 5 at a rate exceeding that at which liquid is July A. D. 1921;
vaporized by the heat absorbed in the acket, and means for regulating the condenser ca- HARRY G. MALLORY.