US 1712082 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 7, 1929. H. KoPPERs 1,712,082
PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR DISTILLING SOLD CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL Filed June 5.l 1922 OOQOOO @4f/ggf@ @am Paten@ Maf?, 1929.
UNITED STATES 1,712,082 PATENT OFFICE.
L'CEIEIIII'RICH KOPPEBS, 0F ESSEN-EUHR, GERMANY.
PROCESS AND APrAnATUs Foa DI's'rILLING soLrD cAmaoNAcEoUs MATERIAL.
VApplication lediune 5, 1922, Serial' No. 566,012, and in Germany August 11, 1921.
My invention relates to a process of an -apparatus for distilling carbonaceous materialwith a view to producing oils and other products.
The distillation of fuel at low temperature' causes very reat diiiculties, no matter whether heating rom inside or from outside y be resortpd to, because on the one hand a certain maximum temperature must not be exceeded, while on the other hand it is necessary to transmit to the substance treated the amount of heat required. Besides in the plants heretofore in use, not all the heat, nor even the major part of it is transmitted to .the fuel, but it heats also and sometimes principally the gas chamber of the retort or oven. This causes an undesirable subsequent -heat action on thegases of distillation resulting in secondary decomposition.
According to my invention now, the conditions for satisfactorily distilling carbonaceous material are fulfilled by introducing.
solid bodies into the distillation chamber to- V gether with the Asubstance to be treated, such v bodies having previously been heated to the distillation temperature required or permissible and acting as heat transmitters. These .bodies are introduced in sucli'quantities as to supply the amount of heat required to the substance bei-ng treated'. When the residue is removed, the saidbodies are removed along with it tobe used again after having been reheated. In this manner the heat can be regulated very exactly as to` degree Vand '35y amount so that. the particularconditions .prevailing in the distillation at low temperature and, production of low temperature tar I are fulfilled. Moreover the heat transmission occurs practically exclusively Within the 40 materialv subjected. to distillation, so that 5,0' with a helix on the inside by which the material and the solid bodies are conveyed from one end to the other. The solid bodies, preferably heavy steel balls,l at .the same time reduce the coke-like residues to pieces of suitable size. l
It has been proposed in the artof .cokng the apparatus.
at low temperature, to use such balls in a -revolving cylinder with .inside or outside heating for disintegrating the semi-coke produced. The operaton is about the same as that of thewell known ball mill. vApart from the fact that according to my invention the principal object of the balls is to supply heat, their mechanical action on the semicoke is entirely different, as shown by practicalexperience. The hot balls on coming in contact with the fresh material at the charging end of the retort, are immediately covered with a layer or crust of material subjected to distillation which gradually increases in thickness. When this layer or crust has attained a certain thickness, it is broken by the energy of the down-falling balls. In `this manner it is possible to obtain semi-cokeof suitable size, that isabout the size of a fist.
Experiments have shown that the distillation process `can be considered as-completed when the balls have cooled downto-about 450 to 500 degrees centigrade, corresponding t'o a temperature of the semi-coke of about As the balls return the 350 to 400 degrees. heat corresponding to this temperature to the heating furnace where they are again heated up to the temperature required, it
might appear that no losses are caused vby the high temperature at which the balls leave In fact, however, there is a'n indirect loss of heat in the heating furnace as the furnace is heated after the counter. current principle and' thereforethe gases leave the furnace at a temperature' which is 'equal to the temperature at which the charge is introduced. If the balls, whose temperature isstill 400 to 500 degrees, were immediately returned to the heating furnace,
a considerable loss would occur owing to the obviously still higher temperature at which the gases leave the heating furnace.
According to my invention, this loss is avoided by utilizing the yresidual heat of the balls for preheating theV fresh distillation material after-they have performed their principal function. It has been found that distillation is also improved by such preheating. The balls when leaving the distillation apparatus have a temperature at which they are unable to heat the substance, for instance, coal, to such an extent as to make it pasty which wonldcause it to bake together and to stick tothe balls. In consequence thereof the conditions for the further utiliing of the fresh material are in particularly good accordance.
In the drawing aflixed to this specifica'- V tion and forming part thereof, an apparatus for performing my improved process is illustrated diagrammatically in section by Way of example.
Referring to the drawing, a is a revolving drum provided with a helix b. The material to be treated is supplied to the drum by a chute d and the balls g are supplied from a furnace f to the drum or distillation cylinder a by a chute or connection e after' having been previously heated to 800 to 850 degrees C. in the heating furnace f. As soon as the hot balls get in contact with the fresh ma-` terial a layer or crust is formed on them while the surface of the balls is cooled to such an extent that decomposition of the gases by contact with the surface of the balls is prevented. However, heat is continually supplied to the surface o the balls from the inside similarly as when soaking ingots in reheating furnaces, such heat assisting in the distillation of the material.
'llhe cylinder a ma be heated from inside or outside, if'desire for instance for preventing radiation losses or for other reasons. This additional heating, however, if any should be maintained within such limits that the phenomena connected with distillation by exclusive heating of the cylinder will not occur.
@n their way through the cylinder a the crusts. formed on the balls will increase in thickness until they become so thick and` nected with. the cylinder 'ai and is suppliedI to a conveyor la by Way of the funnel 'L'. The gases of distillation are conveyed to a receiver o through the pipe n. rlhe balls g which have a temperature ofiabout 40() to 500 degrees C., roll to the lower end of a worm p through a, pipe` Z, and the Worm p raises the balls to a pipe lm. leading them to .an incased conveyor Worm g which is supplied with fresh material through a hopper a'. Here, the ballsmix with the Cold material such as coal, to which they transmit their residual heat, and are conducted to a screen a over Which they pass to a connection to return to the heating furnace f at a temerature of 100 to 150 degrees. "Ihe preeated coal descends to the drum a, through the chute d.
As the balls 'are comparatively cool when getting in contact with the fresh coal, the coal is heated to a lesser extent in the conveyor g than in the drum a, viz to about 100 to 200 degrees C., so that it is only dried, but no distillation can occur. This improves the imanes conditions for distillation and prevents the admixture of Water vapours to the distillation gases, as the vapours are removed from the conveyor g by aspiration.
I do not intend hereinto cover the broad idea, which is not my invention, of effecting loW temperature carbonization by heat imparted to the charge in the distilling apparatus by means of foreign solid bodies introduced into the distilling chambers, such solid bodies being previously heated to the requisite temperature and used in such quantity as to effect thedistillation, after which they are separated again from the distilled carbonaceous matter, but I intend herein to cover only the particular method and means Iclaim for carrying out the said broad idea, which was previously disclosed to me by Franz Puening, of Pittsburgh, Penn.
I Wish it to be understood that I do not chamber with said-solid bodies after they have been so heated; distilling hydrocarbons from the material While in the distillation chamber with the solid bodies mainly by Athe heat stored in the solid bodies in Contact with the `material in said chamber; and
causingnthe'hot solid heat-storing bodies in lOO the distillation chamber to Wander progresf sively therethrough during the distillation in said chamber.
2. The method of distilling solid distillablecarbonaceous material to eifect distillation of hydrocarbons therefrom Which consists in: storing heat effective for such distillation in solid heat-storing bodies, distinct and separable from said material, by heating them separately from the material to be distilled; then bringing the material to be distilled into contact in a distillation chamber with said solid bodies after they have been so heated;
.distilling hydrocarbons from the material While in the distillation chamber with the solid bodies mainly by the heat stored in the solid bodies in contact with the material in said chamber; and causing the material being distilled in the distillation chamber to Wander progressively therethrough together and in contact with the hot solid heat-storing bodies therein during the distillation in said chamber.
3. The method of distilling solid distill chamber;
lable carbonaceous material to"efl'ec't vdistillation of hydrocarbons therefrom which yconsists in: storing heat effective for such ,causing the said bodies in the distillation chamber to pass progressively therethrough and through the material being distilled therein during the distillation -in saidchamber.
4. The kmethod of distilling solid distillable carbonaceous material to 'eifectdistillation of hydrocarbons therefrom consisting in: heating a plurality of solid heat-storing bodies outside a distillation chamber to a. high temperature to store therein the heatv to effect such distillation; distilling hydro-s carbonsfrom said carbonaceous Amaterial While in the distillation chamber Withthe hot solid bodies mainly by the' heat stored innthe solid bodies in contact With the material in said chamber; causing said bodies to. enter the distillation chamber one after the other and to Wander progressively through said chamber together and in contact with' the materialbeing distilled during the distherein thev heat to effect 'such distillation;-
distilling hydrocarbons from said carbonaceous material While in a rotary distillation' chamber with theuhot solid bodies4l mainly by the heat stored in the solid bodies in contact with the material in said chamber; causing the said bodies to enter the rotary distillation chamber one after the other and to Wander progressively through said chamber and in contact With the material being distilled during the distillation in` said chamber; and separa-tng said bodies from said material after they have left the 6. The method of 'distilling solid distillable Acarbonaceous material to effect distillation of hydrocarbonsl therefrom consisting in: heating a plurality of solid heat-storing` bodies -outside a distillation chamber to a high temperature to store therein the heat to effect such distillation; distilling hydro-,
carbons from said solid diisntillable carbonaceous material While in the distillation chamber With the hot solid bodies mainly by the heat stored inthe solid bodies in contact with the material in said chamber; causing the said bodies to enter the distillation chamber, one after the other, and to vvander progressively through said chamber together and in contact with the material being distilled during the distillation in said'chamber; separating said bodies from said material after they have left the chamber; `and admixing said separated bodies `While lowered in temperature by the distilcarbons'from said solid distillable carbonaceous material While in the distillation chamber with the hot solidbodie's mainly by the heat stored in the solid bodies in contact with the material in said chamber; causing said bodies to enter the distillation chamber one after the other and to Wander progressively through said chamber together and in Contact with the material to be distilled during the distillationin said chamber; separatingsaid bodies from said material after they have left the chamber; admiXing said separated bodies to fresh solid distillable carbonaceous materialto dry the saln'e prior to its entrance to said distillation chamber; separating said bodies from said fresh material, before it enters said chamber and heating them again.
8. `In apparatus for distilling carbonaceous material tov effect distillation of hydrocarbons therefrom by heatfstored in solid heatfstoring bodies,- in combination: a rotary distillation cylinder adapted for effecting carbonization by means of heat 'stored in solid heat-storing bodies;a helixwithin said cylinder;,a screen near the rear end of said cylinder and so arranged With respect thereto as to receive; separate and discharge from said. cylinder bothv solid heat-storingbodies and carbonaceous material distilledv thereby; and openings in said cylinder for introducing solid carbonaceous material and solid heat-storing bodies and for removing them from said cylinder and delivering both to said screen.
9. A distillin'g plant of the kind described, comprising in combination: a rotarydistillation cylinder; a helix Within said cy1in.
der; a screen near the rear end of said cylinder, whereby to separate solid heat-storing tion between said conveyor-wormand saidf'v bodies from carbonaceous material distilled thereby; and openings in said cylinder for introducing carbonaceous material and solid heat-storing bodies, and for removing the solid heat-storing bodies and the carbonized mateiial from said cylinder; an encased conveyor-Worm adapted to work in a direction opposite to the helix and to convey fresh material and thessolid bodies-escaping from said cylinder tovwrd the entrance opening of said cylinder; a connection for delivery of solid bodies from said cylinder to said encased conveyor-Worm; means for separating the solid heat-storing bodies from the for introducing carbonaceous material and solid heat-storing bodies; and for removing the solid heat-storing bodies' and the carbonized material from said cylinder; means disposed near the rear end of said cylinder for conveying the solid bodies to an encased conveyor-worin; an encased conveyor-worm adapted to work in a direction opposite to the helix and to convey fresh material and the solid bodies escaping from said .cylinder towards the entrance openings of said cylinder; means for separatinfr the soild heatstoring bodies from lthe caiionaceous material in the encased' conveyor-worm; a connection for delivery;` of carbonaceous material separated from the solid heatwtoring bodies to the rotary distillation cylinder; a-
furnace for heating said bodies; a connecfurnace; and a connection between said fui'- nace and said distillation cylinder.
11. A distilling plant of the kind described eomprising, in combination: a rotary distillation cylinder; a helix within said cylinder; a screen near the rear end of said cylinder; whereby to separate solid heat-storingbodies from carbonaceous material distilled thereby; openings in said cylinder for introducing carbonaceous material and solid heat-storing bodies, and for removing the solid heat-storing bodies and the earbonized material from said cylinder; means for lifting said solid bodies to an encased conveyor-worm; an encased conveyor- Worm above said cylinder; adapted to work i in a direction opposite to the helix and to convey fresh material and the solid bodies escaping from said cylinder toward the entrance opening of said cylinder; means for separating 'the solid heat-storing bodies from the carbonaceous material in the encased conveyor-Worm; a connection for delivery of carbonaceous material separated from the stances being distilled, in combination: a.
drier having an inlet and an outlet for mate- `rial to be dried therein; a distillation chamber; heating means for free solid bodies communicating withthe outlet of said drier` so as to receive free solid bodies therefrom and communicating with said distillation chamber so as to supply free solid bodies thereto; and means for conveying free solid bodies from'the distillation chamber into the inlet of said drier.
13 In apparatus for distilling bituminous substances with the aid of free solid bodies that are made to make contact with the substances being distilled; in combination :v a rotatable drying drum; a furnace; a rotatable distillation dium; conveying means for conveying free solid bodies from said drying drum to said furnace; conveying means for conveying saidfree solid bodies from said furnace to said distillatioi'io drum; and a conveying means for conveying said solid bodies from said distillation drum to said drying drum; substantially as specified.
14. In apparatus for distilling bituminous substances with the aid of heated free solid bodies that are made to makecontact with the bituminous substances, in combination: a drier having an inlet and an outlet for I'naterialV -to be dried therein; means for supplying bituminous substances to the inlet to said drier; a distillation drum; means for supplying bituminous substances from the outlet from said drier to said drum; heating means for heating said free solid bodies;
means'for Supplying free solidbodies from the outlet of said drier to saidv heating means; means for supplyingr free -solid bodies from said, heating means to said drum; and means for returning free solid bodies .from the inlet to said drum to said drier. v I
In testimony whereof I atiix my signature.