US 1712184 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 7, 1929. R. M. WENDEI. 3,712,134
CENTRIFUGAL CONCENTRATOR Filed Dec. 19, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 w. 3 5 2 2 2 Alg w QV Y 4 w V f l y Y. ,AJ i l l, Q,M% .W TH Mf 1 r m @o UHU I f X4. .nei y,
' mim@ i May 7, w29., R. M WENDEL.
CENTRIFUGAL CONCENTRATOR Fiied Dec. `19, 1927 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 -fica. 14d 31a.
INVENToR. /a m mm fe ATTORNEYS.
May 7, 1929. R. M. WENDEL.
n CENTRIFUGAL CONCENTRATOR Filed Dec. 19, 1927 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 32 42a 43a. 254e gli! m. .N .maiz W Patented May 7, 1929,.
UNiTED STATES REINHOLD. M. WENDEL, OF AIGION, GREECE.
y cEN'rnmUGAL Application led December 19, 1927, Serial This invention relates to centrifugal machines for a mechanical concentrating of liquid mixtures or in fluids suspended solids. The invention is especially adapted for paper mills or factories and has for its main object to provide a thoroughly ecient machine to recover the paper libres, which usually are wasted with the escaping water. Without any. material change in its design the 11nproved machine, however, can be utilized for any other class of manufacture where simllar conditions occur. A
Another object of the invention is the provision of a concentrator by which the concentrating process is combined with a lifting of the mixture from a lower receptacle to a higher receptacle solely by means of the cencontinuously carried out whereby also solids of a rather light specific gravity and mixed with a rather large quantity of the fluidv can be readily recollected.
A still further obj ect of this invention is the provision of a concentrating machlne in which the mixtureis caused to passy more than vone concentrating device for the'purpose of treating mixtures containing constltuents o rather dierent specific gravities.'
Further objects and advantages will appear in the following description.
For a full understanding of the invention and the merits thereof and also to acquire a lmowledge of the details of construction and the means for effectingf the resultreference is to be had to the following description and accompanying drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a diagrammatic sectional elevation of an embodiment of the invention with three discharge passages for the constituents of the mixture;
Figure 2 is a similar view of another embodiment of the invention on a smaller scale but with the same arrangement of discharge passages; f i Figure 3 is a similar view of a third embodiment of the concentrator 'with other kinds of centrator 1n Fig. 3, the pockets being in rectangular arrangement and the means controlfugal force which effects the concentration other way supported by discharge passages and with pocketlike pro- CONCENTRATOR.
N0. 241,236, and in Sweden October 7, 1926.
ling the discharge adjusted to different positions;
Figures 6-8 are plan views of the last mentioned embodiment in the concentrator with pockets of variable numbers and forms;
Figure 9 is a sectional elevation of a fourth embodiment of the invention;
' Figure 1() is a section of the last mentioned embodiment on a reduced scale and with the upper portions removed;
i-gure 11 is a sectional elevation of a further embodiment of the invention, and
Figure 12a sectional view similar to Fig. 10 of the last mentioned embodiment.
Corresponding and similar parts are referred to in the followin description and indicated-in all the views o the drawings by the same reference characters. The embodiments as well as their function are described in the following in the sameorder as they are shown in 'the drawings. y
In Fig. 1 the concentrator is shown as comprising a substantially conical drum l, the shaft 2 of which is vertical as are the shafts in all the other-embodiments. The end of the shaft 2 is supported by a thrust bearing 3, and near-the top it is guided by a neck bearing 4, above which the shaft is provided with a pulley 5 driven from some source of energy. The thrust bearingl 3 is integral with orin a receptacle or basin 6 wherein the mixture to be concentrated is collected, and from which the mixture is to be lifted up to a receptacle on a higher level. The mixture to be treated in the following is assumed to -be the waste fluid from papermaking in which fibres and other solid const ituents of the paper pulp are suspended.
The lower end 1 of the conical drum is submerged in the mixture in the low level receptacle 6 and is providedwith an opening 7 for the entrance of the mixture into the drum.
v The top end 1" of the upwardly flared drum is open, and according to the embodiments in Figs. 1 and 2 provided with either one funneloshaped discharge distributer 9 (Fig. 2) or "J more than one such distributer 8 and 9 (Fig.
1) telescopical therein. Said funnels preferably are adjustable axially for instance by means of keys 10', 10" and 11', 11" respectively on the shaft 2, whereby the annular discharge passage 12 between drum 1 and funnel 8, and the discharge passage 13 between the two funnels 8 and 9 (Fig. 1) or the single mixture.
passage 120 between drum 1 and funnel 8 (Fig. 2) can be varied for the discharge of variablequantities of the constituents of the The discharge passages 12, 120 re spectively 13, 14 communicate with stationary annular spaces or compartments 17 respectively 18, 19 separated from each other, and provided each with an outlet 20 respectively 21, 22. The outlet 20 communicates] outwardl with a collar 24 for the purpose -of removmg such fluid as may have adhered to the drum.
Stiiening arms 27 for the drum may be -of a shovel-like screw form so as not to impede the rising movement of the mixture within the drum.
According to the embodiments shown in Figs. 3-8 the drum 1 along the circumference is provided with radially projecting pockets 30"--30d of any arbitrary number, but disposed' `symmetrically around the revolving shaft 2 in order to maintain the stability of the machine when rotating. The pockets suitably are of such a form, that the circular cross section of the drum in Figs. 1 and 2 is substituted by a polygon with straight vor curved sides. The simplest embodiment is shown in Fig. 6 with two diametrically opposed pockets 30, 30" which,viewed from above, form two angles the sides of which make tangents to the circular section of the drum. In Figs. 7 and 8 the pockets are three in number being the corners 30a 30h and 30 of a triangular compartment with plane sides according to Fig.' 7 and concave sides according to Fig. 8, the last mentioned shape for the purpose of obtaining ratheracute angles, which advantagcouslyieets the result of the device. Figs. 4 and 5 show a design with four pockets 30, 30", 30c and 30d forming a;
rectangle. The vertical sides 3131d of the pockets may in all the embodiments touch the greatest circumference of the drum, in order to facilitate the centrifugal delivery of the concentrates into the pockets.
The drum and pockets are closed at the top by a cover 32 with a central aperture 33 for the 'drum shaft 2. In the cover 32 swinging nozzles 34, 34", 34 and 34d are provided a nozzle on the top of each pocket near the point of its angle. A number of discharge openings for instance two, 35, 35", provided with radially vadjustable slides 36, 36", are disposed nearer the centre line and communicate with pipes 37, 37 b with adjustable outlets The compartments 17, 18, 19,
not shown in the drawing, which pipes ex-V tend to the uppermost compartment 19. The nozzles 3/il-34d end in the lowermost space 17, which-extends as near the centre line o the drum as possible. The number of the 'discharge openings. ..35, 35" must suit the capacity of the concentrator and the kind of iiuid to be treated therein.
The hitherto described substantially circular -drum 1 is in the embodiments in Figs. 9-12 substituted by a drum the cross section of which shows a polygon with sharp or rounded corners which constitute the portions of the drum most remote from the centre line. In Figs. 10 and 12 four such corners 30, 30, 30g, 301are shown, but the number is optional andmust suitthe working and constructional-circumstances. The corners lie in the direction 'oftheproducerof the 'drum either along the whole length thereof or alone its upper portion only, the last mentioned design being a transitional form from the pockets in Figs. 3-8. Vhile the corners as well as the pockets are the portions of the drum most remote from its centre line, they will be accumulating spaces for the concentrates. As the concentration depends to a certain degree on the time during which the mixture is exposed to the influence of thel most eiiective centrifugal force, and as this time of influence on theother hand depends on the axial length of the corners, it is easily understood, that the axial length of the corners may be chosen according to the kind of mixtures to be treated.
Like the embodiment in Fig. 3 the concentrator drum in Fig. 9 is closed at the top by a cover 32 providedwith openings 35, 35 with radial slides for the discharge of the liquid which has been freed froln the 'suspended solids, to the lower stationary collect- `ing compartment 19 at the upper border of the drum. In the horizontal plane swingable discharge nozzles 34e, Self, 34", 34 communicate with the other stationary collecting compartment 17 positioned above the compartf ment 19 (only'two collecting compartments are shown according to the simplest embodiment of the invention) for the collecting of the concentrates from the upper portions of each corner 30 30h respectively. The inlet 7 ofthe concentrator drum in this embodiment is so designed, that the mixture in the low level receptacle 6 is pushed into the drum by the outer'static pressure only without necessarily submerging the drum into the mixture itself.
The embodiment shown in Figs. 11 and 12 is -a further development of the apparatus for continued concentrating of the contents. The concentrator drum .1 here is provided with an outer shell 40 of essentially the same form as the single shell in Fig. 9, which in Fig. 11 constitutes the inner shell vand is designated by 39. Between the outer and inthe following.
during the-rotation of the drum are deprived of the heavier constituents out to the outer drum 40. The cover 32 on the inner drum is extended over the outer drumand in the corners vprovided with discharge nozzles swingable in the horizontal plane viz in the outermost-cornerspipemozzles 42, 42, 425,
42h for the concentrates and inside thereof nozzles 43, 43', 43g, 43h for the separated liquid. The outermost nozzles 42 as well as the discharge nozzles34 of the inner drum openinto the uppermost stationary collecting compartment A17, and the inner nozzles 43 (as the openings 35 of the single drum) discharge into the lower stationary collecting compartment 19. If desired there is no ob- -`jection for a further dividingv of the discharged constituents for instance through the provision of separate cllecting compart-` ments for the nozzles v42 and 43. A
The operation of the different embodiments of the machine is to be clearly understood by The principle of the operation will appear most easily from Fig. 2. The noninterrupted Y upwardly llaring form of the concentrator drum causes'the liquid which enters-the bottomopening 7 to rise along the shell when it is thrown outwardl by the centrifugal force 'against the shello the drum 1 and thereby brought to take part in the rotation of-the latter. At the same time the mixture in a known manner becomes VTseparated, so that the heavier constituents V(the fibres of the waste pulp) are accumulated on the shell of the drum. When thus the mixture is lifted to the upper border of the drum, the. concen- ,trates pass out through the annular passage 120 into the stationary compartment 17 and l discharge through the outlet 20. The specific lighter constituents which are held more remote from the shell ofthe drum flow over the lower edge 90 of the partition funnel 9, and discharge through the higher opemng 14 into the stationary com they escape throng the outlet 22.
If the partition funnel 9 is moved axially upwards or downwards the annular passage 120 will be wider respectively narrower, so
that a thicker layer respectively a-thinner one is admitted through saidopening. Vari- .ous degrees of concentration of the mixture discharge through the outlet isetected. Because of the essentially conical sha ofthe drum in combination with a suitab e speed of revolution the improved eoncentrator pro' cures the concentrating of lthemlxture as artment 19 from which velll as the lifting of the same to a desired eve It is diagrammatically shown in Fig. 1 how the rising mixture is divided into layers, so that the layer which is most rich in solid constituents will more closely approach the shell of' the drum, and the more the layersy of the mixture are remote from the shell the poorer they are in fibres or other solid constituents, so that the innermost layer 16 consists substantially in pure water Without any noteworthy suspended solids. Naturally the layers-are not delined so distinctly as indicated in the drawing but smoothly oating into each other.A The layer 25 most rich in solids discharges at the top through the passage 12 into the compartment 17 and is carried by the pipe 20 to the pulp tank not shown in the drawing. An intermediate layer 26 containing less of solids is discharged through the annular passage 13 between the two tunnels 6 and 9 into the compartment 18 and conducted back to the low 'level receptacle 6 by the pipe 21. At last the innermost (water) layer 16 discharges through the innermost annular opening 14 to the compartment 19 whence it goes to the main drain channel of the mill through the pipe 22. The percentage of fibres or other solids in the layers 25, 26 asl already mentioned is controlled by the axial adjustment of the funnels 8, 9 by means of the keys 10', '10, 11', 11". An adjustment upwardly'reduces .the concentration of the layers 25, 26 and will at the same time increase the quantities' discharging into the compartments 17, 18.
As the layer 25 only has a degree of concentration suitable for the mass in the pulp tank, onl this layer must he supplied to said tank. owever, it would he an undesirable waste of fibres, if the next layer 26, which still .is rather rich in fibres, would be allowed to escape through the main drain channel, and in order to avoidsuch a loss of material said layer is conducted back to the llow level receptacle 6 to pass the concentrator once again together with 'the fresh quantity of waste mixture supplied `vdirectly from.` the paper-making wire. i
When the concentrator is used to recharge the waste libres into the pulp tank the concentrator in many cases must be made comparably high, because the ulp tank always 1s disposed on a rather hig level above lthe low level receptacle 6. The revolving speed of the drum 1 as well as its conic angle are to .be chosen in view thereof.
i the outlet openings. From the .pockets the concentrates are forced out through the swinging and comparably wide nozzles In the embodiments shown in Figs. 3-8 the 34-34d into the compartment 17 from where more the nozzles are swung inwards towards the centre line of the drum the greater becomes the counteracting pressure caused therein by the centrifugal force yand the thicker the concentration is. F ig. 4 shows the position of the nozzles at a low degree of concentration and Fig. 5 said position at a high degree thereof. Thus the variation of the percentage of concentration here is not obtained by any variation ot' the Aoutlet area,
'and that brings with the great advantage,
that the outlets maintain the same Width un- -der all the circumstances whereby all risk of clogging is avoided also at the thickest degree of concentrations. The separated liquid escapes through the discharge openings 35, 35b in the cover and through the pipes 37a, 37b
-into the upper compartment 19 and thence through its outlet 22. The position at the slides 36, 36 as welll as the adjustment of the sectional areas of the pipes 37, 37b depend on the position of the substantially vertical surface of the centre cavity of the liquid within the drum 1 as well as of the desired degree of concentration.
In the embodiment according to Figs. 9 and 10 with an angular concentrator drum the corners of said drum act as extended uf pockets with the advantage of a highly increased degree of concentration. The double or multiple device shown in Figs. 11 and 12 is especially adapted for such mixtures which contain solid constituents of very diferent specific gravities. In such a case the lighter constituents would require such a high speed of revolution, that the heavier constituents would stick to the shell of a single drum. The mixture to be treated in this double or multiple drum enters through the bottom entrance 7 of the inner drum and is driven upwards by the' centrifugal force durino` the rotation Whereat the 'angular' form olB the drum, beginning already near the entrance of the liquid, causesl a strong concentration as a result of the heaviest concentrates accumulating in the longitudinal corners of the drum. This concentrate separated in the inner drum escapes at the top thereof through the corner discharge nozzles 34 into the compartment 17 and flows out from here,through the outlet 20. The mixture yet containing the lighter constituent at the top of the inner drum enters the tubes 41 the ends of which are cut oblique, and the tubes conduct said mixture to the lower portions of the outer drum 100, in which the mixture again is submitted to lthe centrifugal force and moved upwardly whereby on account of the larger radius of the outer drum va so much stronger force'is set up than that in the inner drum, that also the I lighter constituents are separated without necessity of such a high speed of revolution that the heavier concentrates would be caused to adhere to the shell of the inner drum. The concentrates from the outer drum escape through the outmost discharge nozzles 42 into the collecting compartment 17, while the separated liquid Hows through the inner discharge nozzles 43 of the outer drum into the collecting compartment 19.
Thus the multiple device eHects a continued concentration of certain portions of the mixtures for somewhat the same purpose as that of the reconducting device in Fig. 1. The multipledevice also gives the same result at a low revolving speed of the drum lwhen treating a light material as does a single drum with a higher speed of revolution. The operation of the single drum without the outer drum as shown in Figs. 9 and 10 is easy to understand from the above description without any further explanation. It is evident,
that the more the corners of the drum are remote from the other portions of the circumference of the drum, the higher degree of concentration will be obtained without increasing the revolving speed. The multiple device naturally is not limited to a polygon concentral tor dru'm only but can be used with the same result also in the embodimentsshown in Figs.
. disclosed in the appended claims.
' Having thus described my lnventlon what I claim is 1. A centrifugal concentrator for solids suspended in liquids comprising a vertically disposed rotary drum of an essentially .cone like 'shape flaring upwardly along its entire length, a low level receptacle for the liquid mixture to be treated, and a high level receptacle for collectingv of the concentrate, the down end inlet of said drumsubmerging into the low level receptacle, the drum surrounded by an outer drum of substantially the same form as said inner drum, both the drums provided with outlets for constituents of various specific gravities, the outlets for the heaviest constituents communicating with the high level receptacle, and means to communicate the outer drum with the inner drum.A
2. A centrifugal concentrator for solids suspended 1n liquids comprising a vertically disposed rotary drum of `an essentially cone like vsha pe Haring upwardly along its entire length, a 10W level receptacle for the liquid mixture to be treated, and a high level receptacle for collecting of the concentrate, the down end inlet of said drum submerging into the low level receptacle, the drum surrounded by an outer drum of substantially the same fourni as said inner drum, both the' d rulns provided with outlets for constituents of various specific gravities, the outlets for the heaviest constituents connuunicatiug with the high level receptacle. and tubes communicating the lower portion of the outer drum with the upper inner portions ot' the inner druin relatively near the centre line thereof.
3. A centrifugal concentrator for solids suspended in liquids comprising a vertically disposed rotary drum of substantially cone shape, flaring upwardly along its entire length, a low level receptacle for'the liquid mixture to be treated, and ahigh level receptacle for, collecting the concentrate, the lower inlet end of said drum being submerged in the low level receptacle, the drum being provided With lateral pockets forming narrow corners, said pockets being provided with outlets extending inwardly from said corners, the drinn being provided with outlets for the heaviest constituents communicating with the high level receptacle as well as outlets for the other constituents of the mixture.
4. A centrifugal coneentrator for solids suspended in liquids comprising a vertically disposed rotary drum of substantially cone like shape flaring upwardly along its entire length, a low level receptaclev for the liquid mixture to be treated, and a high level receptacle for collecting the concentrate, the lower inlet end of said drum being submerged in the low level receptacle, the drum being provided With laterally projecting pockets forming cornersin their outmost portion and provided with outlets for the heaviest constitu- 'ents communicating with the high level receptacle, and means to adjust the outflow of said outlets, said means including nozzles adapted to be swung in a horizontal plane to vary the position of their outlet ends with respect to the center of said drum.
REINHOLD M. WENDEL.
In testimony whereof I have axed my sigim