US 1713260 A
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5. F. CHANDLER srnn'me NOZZLE v Fiied lpril 12. 1927 f Ida/0rd Cid Wow/nut W W this respect by v where a liquid to the tip of the nozzle, partly or totally by vir- Patented, May 14, 1929.
VULNIVTED STAT EIJWABD F. CHANDLER, 0F BROOKLYN, NEW YQRK. I
srmurme NOZZLE. I
' Application filed April 12;
This invention relates to atomizing and spraying'apparatus, and more particularly refers to improvements in the construction of oil burners and other spraying devices.
The primary object of this invention is to provide a novel and improved construction of nozzle intended for use 1n connection with fluid acting as a carrier or as an atomizing medium therefor, whereby. the pressure of the latter fluid is converted into velocity at a point very closeto the nozzle outlet, so that the loss of velocity due to frictional resistance is reduced td a minimum. 7
Another object is to provide in a nozzle or oil burner, novel and improved means for stratifying the atomizing medium used, in order to duplicate the" effect obtainable in of outlets for the same such as made in certain types of burners, yet, simplifying the construction of the'nozzle, at the same time improving its operating efliciency.
A further object is to provide in a nozzle be sprayed is delivered to tue of suction exerted by carrying or atomizing medium, an improved arrangement of outlet whereby the suction exertedby the carrying or atomizing medium may be increased by a suitable design of the outline of said outlet.
A still further object is to provide a spraying nozzle of a novel and improved construction, which is composed of relatively few parts, permitting easy cleaning and inspection of the working parts of the nozzle with.- out entailing the necessity of disconnecting it from the source of fluid supply.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will more fully appear as thedescription proceeds and will be set forth and claimed in the appended claims.
The improvements forming the object of the present invention are particularly adapted for use in connection with nozzles or burners of the type described in another patent application co-pending herewith, Serial No. 690,758,,where theliquid to be delivered a or atomized s caused to travelover the surface of a conical valve element; as a constantly thinning film until the periphery is reached, where it is blown from the knife like edge of the valve in 'a nebulous spray.
In a nozzleof this type, the proper velocity in an outward direction is imparted ,to the the provision of a plurality 1927. Serial No. 183,099.
fluid film before the edge is reached by virtue of the deflecting action of the distributing surface of the valve, upon the fluid impacting thereagainst, and the action of the atomizing, agent directed against said surface, said directionbeing that of the distributing surface; so that the spray is directa liquid to be delivered by said nozzle and 2 ed in continuation of said surface at the moment of leaving 1t. There is no tendency or cause for. any part of the liquid to remain" adherent to the surface, and to eventually drip therefrom and its discharge velocity may be sufliciently low to permit of practically perfect combustion at the normal rate of flame propagation.
The main features of my invention are to a certain extent independent of the means "used for creating thespraying pressure. In some types of burners steam is used for atom izing the fuel, while in other types, compressed air is used; in other-burners of the so called mechanical type, the fuel is pumped from the storage tanks and forced under pressure to the burner, from which it issues through a small orifice in atomized form. q
In still another type of burners, the fuel is'delivered under pressure and an atomizing medium is also used at the same. time, assisting the action of the pressure in the atomization of the'fuel. Any one of these methods may be employed in connection with my deyice, although I prefer to use as an atomizing medium, air compressed under relatively low pressure, because steam repretionate increase in the oil consumption.
The drawings refer to nozzles of the type especially suited for oil burning purposes, but as stated before my invention may be applied broadly in connection with nozzles of a different character. Referring to said drawings:
Fig. 1 is a of a burner embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a cross sectional view through line 22 of Fig. 1; I Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional elevation of the outer end portion of a similar burner,
having outlets with a slightly different out- 1'05 v line Fig. 4
fragmentary sectional elevation is a detail sectional elevation illustrating' the construction of the tip end of the burner shown in Fig. 1; and Y V Fig. 5 is a similar view illustrating the tip end of a burner having outlets of a slightly different design. 7 w
Referring to Figs. 1, 2, 4:, 10 designates a body or frame provided with an oil inlet 11, leading to a central chamber 12, inwardly recessed from a chamber 13 of a larger diameter to which leads a conduit 14 for the atomizing medium.
The central chamber is extended tothe tip end of the burner by means of a tubular member 15, screwed into the inner surface 16 of chamber 13 and outwardly extending therefrom.
In a similarmanner, chamber 13 is extended to the tip end of the burner by means of another tubular member 17, screwed on to the outer end 18 of said body or frame and extending outwardly therefrom, coaxially with tubular member 15. The outer end of said tubular member or casing 17 is threaded so that an end bushing or collar member 19 can be mounted thereon, tion of chamber 13.
In this manner, chamber 12 forms a passage for the fuel, and chamber 13 forms a passage for the atomizing medium used, for
instance compressed air.
In order to obtain a good operating eflieiency, it is desirable to cause the atomizing medium to issue from the burner at a fairly high velocity, but at the same time the use ofb high pressures is to be avoided, if possi le. i
In the burners described in my other patent application above referred to, a relatively large volume of atomizing medium is delivered to the burner as compared to the volume of liquid to be atomized, this being a particularly desirablecondition in the case of oil burners because, if air under pressure is used as the atomizing medium, this air will also intimately intermingle with the fuel particles and will eventually assist their combustion.
However, as stated, the air should be delivered at a fairly high Velocity in order to impart the necessary velocity to the fuel, and therefore, a relatively large total area' for the passage of the air is obtained by providing two or more passages therefor, each having a relatively restricted area and causing therefore, the air to pass therethrough at an increased speed. The air passagesthus provided are obtained by the use of coaxial tubular members, forming annular passages, all leading to the tip end of the burner and v delivering the air in different concentric strata, each having a relatively high velocity.
the present case, I obtain a parallel effect, merely by restricting and multiplying the air outlets at the tip end of the air burner without the rise of a relativel long tubular member interposed between th e inner and the outer tubular members mentioned.
The desired result is obtained by inserting an end bushingmember 20, between the ti end of tubular member and bushing or 00E forming a continuawith radial projections 21, outwardly extend- .ing therefrom, adapted to position the bushing so it will remain coaxial with members 15, 17, 19, said bushing 20 being retained in' position -by clamping saidprojections 21 be tweenthe end surface of tubular member 20 and the inner recessed surface 22, of menu ber 19.
The burner outlet proper is composed of outlet 23 at the outer end of member 15, and annular outlets 24, 25, between said member 15 and bushing 20 and between said bushing 20 and bushing 19, respectively.
The burner outlet is controlled by means of a conical valve 26, carried at the outer end 0 a member 15 throughout its entire length, and projecting at the rear through body or frame 10. A tight packing of the passage of the stem through the rear end of-the body or frame 10 is assured by providing a stufling box at said end, comprising a packing 28 compressed within its chamber by means of a pressure member 29, having asthrea'ded portion 30 screwed onto the rear end of said body or frame compressing said packing.
Saidv pressure member 29 is provided with a key or pin 31, projecting into a key slot 32, formed longitudinally of the valve stem, so that the valve stem is restrained from rotating in relation to the said pressure member. I
The inner end of the valve stem is threaded as shown at 33, and carries a nut member 34 by means of which axial movement of the valvestem can be produced in one or the other direction for the purpose of valve adj ustment.
The correct alignment of the valve stem is insured at the outer end by meansof a plurality of radial" extensions 35, registering with the inner surface of member 15,
The outer ends of members 15, 20, 19, are outwardly beveled so as to register with the surface of valve 26 when the valve is closed furthermore, the outerdiameter of collar or bushing 19 is preferably equal to or slightly 1. larger than the outer diameter of the cone valve,.so that when the valve is closed, the,
angle to its axis so that the valve terminates with a knife-like edge 37, adapted to eventually break up the film of liquid to be atomized as it spreads outwardly upon the conical survalve stem 27, extending centrally of- The arrangement of the v a conical surcal surface,
' formlng a continuation, respectively of paseasy bend that the face of the valve, gradually thinning out and eventually reaching said edge.- I
.It will be observed that by virtue of this construction, the central passage 23 and the annular passages 24, 25, have surfaces parallel with the axis of the valve stem, directing the fluids passing therethrough against the surface of the valve at a relatively wide angle to the direction of said surface.
At the same time, it will be observed that as the valve is outwardly annular conical passages between the beveled ends of members 15, 20, 19, and its own conisaid annular conical passages sages 23, 24, 25.. Due to the comparatively fluids or liquids have to follow in order to issue from the axial into the conical passages, there is practically no loss of velocity taking place due to the impact of these jliquids against the surface of the valve, and there is in fact rather a tendency to increased velocity due to a Venturi effect ized to" be evenly members 19,
such an effect may taking place when the conical passages are than the cylindrical passages, so thahvery even'and efiicient operation of the burner results. absence of impact causes the fuel to be atomupon'the surface'of the valve without any eddy or break up action taking place before the said fluid reaches the edge of the valve. Various positions of the valve whereby be obtainable are illustrated in Fig. 3, where 15 designates the inner tubular member, 17 the outertubular member, 19' the outer collar or bushing member, 20' the inner bushing member and 26, 26 the valve in two different positions. As shown in said Fig. 3, the beveled edges of are'in conical alignment with one another being adapted to register with the conical surface of valve 26'.
The Venturi effect dueto the construction described however, can be further intensified by outwardly beveling part or all of the end surfaces of the bushing members at a greaterangle than the angle of the valve surface. For instance, hr the arrangement of Fig. 1, also shown in an enlarged scale in Fig. 4, the inner portion 38 ofthe end surface of member, 20, is beveled .to register'withthe coni cal surfaceof the valve, 39 is beveled at a great angle, a true stream line effect.
In a similar manner innerp'ortion 40 of the end surface of member i9 is beveled to register with the conical surface of the valve, while its outer-portion 41 is beveled at a greater angle, the angular difference between the inclination of the-two resulting conical thus providing 4 surfaces being designated bye.
TheVenturi efi'ectithus' btainable is de sirable especially when the suction exerted by the carryingoratomizingmedium is but its outer portion displaced, it 'will form This is due to the fact that and smoothly distributed -'principle may through which the fluid-t0 to the central passage delivered or atomized to issue from the tip of the burner at the desired velocity. In the case illustrated, the Venturi effect is especially desirable in connection with the intermediate passages, thatis, the passage for the carrying or atomizing fluid which is closer for the liquid to be delivered oratomized; the greatest suction being needed at said point.
On the other hand,i be preferable to cause the entire end surface of the upper member 19 to be parallel to or to register with the conical surface of the valve, because one of the objects of said surface is to guide the fluid film up to the very edge of the valve, preventing .the same from n many cases it may leaving the surface of the valve before the edge isreached.
In Fig. 5, I illustrate anotherar'rangement whereby it is possible to increase the natural Venturiefi'eet of the burner, the arrangement being applied to the end surface of the inner bushing member 20". In said drawing, 42 designates the conical surface of the valve, 43 the end surface of the upper bushing member 19, which is shown adapted to register with the said conical surface; of the valve, and 44 designates the end surface of the inner bushing member 20, said surface being beveled in its entirety at'a greater angle than the conical surface of the valve, the angular difference between the inclination of the two surarrangements described, the area of the passage for the carrying or atomizing fluid is restricted at a point close to the outlet 'in order to increase the velocity of flow, without restricting the range of actioh of the fluid flow; this result being obtained by sub-dividing the outlet in a number of passages adapted to stratify or otherwise subdividethe fluid flow in a number of streamsfpractically covering the same amount of surface as covered by the main passage. I
It is obvious that passages formed in this manner are shown in the drawing, the number "thereof may be increased; 'it is also obvious that the same be extended to the passage be delivered or acted upon issues from the nozzle, and that the relative positions of the passage for the liquidfidelivered or atomized and, that for the carryinmor atomizing. medium may be inverted if desired.
The bevel ing of partor all of the end surfaces at an angle greater than that of the surface of the valve may also be adopted in connection with burners composed of a plurality of-tubular members extending for the entire length of-the burner suchas described in my other patent application above referred to:
This and other. details of the construction its while only two annular of my device may vary to a certain extent from those shown in the of the appended claims.
purpose of this invention is to afford an economical and eflicient means for projecting a spray of highly comminuted, uniforn'lly disposed matter, regardless of its initial state. Obviously the matter, to permit of delivery to the device must be in condition to flow. It maybe a suitable liquid or it may be a fluid such as powdered coal. Accordingly, the use of the word liquid in the specifications and claims is hot to be taken as a limitation in this respect. Also the use of the word atomizer is not to be construed as a limitation. While it maynot be common usage to refer to atomization of a fluid such as powdered fuel, coal, etc., the effect produced. and the result accomplished issimilar in this case. Iclaimz- I 1. In adevice of the class described the combination with a passage for a liquid and forming a fluid a fluid chamber concentric thereto, said chamber extending tom, point close to the outlet end of said passage, of means forming a plurality of circumstantial series of outlets for said chamber, adjacent the outlet of said pas sage, the total area of said outlets being less than the area of said chamber, so as to cause an increase in the velocity of fluid forced- .therethrough, and an axially adjustable valve adapted to control saidoutlets.
2.- In a device of the class described, the combinationof a tubular member forming a passage for a fluid, anothertubula'r member external thereto, and coaxial therewith chamber extending to a point close to the outlet end of said passage, a collar member secured to the tip end of said outer tubular member, a bushing member interposed between the outlet end of said passage and said collar member adapted to be held'in position by said collarmember, bushing member said inner tubular and collar member being in conical-alignment with one another and defining in part'anoutwardly spreading conical chamber and forming a valve seat. an axially adjustable conical valve adapted to coact with said seat to control the passages formed by said tubular bushing and collar member.
1 3. Ina device of the class described, the
member, the tip ends of posed between the combination with an axially adjustable coni- -cal valve, of a plurality of tubular members coaxial with said valve forming a plurality of concentric passages directed against the conical surface of said valve, the ends of said tubular members being formed to provide a seat for the conical surface of said valve, the end surface of partof said tubular members, spreading out at an angle greater than the inclination of the conical surface of said valve. 4., In a device of the class described, the combination with an axially adjustable conical valve, of three tubular members coaxial therewith, the outer ends of said tubular members being formed to provide a seat for the conical surface of said valve, and the end 5. In a device of the class described, the
combination of a tubular member forming a passage for a' fluid, anothertubular member external thereto. and coaxial therewith forming a fluid chamber extending to a point close to the outlet end of said passage, a collar member secured to tubular member, a bushing member interoutlet end of said passage and said collar member adapted to be held in position by said collar member, the tip ends of said inner tubular member, bushing memher and collar member being in ment with one another, and forming an outwardly spreading conical chamber, and an axially adjustable conical valve adapted to fit within said conical chamber and to control the passages formed by said tubular bushing and collar member, the end surface of some of said members spreading out at-an angle the tip end of said outer conical align-- greater than the inclination of theconical surface of said valve.
6. In a device for projecting an agent in a divided and uniformly dispersed state, the combination with a passage for said agent, and a chamber concentric thereto for a fluid for projecting said agent, said chamber extending to a point close to the outlet. end of saidpassage, of means forming an outlet having a restricted area for said chamber, adjacent the outlet of said passage, without defleeting thedircction of flow therethru of the agent orthe fluid, in relation to the'axis of said chamber and passage, adjustable valve adapted to EDWARD F, CHANDLER.
and an auxiliary control sa d out-