US 1714564 A
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Filed Aug. 1, 1927 Qwawntoi;
dhtoamq Patented May 28, 19 29:
UNITED STA- E3: PAT-Eur or-rlcs, f
- WILLIAM xonnnnn, or CLEVELAND, on'Io.-
. This invention relates to metallicarticles a characteristic marked anti-frictipn and anti-abrasiveproperties, and is particularly adapted for bearings, contact members and moving partsfor engines, generators, motors,
pumps, mills, machinery, railway and motor vehicles, etc. k
The invention comprlses as a base, a finely -divided flocculent metal powder, or a mlxture of flocculent powders of two or more metals.
The flocculent metal. powders ma be mixedwith other metal powders,',or wit materials having lubricating properties in 'flake or has become thoroughly intermatted and compressed to the desired degree, and the resulting product has acquired new mechanical properties, as compared with metal composi- .tion bearings and parts, as heretofore produced; i v
' Referring to the drawings, F'g. 1 is a perspective View of a bearing bushingembodying my invention, and
Fig. 2 is a highly magnified view of a crystal of flocculent copper suitable for prac.
- tising the invention.
The 'flocculent metalpowder used as the base for this new product is a cohesive material having new properties not possessed by powdered metals as heretofore known or used in this art. This flocculent metal powder-may be produced electro-chemically as hereinafter described and is characterized by a greater degree of homogeneity and capacity for combining with other substances than powdered metal as. heretofore known. Its characteristics persist in any desired state of subdivision, the particles ofpowder being soft to the touch, and collectively possessing to a very high degree the quality of felting or self-matting upon' compression. The individual particles are characterized, when seen. under the microscope, by a feathery crystalline appearance. and a dendritic filiform or arborcseent or radiating formation, variously shaped; and upon mternnnglmg,
powder form, such as graphite, mica, molyb- -to be substantially pure.
sodium may be'uti ized.
i 'anrrrmorron annm'rrannasrvn- METAL.
Application flled'August-l, 1927. Serial m. 210,005.
our-like mass, the particles'of which after suitable compression, intertwine and mat with each other so as to and rigid product.
A suitable process for the production of flocculent-metals for my improved'product consists in subjecting to electrolysis commingled solutions of any metal desired tobe deposited and a 'mctal of higher positive nature, according to the electrmchemical series, subjecting the solution to an electric current of a potential greater than that required to deposit the metal having a higher positive nature, whereupon the less positive metal will be deposited and remain on the cathode, notwithstanding the high electromotive force of the current..- The desired metal will be deposited in a finely dividedy' powdery state, and analysisshows the n etal In carrying out my process above outlined,
I preferably provide an electrolytic bath having a conductive, inert cathode, an anode composed of a conductive inert material ,and a material capable of ionization, and an elec-- trolyte cgi 'rrying salts of the two'metals in solution. For exam le, if it be desired to produce copper po dbl, salts of copper and It is evident that various metals suitable for bearing purposes may be treated to put them into the flocculent form and utilized alone or in combination with other metals, likewise in flocculent form, with graphite and other antifriction vmaterials, for the pur ose of making a wide variety of articles use ul in industry wherein the. coefiicient of friction between them andadjacent moving parts is a matter of any importance.
The following metals I have found may be produced in flocculent form, particularly adapted for bearings and parts of this kind, .viz: copper, iron, nickel, tin, zinc, antimon and lead; and the invention contemplates that theseandother suitable metals may be used either singly or combined in any desired proportions. a
The suitably molded and compressed prod-' not, either as a bearing block, sleeve, drum or other desired shape, may, if desired, be subjected toa greater or less degree of heat treat- .ment, preferably in a reducing atmosphere, at a temperature which-will vary with'the composition of the product, but should not exceed the sweating point of the compositiomg collectively constitute a somewhat cohe sive of manufactur'e,Lof the kind which have as fl produce a tenacious I The resultin'g product for some purposes; and depending upon itsporosity, be saturated with a lubricating material, such as paraflin,
beeswax,,'or other oily or grease-like material.
The .product obtained is strong, .ductile, and fibrous; it may be rolled, drawn, ma-
I chimed, and further shaped by pressure.
' Under test for tensile'strength, ,a product suitable for use for a bearing has withstooda tensile strain of twenty thousand pounds per square inch and its resistance to scoring orselz ng under a moving load 1s much superior to rolledor cast copper orbearmg a metal alloys. 4
1. As a new article ofmanufacture, an
anti-friction" and anti-abrasive metal composition molded to a desired shape contain-' ling metal, particles characterized by' great cohesiveness 'due to their dendritic structural formation and; self-matting properties.
2. As a"*new'art1cle of manufacture, an antl-friction and anti-abrasive metal composition molded to a desired shape and density containing metal particles characterized by great cohesiveness due to their dendritic structural formation and self-mattingproperties'.
3. As .a new article of manufacture, an
- anti-friction and anti-abrasive metal composition molded to a desired shape containing particles of suitable metals characterized by great cohesiveness due to their dendritic structural formation and self-matting properties, compressed and heat treated to constitute a tough, ductile homogeneous product.
4. As a new article of manufacture, an anti-friction and anti-abrasive metal composition molded to a desired shape containing metal particles mixed with lubricating material in powder or flake form, said metal particles eing characterized by great cohesiveness due to their dendritie structural formation and self-matting properties.
'tated crystalline formation,
' 52 A hearing com osed' -of comminuted metal the particles'o which have a highl orientated crystalline formation and a ford. anenormous expanse of fihform sui'-- face capable of'ready association and admixstructure, I and possessing great compressibility and aflinity for each other;
6. A bearing composedof comminuted metal the particles of which have a highly orien afiord an enormous expanse of filiform surface capable of ready association "and admixture with similar particles of the same metal or p'ar ticles of other metals having similarstructure, and possessing great cohesiveness.
7. A' hearing composed of compressed con'iminuted arborescent crystalline self matting metal'particles and a lubricating material in- 1nt1mate admixture, the particles of metal presenting extensive structural configuration and possessing great aflinity for each other whereby the product containing said particles is strong, ductile, non-disintegrating and self lubricatin 8. An anti-.Friction and anti-abrasive article composed of flocculent copper'and an-' WILLIAM KOEHLER.
'60 ture with similar particles of the same metal I or particles of other metals having similar