US 1714949 A
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May 28, 1929L B. c. COLLIER ETAL v 1,714,949`
PILE AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Aug. V10, 1926 Sheets-Sheet l A TTOHNEVS May 28, 1929. B, c, coLLlER ETAL 1,714,949
PILE AND WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Aug. lO, 1926 2 Sheets-'Sheet 4 2 er Mug-M A TTUH/VEVS Patented May 28, 1929.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
BRYAN C. COLLIER, WILLIS LERICHE, AND EUGENE A. EVANS, OF ALLENTOWN, PENN- SYLVANIA, ASSIGNORS TO CEMENT GUN CONTRACTING COMPANY, OF ALLEN- TOWN, PENNSYLVANIA, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
:PILE AND WALL CONSTRUCTION.
Application filed August 10, 1926. Serial No. 128,346.
This invention relates to the construction of cement or concrete walls preferably of Gunite construction which may be used for various purposes, but more particularly for bulkheads and the likev which are subjected to extraordinary lateral pressure. The invention relatesY more particularly to work of this kind in which, by use of a suitable device, cement, sand and water are mixed and are blown or shot into place and Gunite thus formed.
An important object of the invention relates to provision of reinforced cement or Gunite anchorages, or piles, and reinforced cement or Gunite wall units, or slabs,- these elements being constructed for interlocking cngagement so that after the piles have been located the formed slabs can be quickly and conveniently put into place to form a strong, durable wall.
Itis an object of the invention to so reinforce the slabs and piles that they cannot be broken by the stresses to which they are subjected. A further object of the invention is to protect wooden iles and other wooden members normally subjected to the action of water from deterioration resulting from the attacks of the teredo, the destructive action of sea-water and other causes. For the purpose of such protection it is particularly advantageous l that such Gunite-covered piles be pre-built and driven into place with the Gunite extending below the mud line.
Other objects and advantages will hereinafter appear'. In the drawings which form a part of this specification l Figure 1 is a perspective elevation, partly in section of a wall embodying features of the invention.
Figure 2 is a horizontal section through one of the piles showing adjacent slab members interfitted therewith.
Figure 3 is a Vertical section on one of the piles cut away intermediate its ends for coinpactness of illustration.
Figure 4 is a plan View of the Wooden core of one of the piles, having a brace rod or Wire secured thereto, the contour of the Gunite to be applied being indicated in dash lines.
Figure 5 is a horizontal section of a modified form of pile in Which a steel I-beam is utilized as the pile core.
The wall illustrated in Figure l comprises a series of vertical piles l, each including a wooden core 2 which'may be of any desired shape in cross-section, and a. jacket 3 of cement of Gunite which is I-shaped in crosssection. The piles are pointed at their lower ends and may be provided with pointed metal driving caps 4 to enable them to penetrate the ground to the desired depth easily. rl`hc upper end ot' the wooden core projects beyond the cement or Gunite jacket to form a driving head.
The channeled sides in the Gunite jackets of adjacent piles face toward one another and are so spaced. that they will receive and interlock with Gunite slabs` 5 which may be introduced vertically downward from the tops of the piles to form the wall.
lVith the construction described, it will be evident that the wall can be built up section by section.
rlhere is no possibility of1 the slabs working loose from the piles when once put in place, so that. the wall, when once built, will be durable, provided the parts are of adecuate strength to sustain the forces to which t ey are subjected.
lThe wall can, nevertheless, be removed if desired by dissembling the units. Thus, should it occur' that a wall is no longer of any use where it has been built, the parts may bc salvaged and used elsewhere in building another wall.
It is in'iportant that the piles and slabs, and l particularly certain portions thereof. be very strong since'they are apt to be subjected to very severe usage. Accordingly provision is made for substantially reinforcing the several units in the course of their construction. As Will be observed upon examination of Figure 2,- the slabs 5 are provided, substantially midway between their faces, with metallic reinforcing material', which may be in the form of rods or reinforcing wire mesh.
The piles, especially, must be capable of withstanding very great forces since all of the pressure put upon the slabs istransmitted by the slabs to the piles. As shown in Figure 2, reinforcing material, which may be in the form of a `metallic Wire. mesh 7, is placed around the wooden core 2 of the pile, being spaced therefrom by any suitable means such as vertically extending spacer rods 7 which also reinforce the pile. Provision. is also made of reinforcing wire mesh members 8 which are C-sl1aped in cross-section and extend around the channels of the side Walls of the pile, being spaced linwardly from the eX- posed faces of said grooves. Straight reinforcing wire mesh plies 9 extend longitudinally' of the pile near the front and rear faces thereof, but are spaced inwardly from Said faces. y
wWith the construction described, it will be evident that the pressure transmitted from the slabs to the side flanges of the pile are not sustained solely by the cement or Gunite of said flanges, but that provision is made of a plurality of metallic reinforcements in each of said flanges for assisting in W1thstanding these forces. These reinforcements are of such strength that liability of breaking or chipping the flanges is avoided. All of the pile reinforcements described cooperate to sustain the pile against bending stresses which would tend to break it transversely of its length.
In Figs. 3 and 4f, the pile is illustrated as supported in part by a guy wire or rod 10, which is connected to the pile adjacent its upper end and ext-ends at an inclination to an anchorage (not shown) which may be driven deep into the ground.
The guy wire 10 is connected to a metallic collar 11, which embraces the core 2. This collar 11 is embedded in the cement or Gunite 3 of the pile, and is provided with outwardly extending ears 12 which are pierced to receive a bent end of the wire 10.
The lcement or Gunite piles hereinbefore described, may be made by any approved method, but they are preferably made by. first 1ocating each reinforcing member in an convenient or desired location and then brmging the cement, san'd and Water ltogether 'and shooting the mixture into place by-means 'of a device which is capable of causing the cement to penetrate the mesh of the reinfqrce ments and to adhere to the corejin the form of Gunite. It should be understood that preferably the reinforced cement or Gunite is a plied to the core of the pile before driving tllie pile but that the cement or concrete ma be applied to a pile already driven or in its' a1 position. f
There is shown in Figure 5 a modified construction ofpile which is generally similar to the pile heretofore described, but differs from it in thatl asteel I-beam 13 is used as the core. This I-beam is surrounded bya ply of heavy reinforcing wire 14, which is spaced at a short distance from 'the core by means which may include rods 15. Vith this construction, ihe channels in the faces of the I- shaped cement portion of the pile may extend into the recesses atthe opposite sides of the steel I-beam. The pre-formed Gunite slabs 5, when positioned in these grooves, are laterally supported not only by the cement and kthe reinforcing wire mesh, but in addition have the positive support of the steel flanges vHaving thus described our invention, we
1. In a pile, in combination, a Gunite concrete jacket channeled to receive the edges of wall slabs, and a wooden core therein, said core projecting above the jacket to provide a driving head and Aprojecting below the jacket to provide a driving point.
2. In a pile, in combination, a concrete jacket channeled to receive the edges of Wall slabs, a Wooden core therein, said core projecting above the jacket to provide a driving head land projecting below the jacket to provide a drivingl point, and a. steel jacket surrounding the driving point. 'l
3. In a pile, a combination, a Gunite concrete jacket longitudinally channeled to recelve the edges of wall slabs and a wooden core therein, saidcore projecting abovethe jacket to provide a. driving head which may be cut off after the pile is driven.
vIn testimony whereof we hereby affix our signatures.
BRYAN C.'COLL]ER. WILLIS LERICHE. v EUGENE A. EVANS.