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Publication numberUS1715018 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 28, 1929
Filing dateMay 17, 1928
Priority dateSep 17, 1926
Publication numberUS 1715018 A, US 1715018A, US-A-1715018, US1715018 A, US1715018A
InventorsBrockdorff Rudolf Von
Original AssigneeSchutte & Koerting Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric heating means
US 1715018 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 28, 1929. R. voN BRocKDoRFF 1,7l5l018 ELEGTRI C HEATING MEANS Filed May 17, 1928 Patented May 28, 1929.

nunon' von nnocxnonrr, or


nnncrmc HEATING ums.

Appueeuen medie! 17, 192s, ser1e1 1re. 278,454, and in Germany september 17, 192s.

- My invention relates to electricv heating means and is of a character whereby devices embodyin the same may be adapted for the heating o boiler tubes, for supplying the heating means for hot water heaters, for supplying the heating lmeans for stoves, radiators and the like, and for other purposes which readily will occur to those skilled in the art to which the invention relates.

In electrical heaters as heretofore known and manufactured it has been the practice generally, as far as I am aware, to imbed the electrically heated elements within insulating material of one kind or another. Electrical heaters of that character and construction have been found, inpractice, to be open i to objections among which may be mentioned the over-heating of the current resistance element and the consequent destructionl thereof,

and also the burning of and injury to the vin-A sulating material within which the resistance element may be imbedded.

Itis the object, therefore, of this invention to provide an electric heater of simple but novel 'construction and of a character to avoid the objections incident to heaters of the character heretofore employed in practice.

It also is an object of the invention to pro- ,vide an electric heater of novel construct-ion and of a character such that the heating elementor elements are not imbedded in a supporting structure, but on the contrary, are

spaced therefrom whereby over-heating thereof is avoided.

A further object of the invention is to provide an electric heating means of novel construction wherein the heating elements are insulated from the structure bein heated and wherein also the .heating of t le structure is effected by radiation rather than by conduction. T Y

Another object of the invention is to provide a structure wherein the heating element ma respond to the variable conditions produce by the heating thereof without in- 'ury thereto and without injury to the means y which the said element isI held or retained in operative position with respect to the re-l maining port1on of the heater structure.

Still another object of the invention is to provide ayielding element located outside of the high temperature zone of the structure and having operative connection with the he'atin element and with parts associated therewith and acting as a compensating controllin means during variations of temperature o the heatingl element of the structure.

I shall not at t is point in the specification undertake to set` forth more fully or in ingportion ofthe specification or will become ap arent therefrom. y

Fort`eurpose of aiding in the understanding o the invention I have provided a drawing illustrative thereof which is annexed to and forms a part of'this specification and to which reference should be made in the reading of the specification for a clearer understanding of the invention than otherwise might be had.

In the drawing:

Fig. 1 'is a view in longitudinal sectional elevation of anelectrical heater device embodying the invention;

Fig.' 2 is a view in elevation of the lower portion of the structure shown in Fig. 1 but'showing a modified mechanical embodiment of the invention; and Fig. 3 is a view in side elevation of the heater device mounted within a tube to be heated, the said tube being shown in longitudinal section, and the'said heater device embodying the construction indicated in Fig. 2, the latter being in simpler form and more readily illustrated. However, it will be understood that either form of construction may be mounted within a tubularsection or the like to be heated.

Inthe drawing I have shown a heater devicecomprising a tube b of insulating ma terial, such as mica, upon which the heater element a is adapted to be supported. The said heater element c'onsists of a wire of suitable resistance material, such as chrome nickel. It is coiled about the tubular support b. l Preferably the wire should be coated with l insulating material and it has been found that a coating of oxide is suicient in practice to prevent short circuiting of the coils. The coils should be4 located in contact relation as illustrated and are yieldingly held 1in such relation to each other in the manner 4some respects it is open to objection. It is capable of undergoing sudden relatively reat chan es in temperature without injury,

ut it is lac ing in the power of resistance to mechanical forces. It is necessary, therefore, in the winding of the vresistance wire about the same to form the heating coil a as illustrated so that the latter does not contact with or bind tightly upon the cylindrical surface of the tube. lf it does so contact or bind the variations in the diameter of the coil due to changes in temperature may cause the tube to collapse or crush. The coil a therefore is so related to the tube as to be retained in position thereby but not so as to apply compressive stresses thereonv of suiicient force to crush or cause the' same to collapse.

Although the tube b is referred to as consisting of mica it is to be understood that it may consist of any other material of insulating character which may be found to be suitable from a practical stand-point.

The outer end portion of the tube b projects into an opening c of an insulating member or head c which may consist of steatite. It will be noted that the diameter of the opening c is slightly greater than the external diameter of the tube b. In order, therefore, to bind and hold the tube in place within theA said head c the space between the tube b and n the inclosin 4walls of the opening c is filled with a suita le packing material such as asbestos c. In practice the latter is provided in the form of a string which is wound around the tube b. It will be seen, therefore, that a more or less yielding protection is provided between the tube and the head c. The head c is in turn mounted upon a block g of insulating material such as steatite, the latter being provided with a recess as indicated at g into which a reduced end portion of the head c projects. The head and block c and g may be secured together by any .suitable known means, as for instance, bolts, not shown. The said head and block should not be drawn too tightly together but should be loosely held in order lthat there may be the necessary relative expansion and contraction. There will be relative expansion and contraction ybecause the head c is heated to a temperature very much L higher than thatof the larger block g, because `1t is located in practice within the heated chamber within which the heating element of the device is located.

The head c is provided with a small opening or passageway e which leads from the opening c therein into an axial o ening g within the block G, the inner end o said opening terminating in the larger opening g provided upon the inner end of the said block g'.

The' inner end of the wire of the coil ais connected to a coupling p which in turn is conynected to an end of a coil d of relatively large wire which is coiled around the inner end portion of the tube b and is 'provided with an extension which is connected by means of a loop d to the inner end of the wire d which extends through and axially of the tube b and y which extends also through the opening e reviously referred to and through the axial opening gand is connected at its outer end to a metal member f which is slidably mounted within the outer end portion of the opening g.' A coiled wire s ring h, mounted within the opening g and aring at its inner end against the outer end of the head c and at its outer end against the inner end of the slidable metal member f, tends to push and hold thelatter in its outermost position. The outer end of the slidable member f is provided with a binding post to which one end of a wire having an intermediate coil m is connected, the opposite end thereof being connected to a 'binding post m. rlhe ings lc and is provided in the head c and block l g in alinement with each other as shown. The outer end of the wire i is connected to a binding post Z.

lt may be noted that the wires of the coils d and and d and z" are of considerably grelater diameter or gage than the wire of the co1 a.

The current may be supplied to the coil a through the wire i and conducted from the said coil through the coil al and the wire d', or the current may iiow in the opposite or reverse direction.

The coils d and z' are loosely or slidably mounted upon the insulating tube b.

lt will be understood that when the device is used and when the coil a has been raised to a high temperature expansion thereof results, and it also will be understoodthat upon the cooling thereof contraction takes place. The diameter of the coil, however, is such that in the latter instance it does not bind with suiicient tightness and force against the tube b to cause crushing or collapsing thereof. Also as the heat of the coil varies the wire d expands or contracts as the temperature increases or decreases. The spring h previously referred to, which is outside ofthe heat zone of the device, tends constantly to expand and exerts a pulling force upon the wire d to compensate for the variations of the length Vthereof due to variations in temperature.

The action of the spring 71. operates to yieldingly hold the turns of the coil a in contact with each other.

The construction illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawing is identical with that shown in .Fig 1 except that the coils ai and z' are re- In saidv Fig. 3 the sleeves dz and i2 are xown instead of the `coils d and 1'. because of the ease with which they ma be drawn and not because there is any diillerence in function; As a matterof fact, if there is any difference the construction including the coils d and z" is preferred to that including the 'tubular sectlons or sleeves d* and 2.

Upon reference to Fig. 3 it will be noted that neither the heating element nor any part 'of the electric circuit including the said element .contacts with any part of the structure being heated. There is, therefore, no chance of short circuiting through an part of the structure or apparatus being cated. Also it will be noted that the heating of the tube .g is e'ected by radiationan'd not by conduction. The space Within the tube surrounding the heating element is not filled with Water but ywith air or other suitable gas. In consequence the construction is highly suitable for use in the heating of Water for domestic pur oses because in View of the insulation of the circuit and heating coil from the apparatus there is no danger of any' art of the latter becoming electrically charge In cases Where the electrically heated element is in contact with any 'part of the apparatus or in which the support for the heating element is in contact with Water which is being heated, the apparatus or some part thereof has been known to become charged and to cause injur to a person or persons who might contact wit such charged part or portion. YBy my invention the possibility of such an accident is entirely eliminated.

It may be noted that While the heating coil a does not bind tightly upon the insulating tube b yet the .latter will vprevent the same from sagging in case the heating means is supported in a horizontal position and the Wires d and a, the coils d and yz', and the wire coil k operate to retain the heating coil `a in proper position upon the said tube when the heating means is supported in a vertical position.

Having thus described my Iclaim and desire to secure 1s:

1. An electric heating means, comprising a tube of insulating material, means for supporting the said tube, a coil of resistance wire coiled about said tube and loosely mounted thereon, members slidably mounted upon said tube and located thereon in adjoining relainvention, Whato y Letters Patent tion vto the opposite ends `of the said coil,

the opposite ends of the wire of said coil being connected to the said members, a connection leading from one of the said members through the sald tube to a oint outside of the said heating means, an yielding means located out of the heating zone of the heating means which exerts pulling force upon the said connection.

'2. An electric heating means, comprising a tube of insulating material, means for supporting said tube, a coil of resistance Wire loosely mounted upon the said tube, binding posts llocated outside of the heating zone of the said heating means, leads from the said binding posts to the opposite ends of the said heating coil, the said leads 'terminating in coils Iin adjoining relation to the opposite ends of the said heating coil, the said terminal coils being loosely and movably mounted `upon the said tube and one ol' the said leads extending through the said tube, a slidable member to which the last mentioned lead is connected, means for slidably supporting the said member, and yielding means acting upon the said slidable member and operating to apply a pulling force to the last mentioned lead under tension.

3. An electric heater, comprising a tube of insulating material, supporting means of insulating material for the said tube, an opening extending through the said supporting means, a member slidably mounted Within theouter end of the said opening, a coil of resistance Wire mounted uponthe said tube, -lea-d Wires having connection with and extending from' the opposite ends of the said coil, the said lead Wires being provided with a number of coils mounted upon thesaid tube and located in adjoining relation to the opposite ends of the first named coil, and the Wire of one of the last mentioned coils being extended through thel said tube and through the pasageway in the support therefor yand having connection at its outer end with the said slidable member, and yielding means acting upon the said slidable member to hold the said Wire extension under tension.

4. An electric heater, comprising a tube of insulating material, a two-part supporting means for the said tube, the said parts bemg connected sons-'to permit independent expansion and contraction thereof, the said tube being connected to one of said parts and the said parts having an opening extendin therethrough in alinement with the said tu e, a resistance Wire coil mounted loosely upon the said tube, members movably mounted upon the said tube in adjoining relation to the opposite ends of the said coil, the opposite ends of the Wire of the latter being connected to the said members, Wire leads extending from the said members, one of the said leads extending through the said tube and through the opening throughthe said supporting means, a member slidably mounted in the outer end of the opening through said supporting means to which the last mentioned lead is connected, and resilient means acting upon the said slidable member to impose a pulling tension upon the last mentioned lead which tension operates to apply a compressive pressure to the said coil.

5. An electric heating means, comprisingl 'ns'y an electric circuit including a coil of resist` vacting upon one of the said leads to exert pressure upon the said coils to compensate for` the exansion and contraction which may result from variations in the temperature thereof. l

6. Heating means comprising a tubular member one end of which is closed, a heat- .ing coil located Within said tubular member,-

means of insulating material mounted upon the end of said tubular member opposite the closed end thereof and projecting into the said tubular member for supporting thesaid heating coil, leads having connection With the opposite ends of the said heating coil, both of the said leads extending outwardly through a portion of the support of insulating material by which the said coil is supported, and one of the said leads extending through the said coil, and resilient yielding means operating upon the said last mentioned lead to exert pressure .thereon and upon the said coil.

' 7. An electric heating means comprising a yvire coil of electric current resistance material through which an` electric current is adapted to flow to heat the same, a tubular support around Which the said coil is Wound,

lead Wires having connection with the opposite ends of said coil, said lead Wires having coils Wound around the said tubular su port and located in adjoining relation to t e opposite ends of the said heating coil and being slidable thereon, one of the said lead -to a movablev member, and yieldin wires exending through the 'said tubular support and having connection at its outer end f ent means normally under compresslon and tending to cause outward movement of the last mentioned lead Wire and thereby operating t o apply compressive pressure to the said y heating coil.

8. An electric heating means comprising a tubular member, a wire coil of electric current resistance material located Within the' said tubular member through which lcoil av mounted inl one end of the rst named tubu-v lar member for supportingy the said cylindrical tubular member ofiDSulating mate- "rial, movable memberslocated upon the said -cylindrical tubular member in adjoining. relation to the opposite ends of the said heating coil and having connection with the said ends, Wires extending from the said movable members, one of said wires extendinr through the said cylindrical tubular supportmg member and having connection at its outer end Witha movable member'l slidable Within a portion of the support for "the said cylindrical tubular member, and yielding resilient means having contact with the last named movable member and acting therethrou h to exert a pulling force upon the last name lead Wire and operating thereby to imposea compressive pressure upon the said heating coil.

In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention I have hereunto signed my name this.u 3rd day of May, A. D. 1928. n


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2559988 *Jun 30, 1948Jul 10, 1951Aircraft Radio CorpTerminal structure for coil forms
US4272639 *Aug 1, 1979Jun 9, 1981Btu Engineering CorporationHelically wound heater
US4401883 *Aug 14, 1981Aug 30, 1983The Kanthal CorporationElectric resistance heater
US4475030 *Sep 25, 1981Oct 2, 1984Caterpillar Tractor Co.Glow plug having resiliently mounted ceramic surface-ignition element
US4695821 *Dec 16, 1985Sep 22, 1987O/Y Kyro A/B TamglassResistor element assembly for a heating furnace of glass sheets and method of replacing a resistor element
US4712086 *Dec 16, 1985Dec 8, 1987O/Y Kyro A/B TamglassSupport frame for resistor elements in a heating furnace for glass sheets
U.S. Classification338/209, 219/542, 338/302, 338/316, 338/235, 338/301, 219/538
International ClassificationH05B3/46
Cooperative ClassificationH05B3/46
European ClassificationH05B3/46