US 1715482 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
`11mm, 1929. T, G, VOM-K- 1,715,482
L KNIT FABRIC Filed Nov- 12. 1925 s sheets-'sheet 2 i qlq-ifi El, tu f w/r/vss f A IN1/Enron ,g 711/5000,? 6.1/0/1'0# i sr i Toners June4,1929. T G, voRcK 1,715,482
' KNIT FABRIC Filed Nov, 12, 1925 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Arromlgrs Patented June '4, 192.9..
UNITED STATES THEODOR G. VOBCX, F BABMEN, GERMANY.
Application led November 12, 1925, Serial No. 68,493; and in Germany January 28, 1925.
My invention relates to that class of fabrics in which during their manufacture, elastic strands, such, for example, as strands of india-rubber, are combined with threads of vegetable or animal fibre forming the body of the fabric.
More particularly stated, the invention relates to elastic fabrics of a porous structure articularly suitable for use inthe manu acture of abdominal supports, bandages, corsets, Suspenders, and thel like, and for technical purposes. I am aware 'that several varieties of elastic knit fabrics are commonly used in the manufacture of these- ,articles l The mostcommon variety of elastic fab ric is a woven fabric having transverse orv weft threads of rubber, but it isalso known to make. a knit fabric having similarlyT disposed rubber Weftthreads which are held in, place by the longitudinal or warp courses o f stitches. Moreover, it has also been pro,- posed to construct a porous elastic knitted vfabric with parallel longitudinal rubber warp threads enclosed and'held in place by longitudinal` or warp courses of looped stitches, the adjacent composite war courses being connected together. by weft threads running from one course to the adjacent course and threads forming the stitches enclosing the vrubber warp. However, in this fabric the weftknitting threads were the rubber warp threads, and did not assist in'holding same in position.
The chief'disadvantage of porous elastic knit fabrics as hitherto proposed was that the rubber threads were not tidhtly held in place, and were, therefore, capable of being easily 40 pulled out. Furthermore, the continuity of the knitted meshes has notpermitted of threads Vbeing omitted to form openings in predetermined positions for increasing the porosity and flexibility "of the fabric and to permitt-he 4formation of patterns therein. The only method of producing patterns in thesefabrics has been by omitting certain of the strands of rubber Warpthreads, with a corresponding loss of elasticit 'in the fabric, or by changing the regu ar succession of the frontand back courses of the meshes in relation to the warp threads. In this latter case, however, the rubber strands are left` at intervals free and unprotected on lthe surface of the fabric, which obviously diminishes the durability of the fabric.
inter-linked with the warp' not looped about drawn through a I am further aware that `a plain fabrio has been producedl in awarp frame, in such a' manner as to comprise separate courses of warp meshes connected by weft threads enabling rubber strands to begused without a j covering of wound threads. It 'will be readily understood that with this arrangement, the perspiration from the body 'has much easier access to the rubber strands than if these are-thread-wound; as a result these rubber strands are quickly rotted and rendered useless. Because of thefactthat the rubber strands are uncovered, no weft threads can be omitted from the regular suc` cession in order to form openings in the fabric. On the contrary, the fabric requires an additional weft on one side in order to cover suiiciently the bare. rubber strands and obviate ravelling. By `reason of the closeness of the texture which` results from the above, the fabric is too heavy and stiff for most of the purposes -set forth.
The object of this invention is to provide elastic fabrics, particularly adapted for'use 1n the manufacture ofthe articles mentioned, which fabrlcs' present none o f the objecof relatively high flexibilityand are porous to the desired extent, and which have the rubber strands firmly bound in their structure against removal and protected against moisture from the body.
'tionsieferred to hereinbefore, but which are Withthe above general objects in view, A
`according to one 'feature of the invention, I provide an improved porous elastic knitted fabric having. longitudinal parallel courses of stitches joined together to form a *fabricy by transverse threadspassing from course to course and knitted into different longitudinal courses in consecutive stitches, wherein rubber or elastic warp threads are enclosed within the longitudinal courses of stitches by loops drawn from a textile warp knitting thread alternately on o posite sides of the elastic thread, each o said loops being drawn from the thread. The fabric may also comprise fabric transverse warp threads extending transloop of thej same thread4 other `side of the elastic versely of the'fabric across any desired num- A ber vof longitudinal courses of stitches vand held against the elastic warp threads by loops of the, longitudinal courses of stitches which are formed to overlie same.
According to a further feature of the invention the' improved fabric is one in which L3:) .......Inarde longitudinal elasticwarp transverse warp threads have fabric warp threads knitted about them so as to enclose and grip them, andthe longitudinal elastic warp courses 5 thus produced are united together to form a fabric by threads running transversely of transverse .warp thread loops encircling the remaining periphery of the rubber threads, whereby '."thef rubber vwarp' threads v.are
i .glppdwdhldn place by said oppositely ,extnndjllggtransverse warp threads. I t also provides'aijpbrpts elastic knit .fabric com- .pllSItg-afserio parallel longitudinal rubbe wai-ps each forming the .coreof` a longi- .tu'f al course Of,.kntti `r1g,.a corresponding '.series tif-fabric, warp threads knitted round said rubber'strands to vvenclose and grip same, i andi-fabric transversewarp threads running across; 'the rubber, warp. threads between .conseeutivefffstitches and 'l1eld .inplace by Stitch .warpjthreadsv 'Ilylndlftoo andreadilyearried into-pracl ...l .ticaglzhiv appendedhereto drawings i17-v 1g. ,diagram illustrating? the 401' ufactur offs,"l fabric, embodying the' .invenfion.; @winrar-te thsrsohsmg Show-11. SQP- .frenetiin ein@ sph@ ing of @slight modiijcation. .et .the abrimanufactured 'as .in Fig..
Figi-Zia a diagrammatic view showing .threads oflig; 1 separately..
Figitisafragmentaryview showing the Fig. 5 is a diagramsi'milar" to Fig'. 1 il- 55 l-ustratingthe manufacturcof another Aform of the fa l ic; and. Fig.' (i is a thread d igram ofthe fabric of,l1`ig'.'5 lo f the same 'character as Figlia.
' Thejimprord fabrficfisfmade on 'efwarpv 6o knitting machine; einployin a row o f latch xieflles .for knitting threa sto. 'form par. all'el courses" of stitches running longitudinally' ofthe fabricadjacent courses of knittingbeing connecteeltgether by' trans,- verse warp threads knitted Aalter'nately into lgwitli allfthreadsiin loosenedconand for moving the weftcarriere inthe "requiredfmanne'r, all of such movements being controlledin well known manner by AA means of'pattern chains.
" One form of knitting is illustrated by the adjacent courses.. In addition the Amachine includes means for guiding elastic warp threads into the fabric longitudinally theremeans for guiding weftthreads (hereinafter referred to as plain weft threads) transversely of the warp threads between the formationof consecutive stitches, said weft threads bein" held in position by the knitting loops of the warp courses. As will be hereinafter ap arent, neither the elastic warp threads nor t e plain weftl threads engage with the needles, so that they do not form knitting loops andare only held in position by the knitted warp and weft threads.
A portion of the'machine, which is gener'ally of known type, is illustrated diagram- 'matically by Figure 4 in ,whichl d' represents the 'row ofA parallel vertically movable latch needles, b represents the series ofguide mem- -bers for the elastic threads, a and c guides -for the textile or .non-elastic warp knitting threads, and f represents a tubular guide for the plain weft thread which projects from al carrier e reciprocated in ajline parallel' Ywith the needles.-
The guides 1i/,6,6 are carried by longitudinalbars which are intermittentlyfrotated so that the guides are swung angularly between pastthe needles soas to engage their .threads with the aangename themadag :are intheraised ppsiticn'lf Saidbars are also iliy'n suitable longitudinali'movements to einatmen atmss'fhiieele's in' the-de" si'red .ihantler. The I1eie`clles x 5' are intermit' tentlyfraisedrand.lowredfin the well known manner, the stitches "being, Y formed when the .needles ''ch thefbttom 0f their. travel and thev `threads engaged with the hook be- 'pneatlithelatchlare drawn-'through the old stitches on lt, ef'needles, which oldl stitches thenbecomefcastvblf v'the needles..
suitable'fcamfand lever mechanisms, 110
which areA wellkhown inconnectioin'with 'kniottmgjmachines can be used for moving -the'guide bars l'ongitud ix'rallyv and rotating themwto swing the guidespast. theneedles,
diagrammaticFigures 1 and' 2, in which the dots're resent the needles, and tlieglines `of dots in icat'etheI same' needles v in connectionA witl 1"'the` formation, of' successive stitches. The' thicktransverse lines `z' represent-the path'of Increment ofthe; weft thread carrie'rl "e, and the remaining lines running in vertical zigzag direction's'indi'cate the transverse '.'move'ments of"'the Ithr'eacil guides (caused bythe longitudinal movements of theig'uide Bars) -inrelation to the needles; 13o
Referring .now particularlyl to Figures 1 and 2 of the drawings, in the manufacture of the fabric "as diagrammatically illustrated therein, two warp threads I and III are em loyed, the thread I being of textile maacross the fabric.
The movements of the guides for the rei spective threads are illustrated separately in Figure 2. The warp Aknitting thread I is alternately moved by its guide a (or c) across the corresponding needle fromk op- 'tioned needle, the
. loldv loops already on theneedles,
posite sides thereof, this being` effected by giving a suitableflongitudinal movement to the guide bar whenA the thread has been 1 brought on the `hookside of the needle by n angular swinging lmovement of the guide ar. engaged with the needle, but is moved by its guide bar alternately on opposite sides of the needle, so that loops from the thread I are alternately drawn down by the needles on opposite sides of the rubber thread III, each loo A thus drawn down being drawn throught 1e loop previously drawn down from the other side of .the'rubber thread III.
The transverse warp knitting kthread II is -moved, across the needle both before and after the guide bar swings angularly in relation past the needle,vso that the thread is caused to encircle the needle, whereafter.l the guide bar moves so that on thenext stitch the thread, 'encircles the adjacent needle.
After forming a loop about the last menthe first needle. The action in the case :of the transverse warp knitting thread IV is similar, with the exception thatthe thread moves in the opposite direction between suc`y cessive stitches so that the two 'knitting threads II and YIV cross each other between the longitudinal rowsof stitches.-
The weft thread 'i isdrawn along by-the weft'carrier e between the formation of successive stitches bythe needles, so as to'lie across the rubber'warp threads .immediately above the last vformed ',row of stitches.
lVhen the needles rise and draw down loo s of the warp knitting threads throught e the weft y thread 1I is bound,intolpositin-'against the rubber warp threads. 'The weft zthread z' runs continuously:from side to side of the fabric, as will be readily apprec1ated,.the'
carrier e reciprocating across the machine at intervals determined by the lpattern chain mechanism controlling v the operation of same. l s
The construction of the warp courses and covering of the rubber warps III, with the The rubber warp thread III is notr thread II again returns to' .binding of the weft threads in place by the warp knitting threads I and the way in which the transverse warp knitting threads II combine together and with the rubber Warp threads III and weft threads i, are apparent from the fabric illustrations in connection with the detail showings. It will be seen that the warp threads I are adapted to form rib-like windings on the rubber warps III, around which the diagonally transverse knitting threads II and IV pass in opposite directions. The transverse warp threads II and IV progress longitudinally with transverse movement and may be regarded partly as weftA threads, their principal function being to fasten the warp cour/ses together transversely of the fabric, loops of adjacent threads passing from opposite sides beneath a rubber thread III and one of said threads being drawn through the other so that in each course there is a chain of stitch loops embracing the rubber warps vFigure 1, illustrating the manner of manufacture of a somewhat simpler constructionk of fabric, including only 4rubber warp threads III, textile warp knitting threads I, and weft threads z'. The surface pattern of the fabric is,vtherefore, different, owing to the absencey of the threads II and IV crossing on the surface of the fabric. More over, the surface pattern is additionally altered and the porosity of the fabric increasedby omisslon of 'the weft thread z' at the stitch line B and the subsequent stitch l line.
Figure 5 is' a A diagram illustrating the manufacture of a modification of the fabric illustrated by Figure A,1, in which rubber threads III and warp knitting threads Ib are used corresponding to thethreads III and I of Figure 1, but in place of the threads II and IV, threads IIc'and IV are each` looped between three adjacent warp columns of-stitches, so as to form groups of transverse warp threads alternatelyl in adjacent columns. In this way open spaces C are .left inth"fabric alternating with closed spaces, between adjacent warp courses of stitches, thus producing a somewhat chequered surface pattern. In this fabric the plain weft threads i are omitted, but lcould be included desired.
The run of the threadsl in the fabric corresponding to Figure 5 is shown in Figure 6.
. also by time t Vof* the.- other thread .I'I lorIV drawn I be apparent-from the foregoing. description the pattern of the fabric 'and its threads e' at any selectedb-stitch'lines, and
reads transversely-of thefabrie from two to any desired number of`needles. Other pattern variations may be introduced by varying the stitch displacement longitudinally of the "fabric` offtlie weftllnitting threads IIand'IV. Y
It willfbe seen that) the action of the needles in'relation to the movements of the rubber threads III and textile warp threads I is to draw-down loops ofthe thread I alternately from opposite sides of the rubber A thread III, each new loop being drawn through-the old loop already on the needle, whereafter the old loop is cast off. Similarly," in regard-to thetransverse warp threads II'land IIL-they areformed into' loops which are drawny under the rubber threads III andV drawn through the old loop or loops on the needle, one 5 of which consists of i a similar under the thread I II'in the opposite direction. Thus' 'thelnio'ps of any'thre'ad II in ani lon-gitudinal'conrsefof stitche's'are' chaine to 1i porated fin the saine longitudinal course of ed withl loopsof athread IV 'also incor- I stitches. At the same'l'time theser loops are also incorporated as-loo 'sl'inrtheehains o f stitches vformed dsfI, Accord.- ingly, allfthe threads of the fabric are knitted together 'with the-:exception 'of the rubber threads and theweft threads l,'which are: held' in place' thestitehloops of theater-themes As airefiy described? i" surface pattern] of Vthe fahriecanfbeivaried 'by` omitting threads `norrespjondin'g to certain; of'the lengthni` the fabric; Again, the Lnttterncan needles, so that at interinilsf across the fabric no stitches arev formed-. y lSiriiilarly the pattern can also be varied bysocontrolling the movements 'ofthe .weft carrier, thatv weft threads tare omitted' 'et 'intervals z along Vthe be varied-' by 'varying the distance which the knitted weft .threads I-I or ltravel. In the case of Figures 1 and 2'they only.
travel from 'one needle. to the nextneedle.
and back again, but they may, if desired,
' cross intervening needles between consecutive stitches. Similarly, .the weft threads i may of the width of the. fabric. By providing a suitable pattern chain, the movements of varying the travel of the' warp knitthe transverse warp threads II and IV can be Varied along the length ofthe fabric. porosity maybe raised by omission-of rubber warp threads III, or by vomission Vof weft` Owing to the fact thattherubber strands extend in a longitudinal direction, the elast-ir fabric *may be made-of unlimited length and employed, in' contra-'distinction to such 'fab- .ricsin which lthe elastic strands run transversely'to the length of the fabric, furthermoreth'e rubber strands being covered with knitted coverings, closely knit thereon in a` manner to grlp said rubber strands, Vthe latter are securely xed in place in the fab-v v ric. and cannot be pulled out of place by an 'Ordinar'. force. Y v f `iVhat'I c aim is: l
" "1.' An elastic knit fabric comprising a plurality o frubber warp strands, and separate transverse'warp knitting threads looped.l
around-,said rubber warp strands from opposite directions at substantially the same point lengthwise of the fabric so asv to securely hold said warps against displacement.
2. An elastic 4knit fabric comprising,
plurality: of rubber warp strands, fabric warp threads encirclingsaid strands to form acoverm'g thereon, andseparate transverse warp knitting threads looped around said covered strands' from opposite directions at substantially the same point lengthwise of the 'fabric so as to securely hold'said warps against displacement;
3. A porous' lcng'tudmally' elastic -vfabric' comprisinga series' of rubber warps', aj'
corresponding series of abric warp threads knitte around said rubberjwarps-ito enclose 4and gripA sani@ and separate fabric' transverse warp-threads forming I eps'partlyfendirections Vs bstaglitiilly' :at -theTsar'n'e-'poilit 'lengthwise off the fabric' .to grip" vsaid rubber wapps.
4. A porous longit udinall y elastic fab'- ric comprising a series of rubber warps, a
corresponding series of lfabric warp threads A ing said rubber warps. traverse either the whole width or parts only In testimony whereof I have hereunto set