US 1717086 A
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June 11, 1929. H. D. BINKS 1,717,086
PAINT SPRAY NOZZLE Filed Oct. 9, 1924 Patented June 1l, 1929.
UNITED STATES HARRY D. BINKS, 0F OAX PARK, ILLINOIS, ASSIGNOB,
BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, T0
BINKS MANUFACTURING COMPANY, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE PAINT SPRAY` NozzLE.
Application led October 9, 1924. Serial No. 742,549.
My invention relates to appliances for distributing liquids in the form of a sheet of spray, and more`particularly to a head construction for vsuch an appliance.
In using spraying appliances of this class for distributing paints, varnishes or the like over the surfaces of objects which are to be coated with the initially liquid material, it is customary to employ socalled spra guns in which the liquid is projected in tie formof a relatively fiat sheet and in which the general plane of that sheet can readily be shifted. However, such appliances, as heretofore in use, have proven inade uate for spreading the sprayed material wit the desired uniformity over the surface which 1s to be coated. This is due partly to an insuiiiciently fine atomization of the liquid, which in itself would tend to produce a coating of irre ular density. It also appears to be due to t e projecting of certain portions of the resulting spray at a velocity greatly in excess of that at which other ortions are projected, thereby producing t e socalled pock marks which seriously mar the appearance of the resulting coatlng.
M present invention aims to overcome all of tie above named objections while providing a simple, easily manipulated and easily cleaned nozzle head construction whlch will be equally adapted for producing a substantially flat spray in either of two general planes or for producing a round spray. More particularly, my invention aims to provide a nozzle head construction which will afford an unusually fine atomization of the 1i uid, and one which will reduce the velocity o the spray-flattening and spray-atomiz'ing jets of air so as to avoid the formation of such undesirable pock marks. More particularly, my invention aims to provide a nozzle head construction in which a projected stream of liquid is initially housed by a tubular stream of compressed air, and in which this liquid stream is atomized and deformed into a substantially Hat spray by a plurality of streams of air directed in forwardly converging relation to the stream of liquid from opposite sides of the general plane along which the spray is to be flattened. Furthermore, my invention provides an exceedingly simple and easily cleaned head construction for this purpose, which will readily permit the plane of the flattened spray to be shifted from one to justed plane.
`with respect to the another of two planes at right angles to each other, and which will afford an uniiattened or conically diverging solid spray when a rotatable portion of the nozzle head is dis--y posed in an intermediate position. It also provides a spray or head construction for this purpose in which the spray-varying member is continuously spring-pressed into properly fitting relation to the collar which holds this member in position, and in which the said member can readily be removed without the use of tools to permit any needed cleaning' of its parts. Still further and also more detailed objects will appear from the following specification and from the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a s raygun embodylng my lnvent-ion, showmg t is as adfor projecting a spray flattened in the same medial plane with tened handle.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary and enlarged central and longitudinal section through the same spray gun.
Fig. 3 is a front elevation of the head of the spray gun, taken from the left hand end o f ig. 2, with dotted lines showing the positlon ofthe spray-flattened member when disposed for flattening the spray in a horizontal Fig. 4 is a. front elevation of the head with the holding collar removed.
Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the head with both the spray-flattening member and the holding collar removed.
ig. 6 is a perspective view of the sprayflattening member with dotted lines showing the directions of the converging streams of compressed air.
Fig. 7 is an elevation of the spray-flattening member, taken from the bottom of Fig. 4.
Fig. 8 is an enlarged longitudinal section of a portion of the head, showing the springpressed plunger construction em loyed for latching the spray-flattening mem er in any adjusted position, taken along the line 8 8 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 9 isa rearclevation of the collar of the head, showing the recesses which form air ports. A
Fig. l0 is a diagram showing the relative dlrections of the spray-attening air jets plane along which the spray is to be iattened.
the laterally flat- In the embodiment of the drawings, the spray gun of my invention comprises a body member 1 having a horizontal portion provided with a longitudinal bore 2 to which the paint or other liquid is admitted through a vertical bore 3 from any supply of liquid connected by a hose 4 to the lower end of this inlet bore 3. Threaded into the forward end of the bore 2 is a nozzle core 5 which has a longitudinal bore 6 controlled by a needle valve 7. The stem of the needle valve is continuously urged forward by a compression spring 8 but can be drawn rearwardly by rearward pressure on a trigger lever 9 which is connected to the said stem by a link 10, for which purpose the connection between the link 10 and the stem of the needle valve desirably includes a pairof portions 11 and 12 threaded upon each other so as to be adjustable to vary the relative position of the valve stem with respect to the lever 9. Y
The body member 1 also includes a hollow handle member 13 which has an air inlet tube 14 extending upwardly into it and leading to a transverse bore 15 which bore connects the said air inlet tube 14 to an air duct 1G having a pair of outlets 17 at the forward end of the body member.. The connection between the air inlet pipe 14 and the air duct 16 is controlled by a valve 18 which is continuously urged forward by a spring 19 and which has a forwardly projecting stem 20 engaging the rear face of the trigger lever 9.
The nozzle core 5 desirably tapers forwardly as shown in Fig. 2 and terminates in a cylindrical portion which extends into the central aperture 21 of a sjnay-ilattening member 22, the aperture 21 being sufficiently larger in diameter than the forward end portion of the nozzle core to permit a hollow stream of compressed air to issue through the said space. lWhen thus issuing, this hollow stream of compressed air laterally houses the stream of liquid issuing through the axial bore 23 of the nozzle core (or the bore controlled by the needle valve 7) s0 as to prevent a material spreading of this liquid stream until the latter is engaged by the converging air jets hereafter described.
In addition to the axial aperture or liquid outlet 23 of the nozzle core, the spray-flattening member 22 has a plurality of air ports arranged so that their axes converge after the manner of the edges of a flattened pyramid toward the axis 24 of the aperture 21, whereby air ets issuing from these ports will intersect at a common point on the stream of liquid issuing from the said liquid outlet 23. To insure an accurate directing of the converging air jets for this purpose, I preferably make the corresponding ports (25, 26, considerable length and preferably dispose their outlet ends forwardly of the outlet ends of the liquid outlet 23 and of the annular air outlet 21. For this purpose, I provide the 27, 28) of a member 22 with a pair of fowardly projecting lugs 29 and 3() through which the said four ports extend, and preferably provide these lugs with forward -face portions approximately at right angles to the said ports. `hen I provide the member 22 with a pair of lateral recesses affording inlets respectively to the two pairs of angular ports after the manner shown in Fig. 7.
To supply the needed compressed air to these ports, I support the member 22 so that its rear end is freely spaced from the forward end of the body member, thereby providing an air chamber into which the air outlets `17 open. This chamber is laterally bounded by a holding collar 33 which is threaded on the forward end of the body member and which preferably has a bore corresponding in forward taper to the exterior of the member 22, so as to house the latter snugly. Then I provide the bore of the collar with longitudinal recesses through which air can pass alongside the member 22 to the lateral recesses 31 and 32 respectively. The said longitudinal recesses are preferably arranged in two pairs with the recesses of each pair diametrically opposite each other and with the corresponding diameters at right angles to each other. Thus arranged, it willI be evident that when the member 22 is in the position of Figs. 1, 2 and 3, air will reach the converging ports in this member through the passages or recesses 34; and that with the member 22 in the position indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 3, air will reach these ports through the recesses 35. To hold the member 22 in either position while still permitting it to be rotated instantly from one position to the other, I provide spring means continuously pressing the member 22 against the holding collar 33, such as plungers 3G extending slidably through tubular guides 37 threaded into the forward end of the body member, each plunger being pressed forwardly by a spring 38.
While the directions of the converging air jetsmay be varied somewhat, those issuing from each of the two lugs on the member 22 preferably are disposed at sharply acute angles towards each other, as shown in Fig. 10 by the angles 39 and 40 respectively. Thus arranged, each such pair of jets tends to flatten the liquid stream 41 (Fig. 10) along the planes 43 which intersects the axis of the jets, and the two pairs of converging jets respectively spread the resulting flattened spray along this same plane but at opposite sides of the axis of the initialliquid stream. By projecting a tubular stream of air 42 around this liquid stream, I sheath the latter so as to prevent it from spreading before the converging air jets impact lagainst it. Then, when the air-sheathed liquid stream is reached simultaneously by the four converging air jets, the engagement of the tubular air stream by the converging air jets causes air movements which assist in breaking the liquid stream into line particles. Consequently, I can secure'an exceedingly tine atomization and one in which the liquid is distributed with a high degree of uniformity.
By partially rotating the member 22, which is easily turned by grasping the lugs 29 and 30 with the fingers, I can instantly change the plane of the spray-flattening from the medial plane of the handle to one at right angles to that plane. Or, by halting the member 22 at any intermediate point in which the recesses 31 and 32 do not aline with the grooves 34 and 35, I can instantly render the converging ports inoperative, thereby securing merely the conical spray resulting from the uninterrupted action of the tubular air jet on'the liquid stream.
By subdividing the air jets into pairs, I correspondingly reduce the velocity of each of these jets, being able to do this since the angular converging of each pair permits me to employ ports of comparatively large bores. This reduction in air velocity cooperates with the above described atomizing action in increasing the effective uniformity of the spray, thereby entirely avoiding the formation of the above mentioned peck marks. Moreover, I attain these long desired results without employing complicated mechanisms. By
v lnstantly be withdrawn to unscrewing the collar 33, the member 22 can of its ports and to afford access to the front of the body member as shown in Fig. 5, and, if desired, members 22 with different sizes of ports or different angularities between the ports could readily'be substituted for each her so as to secure corresponding variations in the contour and size of the resulting and substantially fan-shaped spray.
owever, while I have illustrated and described my invention in an embodimenthaving numerous highly not wishto be limited to -the details of the construction and arrangement thus disclosed. Obviously, many modifications might be made Without departing either from the spirit of my invention or from the appended claims. lNeither do I wish to be limited to the employment of my invention in a portable appliance of the socalled spray gun type, though it is highly suitable for such embodiments.
I claim as my invention 1. In a liquid spraying appliance, a nozzle for discharging liquid in a solid member having two pairs of air ports, the ports of each to each other than to the ports`of. the other pair and all of the said ports being disposed for directing air substantially point on the axis of the discharge stream 'of liquid, the air ports of both pairs being relatively close to a plane axial of -the liquid said projections having permit a cleaning desirable features, I do stream, and l pair being nearer against a single stream and the ports of each pair being symmetrieally disposed with respect to the said plane. A
2. Ina spraying appliance, a bod ymember, a col] ar carried thereby, a rotatable member mounted between the collar and the body member, and means for projecting a stream of liquid through the rotatable member axial ly of the latter, and means for supplying compressed air behind the rotatable member, the rotatable member having two pairs of ports extending from its side all directed towards a common point ahead of the rotatable member and'on the axis thcreof, the collar having va. pair of channels alining respectively with the rear ends of the said pairs of ports when the rotatable member is in a certain position so as to admit air from behind the said member to the said ports.
3. A spraying appliance as per claim 2, in
which the rotatable member has a pair of forwardly directed projections through which the pairs of ports respectively extend, the said projections lserving also as means whereby the said member may be manually rotated.
4. A spraying appliance as per claim 2, in wlneh the rotatable member has a pair of forwardlyvdirected projections through which the pairs of ports respectively extend, the forward faces approximately at right angles to the ports extending through these projections.
5. In a spraying appliance, a body member, a collar carried thereby, a rotatable member mounted between the collar and the body member, and means for projecting a stream of liquid through the rotatable member axially of the latter, and means for supplying compressed air behind the rotatable member, the rotatable member having two pairs of ports extending from its side through its front and all directed towards a common point ahead of the rotatable member and on the axis thereof, each pair of ports being relatively near each other and diametrically opposite the other pair, the collar having two pairs of diametrically opposite channels eX- tending longitudinally thereof, the channels of either pair being adapted to supply air from behind the rotatable member respectively to the two pairs of ports according as the rotatable member is in one 0r the other of two positions..
6 spraying appliance as per claim 2in which -the rotatable member and the collar axis in the said plane, means `for projecting the rotatable member to effect a closure between the said through its front and a hollow stream of air coaxial with the liquid stream for preventing a spreading of the latter, and means for projecting against the aforesaid coaxi l streams upon opposite sides thereof two forwardly directed pairs of jets alldirected toward a single point on the said axis, the jets of each pair being at acute angles to each other.
8. A device for producing a spray Hattened along a given plane, including lneans for projecting a stream of liquid with its axis in the said plane, means for projecting a hollow stream of air coaxial with the liquid stream and of greater velocity than the liquid stream so as to produce an air-sheathed stream of liquid, and means for projecting a plurality of jets of air upon opposite sides of and toward a single point on the said axis along axes symmetrically disposed with respect to the said plane and all forwardly inclined to the aforesaid axis.
9. A device for producing a spray attened along a given plane, including means forprojecting a stream of liquid With its axis inthe said plane, means for projecting a hollow stream of air coaxial with the liquid stream so as to produce an air-sheathed liquid stream, and means for projecting against a single point along the said axis a plurality of oppositely disposed air jets having their axes converging after the mannerA of lthe edges of a laterally flattened pyramid which pyramid has its own axis disposed in the said plane and its greatest base length parallel to the said plane. v
l0. A liquid spraying appliance, comprising a body, a nozzle for discharging liquid in a solid stream, a rotatable air discharge lmember having two pairs of member having two pairs of air ports, the ports of each pair being nearer to each other than to the ports of the other pair and all of the said ports being disposed for directfing air substantially against a single point on the axis of the discharged stream of liquid, and a supporting member carried by said body to rotatably support the air discharge member, said supporting member having a pair of channels a ining respectively with the rear ends of the said pairs the air discharge member is in a certain position so as to admit air from behind the said member to the said ports.
11. A liquid spraying appliance, comprising a body, a nozzle for discharging liquid in a solid stream, a rotatable air discharge air ports, the being nearer to each other the other pair and all of disposed for directing air substantially against a single point on the axis of the discharged stream of liquid, the air ports being so disposed that the jet of air discharged through each thereo is in a common plane with the jet of air discharged through an air port of the other pair, and a supporting member carried by said body to rotatably support the air discharge member, said supporting member having a pair of channels alining respectively with the rear ends of .the said pairs of ports when the air discharge member is in a certain position so as to admit air from behind the said member to the said ports.
Signed at Chicago, Illinois, y
HARRY D. BINKS.
ports of each pair vthan to the ports of the said ports being October 6,
of ports when