US 1717597 A
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June 18, 1929. o. o. APP 1,717,597
EXCAVATING METHOD AND APPARATUS Original Filed Jan. 8, 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 [NVENTOR l ATTORNEYS.
June 18, 1929. o. o. APP 1,717,597
EXCAVATING METHOD AND APPARATUS Original Filed Jan. 8, 1921 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented June 18, 1929.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
OLIVER O. APP, Ol' NEW YORK, N. Y., ASSIGNOR T0 APP TUNNELING MACHINE C0.. INC., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
EXCAVATING METHOD AND APPARATUS.
Application tiled January 8, 1921, Serial No. 435,856. Renewed September 14, 1928.
In excavating b v machinery, especially when excavating or tunneling in very hard substances such as rocks, the continued rubbing of the sides of the tools against the 'I Walls of the grooves which they cut in the substances very quickly grinds oil' the sides of the tools, thereby destroying their clearance, with the result that the tools bind against the walls and have to be repeatedly and frequently reshaped. The time and delay caused by the reshaping becomes an important item when the progress, because of the" hard substances excavated is necessarily slow. Where the tool cuts a groove in hard il substance the action is a, tearing one and in many cases soon destroys the tool since the substance being excavated is harder than the tool. The harder substance can be broken up` by a series of small shocks and it is desirable to excavate by this means.
An object of my invention is to provide an improved method of excavating by the practice of which the' destruction of the clearance and the binding of the tools is prevented and by which the material is removed by a series of small shocks or chips. A further object is to provide an improved apparatus for carrying out this method, which is simple and inexpensive in construc- 0 tion, and durable and eilicient in use, and
which can be applied to present excavating machines without extensive changes in their design. A further object is to provide an improved mounting of the tools upon the head, for facilitating the adjustment of the tools thereof. Other objects and advantages will be apparent from the following description and the novel features of my invention will be particularly pointed out in claims.
In practicing my invention, I excavate in steps with the tools chipping under the corners so as to provide their own clearance regardless of the amount of wearing at their corners. In my preferred embodiment of an apparatus for this purpose I mount the excavating tools with their cutting edges in stepped relation to one another and at different distances in the direction of excavation. Each of the tools is also spaced from those which cut the adjoining grooves. The head and tools are given a movement laterally of the direction of excavation in addition to slow forward movement of the device, so that a stepped surface will be continuously formed in the surface of the substances being excavated. This enables the tools to be dis osed in positions on the head wherein each 1s oblique to both Walls of the step cut by it. The result is that each tool engages with the solid substance being excavated solely along its cutting edge and there is no abrasive action on it which would destroy its clearance. When cutting a circular tunnel I place the furthest advanced tool nearest the axis of rotation as there is less material 'to be removed in a rotation at that radius and the tool can cut its own clearance. The invention also comprises various details of construction and arrangement of parts which will be hereinafter explained.
In the accompanying drawing:
Fig. 1 is a diagram illustrating the arrangement of the tools when excavating a circular tunnel;
Fig. 2 is a `radial section of the tunnel i1- lustrating the position of the tools with respect to the walls of the steps cut thereby;
F 1g. 3 1s a vertical section through the axls of the excavation for illustrating the position of the tools on the head.
Fig. 4 is a section` through an arm of the headfor illustrating the mounting of a toor thereon, and i Fig. 5 is an end elevation of the tool and holder. l
In the illustrated embodiment of a device for practising my invention the frame l is provided with a rotating head 2 having a plurality of arms 3 upon which the cutting tools 4 are adjustably supported. The arms are arranged on the head so as to extend rearwardly and outwardly from the axis of rotation and the tools are arrangedalong the arms in spaced relation to one another so that as the head revolves the tools will cut astepped conical surface in the solid material bemg excavated. The tools are carried by the arms so as to each extend slightly oblique to both of the walls of the steps cut by 1t. In these positions the cutting edge 5 of each tool Will be oblique to the direction of its rotary movement with the head, which is a tangent to the curve being cut, and also oblique to a perpendicular to this direction of movement which is a radius to the curve being cut. The tools on each arm are arranged in a staggered relation with respect to those of the other arms so that each will cut intermediate of the cutsof the tools of the other arms. It will be seen that in these positions of the tools they will be in engagement with the solid substance to be excavated solely along their cutting edges and therefore there will be no abrasive action on a tool at the endsof the cutting edge, and if any occurred on the surface of a tool between the ends of its cutting edge it would sharpen the tool and be beneficial instead of detrimental. The tool nearest the axis of rotation cuts a small cone which forms the apex of the larger stepped cone.
The tools may be rigid cutting tools where relatively soft materials are excavated but for very hard substances the tools are fluid actuated in any suitable manner such as disclosed for example in my Patent Number 1.283,618 granted Nov. 5, 1918, in which case the actuating means for each tool is carried by the casing 6 which supports the tool upon the arms. As the head rotates the material is progressively removed in steps, and rotary shovels 7 carried by the head immediately behind the outermost or rearmost tool collect the loosened material and deposit it upon an endless carrier 8 by means of which it is conveyed to the rear of the machine.
The tool casin s may be secured to the arms in any suita le manner, but in Figs. 4 and 5 I have illustrated a very satisfactory adjustable mounting. With this type of mounting the arms are provided with parallel longitudinally extending undercut slots 9 in which slide the heads of bolts 10 with the stems of the bolts passing through the narrow portion of the slots and through elongated slots 11 in the base of a casing standard 12, the latter being held upon the bolts by nuts 13 which clamp the standard to the arm when tightened. The slots 11 extend in a direction lengthwise of the standard and thus crosswise of the slots 9 so that the standard has a limited forward and rearward movementI and can be disposed and clamped in various positions diagonally of the arm to which it is attached. The standard is provided with a concavity in its upper face for receiving and rotatably supporting the cylindrical casing 6, being clamped in any position therein by arms 14 which are adjustably connected above the casing by bolts and which have hooks 15 engaging undercut edges of the standard. This form of clamping not only enables the casing and tool to be adjusted lengthwise of the standard and clamped thereto but enables the easing to be rotated about its axis. The arms may also have depressions 16 iu their face's in which are received depending guide blocks 17 on the under face of the standard, but they can be omitted if desired.
In use` the tool easings are adjusted on the standards and the latteralong the arms into their proper positions, with the tools oblique to the direction of movement of the excavating machine and also making the desired angle with the surface to be operated upon so as to chip or cut the latter in a' manner well known. The head rotates and moves forwardly so that a stepped conical surface with the apex ahead is progressively formed in the solid material, and as fast as material is removed and falls to the bottom it is picked up by the shovels and deposited upon the endless carrier.
It will be obvious that various changes in the details and arrangement of parts may be made within the principle and scope of the invention.
1. The method of excavating which comprises chipping away the solid material along conically disposed steps with the apex of the conical surface the furthest advanced and with the cutting tool in contact with the steps solely along its cutting edge and giving the cutting tool a chipping movement in a direction oblique to both the direction of feeding travel of the cutting edge and the surface cut. i
2. The method of excavating which comprises chipping away the solid material along conically disposed steps with the apex of the conical surface the furthest advanced and with the cutting tool in contact with the steps solely along its cutting edge giving the cutting tool a free hammer blow, thereby giving the cutting tool a chipping movement in a direction oblique to both the direction of feeding travel of the cutting edge and the surface cut.
3. An excavatin device comprising a rotary head, a plura 1ty of fluid pressure actuated cutting tools arranged on said head with their cutting edges in stepped relation to one another for cutting progressively steps disposed to form a cone, the cutting edge of each of said tools forming an acute angle with both the rotary line of movement of the tool wit-h the head and with a plane perpendicular to said line. y
4. An excavating device comprising a moving head, a plurality of excavating tools arranged on said head with their cutting edges in stepped relation to one another, for cutting progressively steps disposed approximately along the surface of a cone, said tools each having an independent movement in a direction oblique to both walls of the steps formed in the surface being cut by the movement of the head.
5. An excavating device comprising a movable and rotatable head, a plurality ofbars onaid head lying in the surface of a cone, excavating tools arranged on said head and bars with their cutting edges at different distances along the direction of excavation and in different lateral positions, the inner tools being the furthest advanced, the tools being oblique to both walls of the' steps formed thereby in their movement with and relative to the head.
6. An excavating device comprising a mpving head, a plurality of arms carried thereby, said arms having longitudinall extending under cut slots, a standard slldable on each of said arms, bolts with their heads in the undercut portion of the slots and stems passing through the narrow portions of the slots and said standard, nuts on the bolts for clamping the standard to the arms, and melans for supporting a tool on said standar 7 .,An excavatin device comprising a moving head, a plura ity of arms carried thereby, said arms having longitudinally extending under cut slots, a standard slidable on each of said arms and having elongated slots therein, bolts with their heads in the undercut portion of the slots and stems passing through the narrow portions of the slots and the elongated slots of the standard nuts on the bolts for clam ing the standard to the arms, and means or supporting a tool on' said standard.
8. The method of excavating which comprises chipping away the solid material along angularly disposed steps with the apex the furthest advanced and with the cutting tool in contact with the steps solely along its cutting edge and giving the cuttin tool a chipping movement in a direction o lique to both the direction of feeding travel of the cutting edge and the surfacelcut.
In witness whereof, I hereunto subscribe my signature.
OLIVER O. APP.