US 1718507 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 25, 1929. E. H. WENZEL El AL 1,718,507
HEAT INSULATION OF WALLS Filed Dc. 17, 1923 A TTORNEXS,
Patented June 25, 1929. l
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
EDWIN H. WENZEL AND MAXIKILLIAN P. JANISCH, OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSII T;
.. SAID JANISCH ASSIGNOB TO SAID WENZEL.
HEAT INSULATION F WALLS.
Application filed December 17, 1923. Serial 1T0. 681,308.
This invention relates to improvements in the art of heat insulation of walls and the like. The invention includes an improved insulating structure, an improved method for applying insulating material to a wall, and an improved apparatus for facilitating the application, of insulating material in the practice of the method aforesaid.
It is the object of this invention to rovide for insulation of walls at lower cost t an has heretofore been possible. More particularly stated, it is the object of this invention to provide for building up a sheet ofsinsulating material directly upon the wall which such material is to insulate.
Walls have heretofore been insulated by the use of prepared sheets of material constructed from comparatively expensive sub stances, shipped to the point at which they are to be used, cut to size, and nailed in position on the walls which it is desired to insulate. The present invention contemplates the use of macerated material and an adhesive or binding substance by means of which the particles of such material may be caused. to adhere to each other and to any surface against which they are directed. It is further contemplated that the adhesion of the binding substances above referred to shall be ensured by projecting such substance through the air in minute quantities, whereby surplus moisture will be removed therefrom by evaporation in the course of the application of such substance.
Further objects of this invention are to provide a heat insulating composition which can readily be applied to any structure with out cutting or trimming and without the use of nails, and which will nevertheless have highly effective heat insulating characteristics; to provide a method of heat insulating walls which includes the building up of aheat insulating layer directly upon the wall to be insulated, with a minimum of effort and a maximum of eflect-iveness; and to provide an apparatus, preferably of a portable character, and adapted to facilitate and simplify the practice of the method and the use of-the substance hereinafter to be disclosed.
Inthe drawings: 4 Figure 1 is 'a developed ,or diagrammatic. view of an apparatus suitable for the practice of the method hereinafter to be disclosed and for the building up of the insulating layer above referred to, a device for the handling of maceratedmaterial being shown 1n vertical section, and the fragment of a Wall to which the insulating material is in pourse of application being'shown in eleva- Figure 2 is a detail view in axial section of a nozzle shown in Figure 1. I 1
F gure 3 is a, detail view of a fragmental port on of amodified nozzle construction.-
Figure 4 is a section taken on.line H of the wall shown in Figure 1.
Figure 5 is' a greatly enlarged detail view of the insulating layer built up in the practice of this invention.
Like parts are identified by the same reference characters throughout the several views.
The apparatus herein disclosed will be first described. It will be understood that this apparatus is intended to be merely representative of various devices which might be employed in the practice of the method to which reference will be made more particularly hereinafter.
The receptacle is provided with an inlet port 11 into which a hopper 12 facilitates the introduction of material. A valve 13 is arranged to control port 11 and may be held in its closed position, as illustrated, through the medium of pressure within the container 10. r
The walls of receptacle 10 preferably converge at 14 toward the outlet port 15. This out et port may conveniently be disposed within a box 16 which contains aspirating mechanism including a jet 17 for fluid under pressure, and an outlet pipe 18 having a flaring end portion 19. The arran ement is such that nozzle 17 is spaced slig tly from the flaring portion 19'of the pipe 18, such space being immediately beneath the outlet port of receptacle 10. Thus, fluid under pressure expelled through jet 17 will induct into pipe 18 material supplied through outlet port 15. All well known aspirating device may be substltuted for that disclosed.
A second receptacle is illustrated at 20 and is provided with an inlet port 21 controlled by a valve 22. It is contemplated that the receptacle 10 be adapted to contain a dry substance. such for example as amacerated fibrous solid, whereas receptacle 20 is adapted to receive and retain an adhesive or glutinous Any fluid, preferably a gaseous fluid, such as air or the like, may be supplied under pressure through pipe 25. The union 26 serves to connect with pipe a valve controlled pipe 27 leading to the nozzle 17, a valve controlled pipe 28 leading to the upper portion of receptacle 10, and a valve controlled pipe 29' leading to the upper portion of receptacle 20, the arrangement being such that air supplied under pressure through pipe 25 may be led through the several pipes 27, 28, and 29., to ]ct 17 and to the receptacles 10 and 20. It is contemplated that the air-or other fluid supplied through pipe 25 will escape only through nozzle 17. The pipes leading such fluid to receptacles 10 and 20 are primarily to place the contents of those receptacles under pressure such as to tend to bring about the expulsion of their contents through their respective outlets. Of course, if the particles of matter in the receptacle 10 are hi hly irregular in their form there will probably be a comparatively large amount of air which will pass through the interstices between such particles and will escape through the outlet port 15 of the receptacle. Such air, however, as escapes in this manner will not interfere with the operation of the mechanism.
A hose 30 connected with pipe 18 leads to an operating nozzle designated in its entirety by the reference character and thus illustrated in Figure 2. This nozzle may include a short length of pipe 36 through which particles of matter entrained in the air delivered into said pipe 18 from jet 17 may be expelled at high velocity. Such particles are indicated at 37. In threaded engagement with the pipe section 36 is a hollow annulus 38 which may be provided at intervals about its forward face with openings 39 communicating with its interior. Such openings may extend axially, as illustrated in Figure 2, or may be inclined to converge forwardly as shown at 39' in Figure 3. A relatively small pipe 40 leads to the interior of annulus 38 and is connected by means of hose 41 with an outlet pipe 42 opening from receptacle 20, the arrangement being such that glutinous material under pressure in receptacle 20 will be supplied through hose 41 and pipe 40 to annulus 38 from which it will escape in a plurality of spray jets l3, disposed concentrically about the opening of the nozzle 35 through which the macerated material 37 is being supplied. Valves at 44 and 45, respectively, provide means within the convenient control of the operator for shutting off delivery through pipes 36 and 40, respectively.
As a result of the delivery of the glutinous material from orifices 39 in the form of spray, it will be obvious that very little of such matter will be brought into contact with each piece or particle of finely eomminuted solid n1atter 37. At the same time, each such piece of solid matter expelled from nozzle 35 will necessarily traverse the jet of spray or series of jets 43 and will thereby acquire a thin coating of adhesive substance. Such coating may have a fairly high aqueous content at the time of its delivery so that it will flow readily through hose 41 and orifices 39. It will, how ever, rapidly lose its aqueous content upon exposure to the air in the form of fine spray, and consequently, it will notmoisten the particles 37 even though such articles are preferably highly porous in order to aiford the highest possible value for heat insulation. By the time the particles 37 are delivered by the air stream to the surface which it is desired to render heat insulating, the adhesive substance will be in the best possible condition for active adhesion to such surface. Therefore, the great majority of the coated particles 37 will adhere to each other and to the surface to be coated and will build up a sheet of insulating material composed of such particles, joined to eachother and to the supporting surface in all conceivable positions and relative angles, whereby a myriad of interstitial dead air spaces will be formed between such particles.
Broadly speaking, it is unimportant what material is eomminuted or macerated to produce the particles 37. It is, however, greatly preferred to use for this purpose a material which is, in itself, fibrous or porous, whereby the heat insulating qualities of the mat formed from such material may be enhanced. A satisfactory mat may be made from the eomminuted stems of grains such as corn, wheat, flax, or the like. A satisfactory mat may also be made by using shreds of wood fiber. It is preferred, however, to use macerated paper, and particles obtained from all of these materials may be generally characterized as being high-bulking for the reason that the size of the particles is large in proportion to the weight. For the purpose of this description the receptacle 1() may be assumed to be filled with small pieces of paper, and the particles 37 ejected from nozzle 35 under the pressure of air supplied through pipe 25 may consequently be assumed also to be paper.
Any desired glutinous material may be used in receptacle 20. Such material may comprise a commercially prepared glue or may consist merely in so-called water glass or sodium silicate. The glutinous material may, if desired, include a fire-proofing substance such as arsenic, whereby the paper particles 37 may be rendered incombustible as well as vermin proof.
In practice, the receptacle 10 is filled with eomminuted or macerated paper or the like by shutting oif the air supply through pipes 27 and 28 and allowing valve 13 to open. When a suitable supply of finely divided paper is in the receptacle 10 the valve 13 is closed and air is admitted to said receptacle through pipe 28. Receptacle will be filled -with mucilaginous material by shutting off the air supply through pipe 29 and opening the valve 22. W'heureceptaclc 20 is filled to a sufiicient depth, valve-22 is closed and air is admitted through pipe 29 to place the glue in receptacle 20 under pressure. The valve in pipe 27 is now open and the operator assumes control of nozzle 35. The hoses 30 and 41 will be of suflicient length to enable the operator to movenozzle about the wall area to be covered.
A fragment of wall, including studding members, is shown at 46. W'hen all is in readiness as aforesaid, the operator actuates valves 44 and 45. A jet of air rushes from nozzle carrying with it particles of paper picked up in the aspirat-ing device which is associated with receptacle 10. When reaching the nozzle, each piece of paper or other material from receptacle 10 will be projected through a fine spray of glue issuing from orifices 39, which are concentric to nozzle 35. As a result, each particle 37 will be coated with sufficient glue to be rendered adhesive, and the initial particles so ejected will adhere to wall 46. Particles subsequently carried by the air stream toward said wall will adhere to the first mentioned particles until a mat 47 is built up upon said wall to any desired depth, the lateral edges of the mats being bonded in, air-tight relation to the bounding margins of the studding members.
Inasmuch as the material used is preferably fibrous or porous in its nature, it is not desired to impregnate such material with glue to such an extentas to render the material heat conducting. It isrecognized that waterwould evaporate from fibrous or porous material even after such material was in place upon the wall. Glue, however,would,inlarge part. remain and would tend to weaken greatly the heatinsulating qualities of mat 47. Consequently, the supply of glue is preferably so regulated that the quantity reaching the paper is merely suflicient to render the paper adhesive without impregnating the paper to any considerable extent. The fact that the glue is supplied in the form of a fine spray also tends to prevent impregnation of the paper.
'hile it is preferred to apply the paper and gluesimultaneouslythrough the means aforesaid, the mechanism herein disclosed is such that the glue and paper can be applied successively in alternate coatings, to build up a mat 47 It will be noted that the valves diagrammatically illustrated at 44 and 45 in Figure 1 may be arranged for the independent control of pipes 36 and 40. Thus, valve 45 may first be opened'to spray a coating of glue upon. the siding or wall'46. Thereafter, valve 45 may be closed and valve 44 opened to direct a stream of air carrying fibrous or porous particles to the previously prepared siding. Such articles upon reaching the adhesively sur aced siding will aflix themselves thereto in large numbers. \Vhcn all the paper capable of adhering to the surfaced siding is in place thereon, valve 44 may be closed and valve 45 re-opened to subject the first layer of paper to an exterior coating of glue. A renewed application of paper ma then be made, the newly supplied particles eing caused to adhere to those previously aflixed to the wall. Thus, through the application of successive layers of paper,
a mat 47 may be built up correspondmg in general to the mat which is constructed by simultaneously directing the spray of glue and the air stream bearing particles of paper at the wall. In either event, the glue is directed through an air gap and reaches its maximum adhesiveness before it is called upon to sustain weight. Furthermore, whichever of the specified means of applying the paper is followed, it will be obviously possible to avoid impregnating the paper with the glue.
The complete mat 47 may have any desired "thickness and any desired integral extent, due to the fact that it is constructed directly on the face of the wall which it is to insulate. As has already been indicated, the mat 47 is made up of innumenable pieces of fibrous or porous material, such as paper, such material being coated exteriorly with a fine spray of glue and being thereby provided with surfaces to which other like pieces of material can adhere. The paper carried by the air stream is composed of minute fragments of innumerable shapes, which are disposed in innumerable positions. The majority of such fragments will lodge substantially in the position in which they strike the surface of such material as has preceded them. Thus, the completed mat 47 will include layer upon layer of irregular fargments of paper, each of which will ordinarily have very slight contact with those adjacent. Thus, innumerable air spaces will be formed between the individual paper particles 37 of the mat, and the result will be an insulating .medium of high efiiciency.
- When it is remembered that paper andthe other materials mentioned herein are among the best insulating substances known, and
when it is remembered that most of,such
substances are available in any locality so that extensive transportation is unnecessary in the practice of this invention, and when it is further remembered that no factory is required to prepare the insulating medium herein disclosed for use, but that on the contrary, the mat 47 may be built up in approximately the same time that it would take to cut and nail in place such insulating mats as have heretofore been known, the value of t-his'invention can to some extent be appreciated.
is treated with arsenic it may be made fireresisting or fire-proof, depending upon the v proportion of arsenic employed. Other fireproofing substances may be used with like effect. Thus, the mat 47 may comprise a safe-guard to the structure in which it is used, and may protect it' not only from fire but also from vermin, such as rats or mice, who, in attempting to gnaw through a wall fire-- proofed as aforesaid will encounter the arsenic and'will be poisoned thereby.
\Ve claim 1. The method of heat insulating walls which includes the forcible projection of substantially dry fragments of fibrous material directly upon a wall to be insulated, the projection of a spray of adhesive substance in the path of said material, whereby to coat the individual fragments of such material with adhesive in mid air, and the continued projection of said material upon material previously rendered adhesive and adhering to said wall and other material.
2. The method of heat insulating walls which includes the forcible projection of fragments of paper sheets through space di rectly upon the wall to be insulated, the treatment of such fragments with a mist of adhesive material whereby to render them adherent, and the continued application of similar material upon the surface of the ma terial previously treated, such-fragments of paper sheets being adapted to assume a variety of angular positions with respect to said wal upon being delivered thereto through space, whereby to form innumerable partially enclosed air spaces.
3. The method of heat insulating walls, which method includes the delivery of finely divided irregularly formed particles of paper to an air stream, directing said air stream toward a supporting surface, and rendering the portions of said particles adhesive in the course of their travel toward such surface.
4. The method of heat insulating walls which method includes the delivery of irregular fragments of paper to an air stream, the projection of a'spray of glutinous material along the path of said air stream and fragments carried thereby, and the direction of said air stream against a supporting surface, whereby to deliver adherent fragments thereto in a variety of positions.
5. The method of heat insulating a wall, which consists in directing a spray of adhesive material toward the wall, and projecting initially non-adherent irregularly-shaped particles of paper toward the wall, said particles through contact with said adhesive material being rendered adherent to themselves in mutually slightly contacting relation and building up, by continued application of the particles and the adhesive material, a mat of substantial thickness directly upon the wall, the mat having a multiplicity of air spaces therein and being of substantially homogeneous character throughout its thickness.
EDWIN H. WENZEL. MAXIMILLIAN P. JANISCH.