US 1720374 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 9, 1929. J. w. MowBRAY OIL BURNER Filed Feb. 9, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet JNVENTOR. I .l/nes M Nan/b@ M famr ATTORNEY.
July 9, 1929. '.J. w. MQWBRAY OIL BURNER Filed Feb. 9, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 l INVENTOR. f/nes h/. /Vwmd ATTORNE.
Patented `luly 9, 1929.
unirse sir-Aras PAIE-Nr yerr-rca;
JAMES W. MoWBn-AY, or DETROIT, MICHIGAN, Assronon'ro oIrA'nns E. WIsN-En, o1` DETROIT; IvIICn'rotan.`A
Application filed February 9, 1925. Serial No. 7,746.-
This invent-ion relates to oil burners, and the object is to provide an improved burner `for the burning oi a liquid hydro-carbon fuel for heatingl purposes either in stoves or ranges or more particularly in heating furnaces` of any typev such as steam, hot water andv hot air heating` furnaces.
The burner is of that type in which oil is sprayed or discharged from a. nozzle in line streams and air by means of a.' rotating fan discharged through the streams tobre-ak and distribute the saine and provide oxygen for combustion.l
vOne of'the principal features of this invention is in the provisionofI a stationary apertured burning,- plate on to and vover which the oil is dischai ged by the nozzles and thi-(nigh which the air is forced by the fan.
An additional and principal feature in conjunction with the. burning` plate is in the provision of a moist air to the burning plate to provide some amount of steam to maintain the surface of the plate clean or comparatively clean.
A further feature ol the invention is in the provision of a. fan below a` burning plate and a water turbine for rotating the fan, the said water turbine lying in the air passage. leadincr to the fan whereby air llowing to the burning plate through operation of the fan passes through the spray produced in the driving of the fau by awator jet as hereinafter described.
lt is also an object of this invention t-o provide a construction in which the air is heated it passes to the air passageway and thus tends to vaporize water through which it passes.
An additional object of the'invention is to provide a. very simple and inexpensive construction enabling',r t-heburner to be practically completely disassembled in the furnace or other heating appliancewithout disturbingl the oil and4 water connections or other piping connected with the burner thus enabling every necessary part of the burner to be readily taken out' and examined or cleaned and replaced without necessity of any line adjustment of any part. By such construction an unskilled person may assemble or disasseluble the' device Wit-hout possibility of arranging" the parts in other than their required relationship foi* Qtteetivc op eration.-
A burner embodying my improved feas tures oi construction is Shown in itsfpreterred form in the accompanying drawings in which- Fing-1 is a plan-view of an oil burner einbodying my invention.
Fig. 2 isa vertical section thereof taken on line 2*-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a detail showing the turbine blades. y
Fig.. 4.- is ,a detail showing an alternative formi of" the burning plate.
The burner is best understood fromv an examination of Fig: -2 innvhich 1 indicates thevbase which is of afhowl like form provid-4 ed' witlr a, centralthroaded bossi 2 ign the bottom and* another;v similar f threaded: bOSS 3 at one side thereoii and a thirdboss llfwith which an outlet pipe lniay be connected; 'lille central boss 2 is threaded to receive 'an oil supply conduit (not here shown)- and the boss 3-is threaded to receive afwater supply 4connection' or piping'tnot here shown). The sidewalls of the bowl are preferably outwardly flared tba slight extent and at a. little distance from the bottom is provided with an interiorrib `(-3 on which is supported the cylindricalmeinber 7 vprovidimg a combustion chamber. As Iwill be understood from Fig. '1. this member 7 has a series of radial ribsS extending longitudinally of the member, and these ribs serve to properly space'the cylindr'icalmember?` in the bowl in assembling the parts with the `lower ends of the outer corners' of the ribs. resting on the rib or shoulder 6 of the bowll' The space between tih'ebovvly 1l andmember 7 provides a. circular air inlet or passageway. Prefer ablyfthereis ascreen 9- lyingron the bosses 2 and 3 as willi be seen from Fig.' 2. The nozle ltlrand the oil-conduit 11 are secured tothe inner ends of thee respective bosses 3 and 2.- `This screen is used to prevent carbon fron'ipaing down into the outlet 4 but if asutiieiently large diameteroutlet is pro vided the screen may be dispensed with. The oill conduit or stein 11 has a longitudinal bore 12 lfor the oil and this stem is reduced in diameter providing a flat ended portion 13 at the upper' end less in diameter than the stem. Rotatable on this steiny is the fan 14 and turbine 15 having a central bod which is bored oigruundto't the stem if. This central body member is madset two parte laats-between which is secured-the fan -mem` ber 14. This fan has a centralfaperture practically fitting over the portion 15c and is provided with a series of radial plates so turned that on revolution of the member air will be forced upward inthe member 7 and through the burning plate 17 hereinafter described. This member 15Jv at the vupper end=hasa ball 1S seated in theend of the central borewhich is preferably a press tit therein so that it will not fallout on removal of the turbine and fan 'portion from the stem 11. This ball rides on the flat upper endof the portion 13 thus providing aiball bearing for the fan and turbine. There 'also a series ot' apertures 19 extending on radial lines from the center .of revolution of the member 15". The reduced 'end 13 of the stem provides a chamber 2() into .which the apertures 19 lead and this chamber receives oil from the conduit or bore 12 which'opens into the chamber 2() through thecrossconduit 21V-in the part '13. `The oilis fed through the line '12 from ai supply receptacle which shouldbe locatedf` about 'four or lfive inches above the apertures '19 toplroduce sut ticient pressure tol cause the oil "passing through the apertures to be forced out over the burning plate 17in1tine-streams or sprays. The member 15a driven at a comparatively high rate ofspeed by the water turbine and this also tends to throw the oill and spray it over theplate 17.
'.lhe plate 17 as shown in Fig. 2, is slightly saucer shaped and has a central aperture 22 through which the upper end of the portion 15" extends so that the apertures 19 are above the plate. -This upperend'of the member 15b in connection with the apertures'f) is hereinafter called a nozzle but it is'to be understood that there are preferably several apertures positioned radially about this head. The plate 17 has a considerable number of apertures 23 formed therein which provide for the passage of air into the oil spray and the burning ot' the oil takes place on this plate and above the same.v `'FhepIateA may, as shown in Fig. 2, rest with the outer edges on lugs 24 provided inthe inner Walls of the member 7, which walls extend above the burning plateproviding what may betermed a. combustion chamber. By rapid rotation of the fan air is forced through the plate to mix with the oil spray and causes the flame to take a spiral formespecially when the walls of the member extend above the burning plate as shown in Fig 2. The plate 17 is stationary and this is one ofthe principal features of the invention.
I am aware of burners of this type in which a rotating disk is provided as shown for instance in the U. S. patent to lV. E. Gibbs No, 752,990 of February 23, 1904. In such previous types in which a rotating disk is employed there is an accumulation of car bon on the disk and upon the wallsl of the chamberin which the disk is rotated. I have assumed that the reason for the accumulation of carbon on the disk is that by reason of its rapid rotation there is a tendency to cool the plate. There is also, due to the throwing of the oil from the disk by ccntrifugal'force into contact with the. side walls of the combustion chamber. a tendency to pile up oil that is not in sufficiently thin film or nflixedavith a'iradequately to burn cleanly. lVith a stationary plate there is a perfectly equa'ble distribution ot the oil over the plateras the nozzle is rotated rapidly relative to the plate. The plate, 17 is slightly saucerv shaped so that the. periphery is .slightly above the level of the oil apertures of the nozzle. The oil therefore docs not spray over the edge ofthe plate nor provide a sufficient body of oil at any one point to burn in such manner as'to leave a rapidly accumulating carbon deposit.
I am also' aware of a type of oil burner in whicharotating apertured disk is provided fora burning plate. Such rotating disk also tends to accumulate carbon indicating that the oil is not thoroughly consumed and that the lighter constitutents of the oil vaporize leavmg the heavier constituents burning to a. carbon on the plate. The. rotating disk is inadequate for the purpose b v reason of this accumulation of carbon and so far as l have been able to determine this aci-.umm lation ,of carbon is due largely to the fact. that the` movement of the dish is at the lspeed of movement ot' the fan producing the air flow through it.
lVith my improved apparatus utilizing a stationary apertured plate after the mamier indicated in Fig. 1 or the alternate torni shownin Fig. 4, the flow of air is across the oil streams which serves to break up the oil streams and produce a proper combustion. Y'Vhile this plate is stationary in my device, the air flow tends to move in a spiral form causing the air to travel along the upper surface of the plate to some extent. The air flowing through the apertures of the plate therefore is not straight upward parallel with the axis of rotation of the fan but to some extent lin the-direction of rotation of the fan apparently in use at an a ogle of thirty to .forty degrees to the vertical. The plate shown in Fig. l lits comparatively closely to the side walls of the cylinder 7, there being just sutlieient space to allow the plate toexpand under heat but this space is preferably maintained at a minimum to pre vent an air flow about the edge of the plate which tends to concentrate the flame above. The greatest efficiency is secured by having llll ifmeogerzfi the' flamespread out to some extent and the station-ary platel secures this result particularly if there is little orf noair space between the edge 4of the `plate andthe wall 7. ln thealtei-native liorm ot construction shown in F ig. 4,* the plate seats on the top ot the wall.' 7 and? extends outwardly therefrom a short dista-nee which ytends Ato cause the llame to bush outlito'ain extent even greater than is the case with: the torni shown in Fig. 2; li-th eitherv form of plate the outer edgeot the plate islabove the level of theoil apertures V19 so that' there is no disch-arge of oil horizontallyrolli"trom the plate as the .oi-l1 streams strike the-plate `soinewluirc near the periphery dependingupon the head of oit and any oil that is not broken up and discharged upwardly by the air flow tails on the surface of the plateand, due to the saucer-hike'l form o'f the plate, lends to flow towardithe center of the plate. This causes the oil-to be distributed in a thin lilm and the air flow throughthe apertures. and to some extent acrossthe surface ot the plate as heretofore mentioned, mixes with this oil or oil vaporcausing the oil. to be properly eonsumedi` It is to be noted that this plate 17 during operation is-hot and therefore any oil in the .forinoi' liquidstriking the surface ot the plate ten-ds to be' Vapor-ized and is practically completely consumed and does not forma hard residue on; theA plate through vaporizationof the' lighter constituents only ot' the oili as sullieient oxygen is supplied for practically complete combustion by both air and water in the manner described.
As heretofore stated the air flow is through the water used in driving the lan by means of the turbine 15. The jet of water driving against the blade of the turbine 15 causes it to rotate7 thus rotating the Jfan. This stream issuingl from the nozzle 10 is broken up by the successive blades in Contact with it and due to the high speed of the turbine is thrown outwardly from the turbine against the lower wall T() o'l' the cyl inder 7 andi tends to falld-ownwardly along this wall into the bottom ol' the bowl 1. Air therefore entering between the bowl and the member 7 passes downward` into the bowl and thence toward' the center through t-he spray falling .from the wall 7" and thence passes upwardly through the spray thrown centrifugnlly from the turbine. The air is heated slightly d-ue toits eenling in contact withy the heated wall 7 and hns S andthe water spray is heated due to its coming in contactI with the walls 7 and 7l. The water therefore tends to vaporize and some spray is also drawn upwardly against7 through and onto the burning pla-te 17 by the air flow. This moisture is iininediately converted to steam on coming in Contact with the plate and flame and assists in the combustion of the oil and prevents an accumulation of residue onthe plateh One of the principalfeatures et this invention is' in this provision of moisture liadeir air and I find it iin-portant in or'der to secure more vperfect combustion and? prevent an accumulation oli a hard earbon residue on the biu'ningplate which is produced yin yprevious oil burners of this type. lnmy construction whatever carbon is produced in the burning` of' the oil' is blownout of the burner as the carbon is loose and fluffy in character and does not burn hard on thek plate. Any carbon that may `fall below thef burning plate will be deposited on thescreen if one is utilized or will pass out through the discharge pipe 5.
ln the term ot' plate and member 7 shown in Fig. 2 the flame discharges upward in a coluu'in ol' va diameter practically equal to that ott-he member 7 in spira-l form. This is probably due to the llame Abeingl .confined within the upper end of the circular wall 7. lVhen such wa-llis dispensed with and the lliurning plate 17 extends-outwardly beyond the exterior ol the member. 7 a short distance and is road-ily removed if for any reason-itis desired to take out the lan-'or tomalte a 11epair. In both the forms o burning plate shown, the central aperture through which extends the part 1f is slightly larger than the said part so that there iis no possibility of the member 15a binding in the burning plate and. therefore is free to rotate onthe stom.
Preferably the stein andy members 15 land 15 are ground to tit closely and still permit a. free revolution ol': the turbine member. By having. the parts closely fitting'the possibility of leakage of oil between the stein 11 and the parts 15 and-152l is reduced to a minmuuu.
vln theconstruction shown. in Fig. l the l'mruiug plate 1.7 may rest directly iipon the upper end ol" the wallI 7 corresponding to the wall 7 of the form shown in Fig. 2. 'lhis plate is apertured and is provided with lugs 7" by means oil which it is properly positioned on the cylindrical wall 7a. This plate extends outwardly beyond the periphery of thewall as shown and is saucer shaped to provide a combustion chamber. There is a further feature in the constructionof this bur-ning plzite shown in Fig. 1- that is, theiupper end of the stem 15 is provided with an imperforate circular disk 5() which is a press-fit thereon.y below the apertures 19. This disk 5() may be used with either of the types of the burning plate shown in Fig. '2er 4:, the said plate when the disk is used having a central aperture 51 slightly greater in diameter than the plate 50. The l'iurningr plate when used with the disks V50 is' slightly lower than the disk so that anyoil tending to run down the side ot the member 15a is thrown out'l over-'the burning plate into the air flow through the umn about the nozzle head in which there is no air or very little air for combustion. This arrangement therefore toa considerable extent prevents combustion at the center causing the combustion to take place at a distance therefrom over the burning plate and thus prevents to a considerable .extent any aecummulation of carbon on the nozzle.
One of the features of this invention is the ease of assembling or disassembling the burner parts. The burning plate, as previously stated, is not fastenedin position and may be readily lifted from its place. The turbine member is simply a sliding tit on the stein and may be lifted therefrom, the ball. t8 reimiining in position due .to its being a. press tit in t-he recess therefor. The member 7 is readily removed as it merely rests on the annular ledge 6 and also the screen is readily removed as it is not fastened in. place and is apertured to lit over the stem 1l and the water nozzle 10. Thus,by inaking the. parts readily removable, all of the parts of the burner are easily cleaned orrepaired and placed back in position without use ot' tools. One of the features of this invention is in arranging the parts in this un` attached relationship and so constructed as to remain in the set position.
From the foregoing description it will be readily understood that the objects of the invention are secured by a construction that is economical and highly etiicient, the stationary burning plate being productive of llame that is an incandescent White in character throughout the lower parts thereof changing to a slight orange color at 'the tips with no smoky vapor being produced.V This is due to the fact that the. proper amount of air for combustion can be supplied by the fan which can be varied inspeed of rotation by means of a valve in the water supply line (not here shown) but as will be readily understood. i i
The production of carbon is reduced to a minimum by reason of the facility of supplying the required amount of air together with the moisteningof the air which has a beneieial result in maintaining the burning plate free of carbon deposit and further that, .in supplying air more or less heated due to its tlow downward over 4the heat radiating tins of the inner member 7- tends to vaporize the water to some little extent. This vapor and such moisture as the air will absorb in passing through the spray is earried to the burning plate. SomeV of the moisture and spray will strike the under side of the plate and be vaporized by the heat of the plate and some will pass directly through the apertures of the plate thusproviding steain mixing with the-oil vapor.
The provision of water in spray form to the air 'body previous to its passage to the combustion chamber serves a double purpose. The water is at a temperature well below-its boiling point. In fact is comparatively coldv and, due to the arrangement of the turbine on the oil conduit and the movement of the air body about the oil conduit and `to Contact with the burning plate, the oil conduit and lower surface ofthe plate are bathed with a cool water and the: temperature thereof is reduced. This prevents distillation ot the oil in the conduit on its-way to the combustion chamber which, if permit-ted Ato distill in the conduit, would' tend to clog the same by residue. Therefore. in applieants arrangement the oil-is discharged at atemperature belowI itsdistillation point to tho burning plate.: The 'burning plate is also reduced in temperature. By contact of the spray with the plate .steam is produced which passes tothe combustion chamber and into the flame.` This is'not sulhcient in quantity to drench the vflame and therefore, due to the excess heat,` the water is vaporized and through interactionl with the eil produces a. gas which assists in combustion and increases the temperatur-cof the tlame. Havingthus 4particularly described niy invention-what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is yl. In an oil burner, a stationary apertured burning plate, means for discharging oil over the surface of theplate, and a rotatable fan 'below the plate for forcing air through the apertures i thereof.
2. In an oil burner, a stationary apertured burning plate, a rotatable nozzle having a plurality of apertures for discharging oil in tine, streams over the said plate, and 'a rotatable fan below the plate for forcing air through the'apertures thereof. 3. In van oil burner, a stationary apertured blirning plate, an oil discharge nozzle rotatably mounted and discharging oil laterally in Ia plurality of separate tine streams over the plate, and a blower device for discharging airthrough the apertures ofthe plate, said aperture providing the main passageway for combustion purposes.
4. Inan oil burner, a horizontally positioned stationary burning plate provided with fa series of apertures therethrough,
means for discharging oil to the upper surface of the said plate in small streams, and means for forcing air upwardly through the plate, said apertures providing the main passageway for air to the upper surface of ythe plate.
5. In `an oil burner, a discharge nozzle charging oil ;horizontally,.means on Supplying oil ,to the nozzle, 4-a stationary Hipertured burning #plate having a rcentral aperture through which' the nozzle projects, the nozzle discharging oilxi'n'tine streams later- Vail-ly over ythe -said aplate, al fan :connected with-fthe. nozzle, and means for-.rotating the `fan and nozzle whereby Aaiir is vtoroed through lthe lplate` to lnix-ivitli-:a-nd break -up the oil streams.
lG. i[n an oil burner, -a cylindrical shell, a fan `i-otatab'ly supported (therein, means for rotating the fan, o discharge :nozzle rotated with the fan, aneans for supplying oil to the nozzle, a stationary apertured burning plate over whiehoilais distributed by the nozzle yand through which practically all air for fthe purpose :of combustion is driven :by the fan.
7. Ln 4an oil burner, a lshell or easing through which air is to be passed, a fan mounted for ,rotation rin Ithe easing, means for rotating the same, a rotary discharge nozzle for discharging oil laterally from the center .ot theishell, ,a :stationary :apertured :plate over \vliieh. theoil is sprayed by the nozzle and :through `which practically all '.air for the, purpose oteonibustion is driven byL thewxfalu :8.4111 an oi-l burner, a chamber open to atmosphere-.at one.end,vaxtan in ithe chainber, .a stationary apertnred plate'pmviding a burning plate above ithe dfafn iehambelz, theaipertnres ot the plate providingithe main passageway for air Yfor combustion purposes, a nozzle rotatable .with :the ifan and disehargingoil streams outwardly Yover the :plate :through Athe air currents, amd means for introducing moisture iintol the air current previous to its passage to the apertures of the plate. t
9. In .an oil burner, :an -open endedehamber, a fan therein, a stationary aportan-'ed plate .formingthe gltpper wall of fthe tan chamber, the plate being spaced slightly trom the upper end of the chamber wall providing ffor an air tlowion :the under side of the plate to beyond its periphery, means ior rotatingthe fan and driving the air tlirongh the apertured plate and the said space between the plate and the chamber wall, means for providing an oil spray over the said plate, and means Vfor providing a spray of water in the air current previous to its passage through the apertures of the plate for cooling the plate and adding oxygen and hydrogen to the combustion chamber.
10. In an oil burner, a stationary apertured burning plate, means for distributing oil over the plate in fine streams, a tubular member supporting the burning plate. a fan in the said member for discharging air upward therethrough, the tubular member and burning plate being so arranged .that .a lportion of theair currents produced bythe fan are discharged from the .fan chamber along theain'der :sident-the plate to beyond its periphery, and means for supplying a spray Aof lwater in ,the air current having 'a temperature below the Vboiling point ofi' .the water, .the arrangement provid-ing thatthe air ein-rent-earries .the water in a. sprayA lorm to `Contact with the :plate to Acool the same and add-oxygen for thepurpo'se ot combustion. .l A
1l. ,In an'oil burneran outer shell `or casing of bowl like form, a shell otl tubularlorm havingitsopen lower end above the bottom of the bowl and spaced from the side walls thereof, astem providing `an oil conduit extending :upward fromthe base centrally of the shell, an oil nozzle having a body rotatably mounted on the stein and provided with lateral apertures at the top in eommunication with the oil conduit, afturbine wheel on ythe said nozzle body, 1neans for direc-ting a jetot water against ,the .turbine for drivingr the same and rotating the oil nozzle, an apertured .burning plate over which the oil streams are ,diseharged by Athe oil nozzle, a fan en thenozzle body rotatable for =dra\wingair through .the water spray and discharging lthe same through the apertures .otl the, .burning plate in a direet-iou across the oil streams.
12. An oil burner comprising a base `of bowl like forno, a hollow stem extending upwardly :trom .the base providing an oil oonduit., a tubular member in the base support-ed ,above the bottom thereof and having an .open lower end spared tronrthe wall ,of the base providing an air inlet, a revoluble nozzle :member on the stem having lateral apertures inl the upper end in communiontion witlrtljlieoilconduit.,a tau on the nozzle member by .rotation of which air :is discharged through the tubular aueu'iber,4 a` stationary.burning pla te mounted .above the izni and -liaviinga central aperture through whirh the nozzle rend extends, fthe ,said nozzle vmem-- ber being rotatable with the fan and the lateral apertures discharging oil over the said plate and into the air current passing through the apertures thereof. and means for rotating the tan and nozzle member.
13. An oil burner comprising` a base of bowl like form` a hollow stem extending upwardly from the hase providing an oil conduit, a tubular member supported in the base above the bot-tom thereof and with the open lower end spaced from the wall ol the base providing` an air inlet about the tubular member to the open lower end thereo't'. an oil nozzle having a body rotatably mounted on the stem and having lateral apertures in the upper end for discharging oil radially therefrom, a turbine. wheel at the lower end lll() of the oil nozzle body, and within the lower end of' the tubular member, a nozzle for directing streams of Water against the turbine wheel for rotating the oil nozzle and providing water spray in the lower end of the tubular member, a fan on the said oil nozzle body rotatable therewith by means of which air is drawn through the air inlet and upward through the water spray, an apertured plate over which the oil streams discharge and through the apertures of which the air current discharges in a direction contrary to the direction of iow of the air streams.
lei. In an oil burner, a cylindrical shell, a fan therein for forcing air therethrough, a rotating discharge nozzle, 'an imperforate disk on the nozzle below the oil discharge apertures therein, a stationary burning plate supported by the cylindrical shell having a series of apertures therein through which air is forced by the fan, the nozzle and imperiforate plate tending to discharge oil over the burning plate and into the air currents passing therethrough.
15. In an oil burner, a tubular member, a hollow stem extending upwardly therein providing an oil conduit, a member rotatable on the stem and having oil discharge nozzles at its upper end through which oil from the conduit iiows, a plate to which the oil is discharged by the nozzle, means for supplying a current of air to the tubular meinber to discharge to the combustion chamber, and means for providing a spray of water having a temperature'not greater than its boiling point to the air body to be carried thereby into contact with the tubular member and plate to prevent overheating thereof.
16. In an oil burner, a burning plate, a nozzle discharging oil to the plate, means for providing air to mix with the oil and oil vapor of the burning plate to provide a combustible mixture, and means for providing a spray of water at a temperature below the boiling point thereof to the burning plate to reduce its temperature during operations-and provide steam on the combustion side of the burning plate.
17. In an oil burner, a combustion chamber, means for providing oil Jfor combustion in the chamber, means for causing a` flow of air to the chamber, a burning plate in the chamber to the upper side of which the oil is discharged, and means for supplying water having a temperature notI greater than its boiling point and in the torm of a inist or spray to the air current to contact with the under side 4of the burning plate to cool the same and to provide steam in such quantity as to aid in combus- 'tion chamber, and meanst'or supplying a spray .of water lalong the oil conduit and to the air body thereabout to maintain the temperature of the conduit below the distillation point of thel oil, the said water spray being carriedby the air body to the combustion chamber.
20. In an oil burner, an apertured burning plate, means for discharging oil to the upper surface of the plate, means for torcing air through'the plate, means for supplying Water in the form ot a spray at a temperature below its boiling point to the air previous to its passing through the apertures of the plate.
In testimony whereof I sign this specific( tion.
-JAIWES W. MOW'BRAY.