US 1725198 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
SR la f iiii eitiiti Patented Aug. 20, 1929.
UNITED STATES LESTER KIBISCI-IBRAUN, OF CHICAGO, ILLINOIS.
FUEL AND PROCESS OF MAKING THE SAME.
' 1% Drawing. Application filed March 14, 1921,
This invention relates to improvements in making fuel from soft bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, peat or other fuel in a comminuted state.
Among the salient objects of the invention are to provide a process for agglomerating the particles of carbonaceous materlal by means of an adhesive binder and forming the same into uniform sizes, chunks or lumps resembling coal in appearance; to provide a process whereby mine run, lignite, peat or other like carbonaceous materials, which cannot easily be used as fuel except when briquetted may be formed into usable agglomerates; to provide a process, 1n which, by combining the fine particles with an adhesive binder, the fuel may be formed into lumps of suflicient size to burn slowly and use for the same purposes as coal; to provide a process whereby the adhesive binder may be mixed with the coal Wh le in a relatively non-adhesive form, in an emulsion state and after mixing, the emulsion broken up, the adhesive binder immediately taking up the fine particles of carbonaceous material and in the forming process agglomerating them into uniformly sized lumps; to provide a process in which the binder substance, while cold, may be used also 1n connection with the briquetting or brick-making machinery whereby the small particles of carbonaceous substance may be pressed into regular forms with the adhesive binder.
In the mining of coal, there is a great deal of the coal, both from the bituminous and anthracite fields, which is lost as waste due to the fact that the particles are so small that they are not adaptable for use because their combustion is almost instantaneous and is accompanied by large volumes of smoke from the unconsumed particles. To a certain extent these materials have been adapted to use by briquetting or pressing the particles into molded forms so that it burns more slowly, the heat units not being expended as fast and less of the material being lost as waste. Briquetting devices as a whole are somewhat expensive to operate on account of cost of equipment, relatively low production and necessity for using a heated binder.
The present invention is directed to a process for combining the particles of carbonaceous material heretofore mentioned by mixing the material with a binder substance Serial No. 452,172. Renewed March 17, 1926.
preferably bituminous in character which is introduced to the mixture in a relatively non-adhesive form and after the mixing op eration becomes adhesive, causing the particles to cling together and agglomerate in lumps or chunks and in mixing form pieces of a somewhat uniform nature. The carbonaceous material, such as lignite, mine run, bituminous or anthracite coal, peat or the like, are introduced into a mixer into which is also flowed a bituminous binder emulsified preferably with clay and water as described in U. S. Letters Patent No. 1,302,- 810, May 6th, 1919. This mixer may take the form of a revolving drum such as a concrete mixer, a horizontally inclined drier shell or a pug mill. Heat may be employed either before or after the mixing operation. To this mixture is then added liquid hydrocarbon, such as fuel oil or reagents suited to break down the emulsion used and cause the binder to become adhesive. For example, if soap be used as the emulsifier, calcium chloride would serve as a satisfactory breaking agent. A clay emulsion may be broken down by the removal of the water. As the binder becomes adhesive, the carbonaceous material begins to agglomerate as it is being cascaded about the mixture, resulting in the formation of nodules and considerable sized lumps. The proportions of carbonaceous material and binder substance may be definitely regulated so that there will be suflicient adhesive binder present to produce the lumps or nodules. Ordinarily this will require five to ten per cent of the binder but will vary according to the fineness of the material which is being agglomerated.
This emulsion may also be used in briquetting the carbonaceous substances previously mentioned according to the compactness of the fuel desired. A novelty in the invention lies in the combining of the comminuted carbonaceous material by mixing it with the emulsion and the breaking down of the emulsion and permitting the adhesive binder substance to agglomerate the carbonaceous material. The particular forms of the lumps, which are produced, is optional according to the uses to which they are to be putand the character of the lumps desired. This result may be obtained by briquetting or the use of brick machinery and the blocks thus produced allowed to dry at which time the binder will coalesce and cement the particles firmly together.
Another feature of importance is the fact that the bituminous binder may be combined with the carbonaceous material while the former is comparatively cold and the mixing carried on while both substances are in a cool condition. Substances used as binders comprise asphalts, coal tar pitches, vegetable pitches and analogous pitchy or pitch yielding substances which would serve as a satisfactorv bonding material.
While any of the emulsions referred to break, upon the removal of water, this action will be accelerated in the case of a clay emulsion, by the addition of small quantities of fuel oil. For example, with a clay emulsion comprising asphalt of 110 F. melting point as the dispersed phase a 14 gravity fqe l pil added to the extent of 10% of the dispersed bitumen will rapidlynbreak the emulsion. Likewise, any quantity of calcium cl l o r i gle up to the full reacting martinis will quickly break down a soap-asphalt emulsion.
I claim as my invention 1. A process of making a combustible agglomerate, comprising mixing comminuted coal with an emulsion containing an argiliferous emulsifying agent and a bituminous base, and in thereafter breaking down said emulsion to cause said adhesive agent to combine with the comminuted carbonaceous matter as an agglomerated mass.
2. A process of making combustible aggregates, consisting in mixing comminuted coal with a normally adhesive bituminous binder rendered non-adhesive by the presence of an emulsifying agent, and in thereafter breaking down said emulsion to render the binder adhesive to agglomerate with the comminuted carbonaceous matter.
3. A process for making combustible aggregates, consisting in mixing comminuted carbonaceous fuel in emulsion containing a normally adhesive bituminous binder in a non-adhesive state, and in adding to the mixed substance an agent to break down the emulsion to cause the binder to become adhesive and agglomerated with the carbonaceous fuel.
4. A process of making combustible aggregates, comprising mixing comminuted carbonaceous fuel with an aqueous bituminous emulsion containing a mineral emulsifying agent, and briquetting the mixture to cause the bituminous content of the emulsion to combine with the carbonaceous fuel.
5. As a new article, coal briquettes containing coal bonded with an asphalt clay emulsion.