US 1726136 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 27, 1929. F, ANTISELL 1,726,136
VACUUM PUMP Filed Jan. 13, 1926 3 ShGBS-She-'L l /3/ CZ c @.4 12E y J 2* /W `1 "12' f l Z4, 6 I
WM@ www? 4L- ATT EY Aug` 27, 1929.
F. L. ANTxsELL VACUUM PUMP 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jan. 13, 1926 WITNESS N WA m. Lv n www@ Aug. 27, '1929. F. L. ANTISELL VACUUM PUMP Filed Jan. 13, 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 WITNESS lNvENToRk fwn N4( L ,Mgr/55a xnATroRNE mM/m l Lio Patented Aug. 27, 1929.
FRANK L. ANTISELL, OF PERTH AMBY, NEW JERSEY.
Application filed January 13, v1926. Serial No. 80,898.
This invention relates to a vacuum pump of the centrifugal type, the construction and operation thereof being in general similar to the pump disclosed in'Fatent No. 1,281,478, granted to me on October 15th, 1918.
The present structure, as with patented structure, is characterized by an initially high mechanical efliciency and the ease withwhich said efficiency may be maintained; also with simplicity of construction and a correlation of the parts` being such that the pump may be readily assembled and disassembled.
An important purpose of the present apparatus is to provide both a combined wet and dry vacuum apparatus of lai'ge capacity and of high efficiency.
In the drawings, forming a part ofthis specification, wherein like characters of reference denote corresponding parts in the several views Fig. 1 is a view in side elevation, partly in section', of an apparatus' embodying my invention. Y
Fig. 2 is a plan View of the pumping apparatus taken on the sectional line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a view partly in elevation and partly in vertical section of a centrifugal pump embodying my invention.
Fig. 4 is a detail of a portion of the impeller showing the vanes secured thereto. n
Fig. 5 is a section on line 5 5 of Fig 3.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of the lower face of the impeller.
Fig. 7 is a side view of the impeller.
In the interest of clearness, the same reference characters are used to designate like parts, so far as may be applicable, as were used in the specification of the aforesaid prior patent.
A designates a suitable supporting member mounted upon an appropriate base B and having spaced arms or brackets (l` and C with 'alined openings therein. These openings are provided with suitable bearings c and c respectively through which the impeller shaftD extends and is journaled. This shaft is suspended from the upper arm or bracket C and is adjustable longitudinally.
E designates a vertical centrifugal pump casing which is disposed below the arm or bracket C and is preferably mounted on the base B by means of suitable supponsnb. Sup,- borted upon the appel' surfaef Ehe easing- E is a. top or cap c3 which is bolted as at e* to the radially extending flange e5 of the casing E. F designates a stationary member which constitutes a cover and has a body portion f which rests upon the'ledge e2 of the casing E. The cover is provided with a plurality ofvanes f2. which project inwardly and upwardly therefrom. Thecover F is held in position by a `suitable number of threaded rods Gf which fit in sockets g in the upper edge of the cover F, which rods extend through the top or cap e3 and are provided with locking nuts g', g above and below said top so that upon proper manipulation of these nuts the rods G bear upon and press against the upper edge ofthe cover F, as above described.
From the above construction it will be noted that a chamber F is formed above the cover F, and that said cover F separates the spiral chamber E from the -chamber F.
Suitably splined at t to the lower end of the shaft D is arotary member or impeller I2, said member being provided with an outwardly extending mushroom shaped head I, having secured thereto, at its edge, oppositely disposed impeller varies, one set, indicated by z', being on the upper surface, and the other set, indicated by 2, being on 'the under surface, the vanes z' extending from rthe periphery towards the hub, and the vanes 2 being of less length than the opposing varies but extending outwardly a short distance beyond the periphery of the impeller head.
The mushroom head of the impeller fits between the cover F and the lower surface of the casing E. The upper edges of the vanes z' fitting closely with the lower surface of the cover F and the lower edges of the vanes 2 fitting closely with the upper surface of the casing E. By means of this construction it will be seen that the mushroom shaped head of the impeller I operates in the chamber E. The vanes 'i and 2 are arcuate in shape as clearly indicated in Figs. 5 to 7,. inclusive.
A central opening is provided in the cover which is of greater diameter than the base of the stem portion 'ofthe impeller, thus forming 'a passageway i3 between the chamber F and the chamber E.
The casing E 4is provided with an inlet e andV an opntlet e', (the inlet leading .into the F andthe Aoutlet leadfi the l'g as above stated;
larly disposed two chambers.
ln order to rotate the impeller a pulley P is provided on the shaft l), and as hereinbetore stated, the shaft is adjustable longitudinally through the arms C and C and is maintained in position by the nuts J and J. The upper end of the shaft l) is formed into a portion d of less area in cross section than that of the shaft D, and the bearing c is mounted upon the section (Z and its lower end rests partly upon the shoulder Z2 formed at the junction of the section d with the shaft D, and partly upon the upper end of the nut J which engages with screw threads on the shaft D. The nut J has a screw threaded engagement with the portion d of the shaft above the bear# ing c and rests partly upon the upper surface of the arm and bracket C. This correlation 0f parts enables them to be readily assembled, and also alfords ready access to the bearing when the latter is renewed, as well as affording means for the convenient adjustment of the shaft and impeller. To more effectively maintain the parts in adjusted position, l prefer to employ lock nuts jg and j below and above the nuts J and J respectively.
Leading to a chamber E just below the central portion of the impeller is a conduit c which may be secured to an engine or to any device in which it is desired to form a vacuum. Suitable coupling ilanges M, N and O are provided to readily secure the pump portions of the device with the engine or the machine in which the vacuum is to be formed and to a deaerating tank, as shown.
The principle of operation is very simple. The shaft and impeller is rotated by suitable motor connection, not shown, in the direction indicated by the large arrow in Figs. 2, 5 and 6. The impeller is supplied by means of two different inlets, one above for liquid and the other below for gas. The liquidflows from the deaerating tank T through the inlet e then through the annular opening around the impeller and discharged through the outlet e', as indicated by the heavy line arrows.
rlChe vacuum is developedthrough the conduit c. The velocity of the passage of the solution over the rim of the impeller ejects (sucks) the vapors from the engine, or other passageway i3, connecting the device, to be evacuated through the opening e below the impeller. These gases, of course, immediately mix with the primary liquid L entering the liquid as they are drawn from the chamber to be evacuated and pass with the solution through the conduit P into the tank T and the gases are then liberated from the tank as indicated by the small bubbles illustrated in Fig. l. The solution then passes through the pump and again with the oeeluded gases through-the pipe P to the tank T, and so on, until a complete and perfect vacuum is produced or eected. The gas passes in through the conduit e and through the chambers E and E and are expelled with the liquid from the periphery of the impeller,
As described above and illustrated in Fig.y
l, the occluded gases are liberated from the tank T and the solution is returned to the pump through e for a continuous cycle, the vacuum being produced by a process of operation very similar to that carried out in the ordinary hydraulic ejector where the static pressure is converted into a velocity pressure in a nozzle tube that projects a stream of fluid, water, steam or air, the high velocity of said stream ejccting the air surrounding the nozzle.
With my invention, I am enabled to employ the entire circumference of the impeller, say 40 inches in circumference with an opening of substantially 1/2 in. high, or 20 sq. in. through which the ejector liquid is caused to flow at a very high velocity and generated at a high eliicien cy. rThis high moving body of liquid being projected in a radial and more or less horizontal plane, causes a very ethcient production of the vacuum., the gas passing through a nozzle of about the same size as the one for the liquid described above.
As shown, the series of vanes 2 extend beyond the periphery of the impeller, and opcrate to preclude the backward movement of the solution being pumped, into the vacuum inlet c when the deaerating tank on the pump head is very high. These supplementary vanes or tips 2, being arranged at a proper position and angle, have a greater resultant velocity than the vanes c', and, as above stated, the liquid, therefore, is excluded from passing under the impeller, thus enabling a vacuum to be formed under the impeller. The term resultant7 is used in the same manner and with the same meaning as that used in velocity exit centrifugal pump graphics.
From the above, it will be seen that this apparatus, while being well adapted for the production of a vacuum containing gases of a corrosive nature, is also suitable for maintaining a vacuum in condensing engines or turbines, in which case the vacuum inlet e would necessarily be relatively large in proportion to the inlet c, while the respective dimensions in these inlets in a device for handling gases in a chemical plant are so proportioned that the vacuum production inlet .e is considerably smaller in diameter than that of the inlet e.
When the apparatus is used in connection with steam or heated vapors, it is desirable, and may even be absolutely necessary, to cool the circulating water or provide fresh water to replace the water heated during the cycle of operation.
In the production of a vacuum the gases will liberate themselves from the solution in llO in solution, or to collectgases, which, as they' are liberated, may be stored in a gasometer, or to retain gases in liquids.
The pump embodying my invention, however, is primarily adapted lto provide the necessary vacuum inl the apparatus being operated upon. lf a steam engine, the pump is connected to the exhaust; if a heating system, the pumpv should be connected to the main drip of that system.' If it is ldesiredto operate with chemical fumes, the solution is treated accordingly, and the parts of the apparatus are constructed from material not affected by the fumes.
As changes of construction could be made within'the scope of my invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in alimiting sense.
Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and d-esire to secure byLetters Patent is:
l. Apparatus of the type described which comprises a centrifugal impeller plate, a casing enclosing said impeller and forming upper and lower annular jetepenings therewith and having an annular expanded et passage beyond the edge of said impeller plate and opening to a receiving chamber beyond the periphery of Isaid impeller, means for supplying liquid to one face of said impeller to be ejected through one of said jet openings, means on said impeller plate to centrifugally force water over the periphery of said impeller through said jet opening into said annular receiving chamber, and means on the opposite face of said impeller plate to create a centrifugal force on the liquid and gas in said jet passage against the back pressure of said liquid and gas.
2. Apparatus of the type described which comprises a centrifugal impeller plate, a casing enclosing said impeller plate having an annular receiving chamber beyond the periphery of said impeller plate, said casing forming a water jet with one side of said impeller plate and an expanding air and water mixing passage on the opposite face of said impeller plate adjacent, and extending beyond, its periphery, means on said impeller plate to impart a centrifugal velocity to said water jet, and means to create a centrifugal pressure on water and gas in said expanding air and water mixing passage.
3. Apparatus of the type described which comprises a centrifugal impeller plate, a casing for said impeller having an annular receiving chamber beyond the edge of said inipeller plate, said casing having a water inlet in its upper wall and an air inlet in its lower wall and forming with said impeller plate a converging jet above said impell-er, apassage for air beneath said impeller plate and a widened passage from said jets to said annu'- lar chamber, means between saidl impeller plate, and the upper wall of said chamber to impart a positive centrifugal force to waterr above said impeller plate, and means to impart additional centrifugal force to air drawn into said widened passage and to Water admixed with said air counter to the baclr pressure from said annular chamber.
v il. Ypparatus of the type described which comprisesa shallow dished chamber having opposite ywalls converging towards their peripheral edges, and each having a central inlet, said chamber having a peripheral compartment with a tangential outlet, an impeller plate lin said chamber concentric therewith, the edge of said plate approaching one wall of said chamber and forming a diver-ging mixing chamber with the other wall, and impeller vanes in said diver-ging mixing chamber.
'5. vApparatus of the type described which comprises an impeller plate, a chamber enclosing said plate and having a liquid inlet at one side of said plate, a gas inlet at the opposite side of said plate, an annular receiving and outlet compartment encircling said plate, said plate forming with one wall of said chamber an annular contracted liquid I jet opening and forming with the other wall a narrow gas jet opening, an enlarged air and gas mixing passage in free communication with said gas opening and said receiving compartment, impeller means on the liquid receivingside of said plate, and impeller means on said plate in said mixing passa-ge.
6. Apparatus of the type described which comprises an impeller plate, a chamber enclosing said plate and having a liquid inlet at one side of said plate, a gas inlet at the opposite side of said plate, an annular peripheral receiving compartment having an annular connecting passage to said chamber, said impeller plate forming a contracted liquid jet with one wall of said chamber and an expanding gas and liquid mixing chamber with the other wall of said chamber, means for impelling water towards said liquid jet, and means in said expanding gas and liquid mixing chamber to impart additional centrifugal force to the fluids therein.
7. A centrifugal pump which comprises an impeller plate, a chamber housing said impeller and having an axial liquid inlet to one face of said plate and an axial gas inletI peller plate adjacent its periphery anexpanding gas passage opening directly into `said annular receiving chamber and forming with the peripheral edge of said impeller Vplate a liquid jet into said expanding gas eral edge of said impeller plate, a liquid jet into said expanding gas passage, impeller vanes on the liquid receiving face of said plate, and impeller vanes on the opposite face of said plate projecting into said expanding gas passage.
9.` A centrifugalpump which comprises a dished impeller plate, a chamber having a lower wall, a passage in said lower wall centrally of said impeller plate, the lower wall of said chamber gradually approaching said impeller plate to a distance short of the edge of said impeller plate and then diverging therefrom and forming an annular enlarged chamber encircling the periphery of said impeller plate, said annular chamber having an annular joint surface at its inner periphery, 'an upper wall for said chamber fitting said joint surface and curving to form a narrow jet with the edge of said impeller plate and an inwardly diverging liquid passage, and having an inlet centrally of said impeller plate, impeller vanes on the upper surface of comprises a shallow chamber having a pair` of spaced walls and central inlets in said walls and having a peripheral compartment,A
an impeller plate centrally mounted in said chamber, the edge of said plate diverging from one wall of said chamber to form an expanding gas and liquid passage to said peripheral compartment and forming with the opposed wall of said chamber a liquid jet into said diverging passage.
l1. Apparatus of the type described which comprises a shallow, dished chamber having spaced walls and central inlets in said walls and having a peripheral compartment, an impeller plate in said chamber, the edge of said plate diverging from one wall of said chamber adjacent said peripheralfcompartment to form an expanding gas and liquid mixing jet and approaching the opposed wall of said chamber to form a contracted liquid jet opening into said gas and liquid mixing jet, and impeller vanes on said impeller plate and extending to the wall Iof said chamber towards which said plate converges.
12. Apparatus of the type described which comprises a shallow, dished chamber having central inlets in-its opposed walls and having a peripheral compartment into which it opens at its periphery, a dished impeller plate mounted centrally in said chamber to form a diverging gas jet with one Wall of said chamber adjacent said peripheral compartment, and a liquid jet with the opposed Wall of said chamber, and impeller vanes on said impeller plate and between said plate and said chamber walls.
FRANK L. ANTISELL..