US 1728781 A
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J. L. CAMERON WELL FISHING TOOL Filed Oct. 51. 1927 Sept. l 7, 192 9.
.Zwyzw Ja ren/26.2.. Cane/erom 47 @MM f1/MJ Patented Sept. y17, 1929 JARRETT L. camerieri, or onANGnrInLn, TEXAS, Assieion or' erin-HALF"roy EVANGELINE IRON W'ORKS, LTD., OF VINTON, LDUKISANA, CORPORATION 0F LOUISIANA WELL FISHING Toon Application iled October 31, 1927. Serial No. 229,956.
This invention relates to fishing tools ot the bowltype for use in recovering broken or disengaged drill pipe, casing, tubing, rods or tools from wells, more particularly oil and deep artesian or bored wells, yand has in view particularly such a tool provided with means whereby it may be quickly and Certainly released from such articles attempted to be recovered in case the latter ycannot be pulled or recovered, and is designed particularly with a view to use with the usual rotary well drilling apparatus now in general use.
r.lhe primary objects are to provide a very simple, sturdy and positivo acting bowl type fishing tool; to provide a very simple and powerful gripping element housed entirely in the interior of ythe tool and thereby pro-k tected; to provide `suoli a grippingelement in con'lbination with means'n'iounted thereon and having movement within the body ol' the tool longitudinally thereof over a limited patri and adapted to' be movedin positive engagement "with said gripping element longitudinally or endwise thereof and to abut against a suitable stop provided in the body of said tool to holdsaid gripping `element inoperative; to provi-de simple quickly `operable ineans for adjusting ythe grippingfelement from operative to inoperative position manually and prevent accidental chan-ge oit such adjustment; to provide in 'such a tool a construction whereby thereare no obstr-uctions preventing the passage oi the article being recovered completely through the tool in an axial direction, or the slipping downward of the tool over the article being' recovered to any desired point ofthe `articlebeing recovered; to provide in'such a construction means preventing the upward movement kof the gripping element withrelationfto the body of the tool, and vice* versa, beyond a certain point, whereby the weight ot the tool and the string of drillingtubing` connected to the upper portion thereof will. suiii'ce to .torce said gripping element over and along the article to be gripped; and to otherwise improve and simplify the constructionoi" such fishing tools, all as hereinafter more particularly set forth, described and claimed.
In the accompanying drawings, showing merely tliepreferredy embodiment of my in.
vention simply to illustrate the-practice of my invention, as by law required:
Figure l represents a sectional view taken on line 1 1 of F 1g. 6,1 looking in the direction of thearrow, of a tool embodying myy invention, the parts being arrangedin normal 'operative position as introducedinto ther well; f f, y
Figure 2, a view'similar ,to Fig. 1 `showing the tool 'in the iirstvstage of recovery ota rod, the gripping element withits ring being, forced upward intoengagement with the stop 3 and receiving between its 'j portion of they rod to be recovered; f Figure 3, a view similar to FigQ, the part being in intermediate positioninthe initial stage of upward pull, ythe body l having been rpulled longitudinally upward with relation to the gripping elementuntil `the' jaws of the latter have come into'initial contact with the downwardly :converging open bottom bowl;
Figure 4, a view similarto Fig. 3, the'parts being in final iirm'gripping arrangement, the relative longitudinally upward movement of the body l with relation to the gripping element having been completed and all parts of the' tool, together with the rod being recovered moving together under theinluence oi the upwaidfpull; f
Figure 5, r'a yview similar to Fig. 4, omitting the rod sought to be recovered, they ,grippingy element having been kmoved to release its grip onthe rod, and being held in such inoperativeposition, and `the tool asa aws the kupper whole having been pulled up from, and free i y of, the rod; if Figure 6, a
bottom end view of thefinishi ing tool; and
Figure 7, a fragmentary detailsectional n view on the line 77 of Fig. l.
Referring now in detail tothe drawings, A;
designates `the externally \screw-threadedy y' lower en'd portion of a string of drilling pipe or` tubing,` which` maybe comprised ofy any desired number oi sections of pipe ortubing as may bei necessary, to which `the fish'- ing tool may be connectedby means oan internally screw-threaded collar B having its lower portion shouldered and of reduced diameter, the reduced diameter portion being preferably.externally screw-threaded to cooperate with the upper end portion of the body l of the tool, said upper end portion of said body l beingy preferably internally screw-'threaded to be engaged by the externally screw-threaded reduced portion of the collar B, and said parts being screwed together soV that in normal assembled condition the upper end of body l is in engagement with the opposed face of the shoulder of the'collar B.
The screw-threads above mentioned, and all other screw-threads connecting the successive sections of drilling pipe, not shown, where morejthan one section of pipe is employed, will be right hand threads, so that rotation of the' string of drilling pipe to the right to release the article orripped may take place without risl of the disconnection of the string of pipe.
The internal threads in the upper portion of the body l arev preferably flush, or substantially so, with the inner face of the upper portion of said body l, and the reduced externally screw-threaded portion of collar B is of relatively heavy thick stock with its eXtreme lower end squared off so that in assembled relation said lower end of collar B willact as a shoulder or stop 3 extending abruptly at right angles to the adjacent inner face of the body l.
F rom said internal screw-threaded portion the-body l is formed with an internal working chamber orbarrel 2, which may be of circular cross-section, extending down to a lower stop 5, and below said stop 5 is formed with an expansion chamber 6, and,
belowsaid chamber 6, with a wedging or compressing' or bowl portion 8 which isV of rigid liXed form continuous in a peripheral directionand of which the inner face will preferably be of inverted frusto-conical conformation as shown, though this is not essential so longas said bowl 8 has opposing inner face portions converging downwardly.
From'the foregoing'it is to be understood that the fishing tool, comprising' the body l and collar B is tubular and open at both ends, the various chambers thereof all being in communication, and throughout its length its opposed portions of its interior are spaced at least as far apart as the diameter of its f lower opening, which constitutes its mouth,
the bottom of the body member l being frusto-conically countersunk concentric with said mouth to direct the articles being fished for into said mouth.
The working chamber or barrel 2, while preferably of general circular cross-section is preferably not truly circular, but is irregular so that `a y article of the proper size and of the saine shape as a true cross-section taken through said chamber cannot have rotary movement therein independent of said body l, but on the contrary ill engage some part of the surface defining said chamber 2 and will lock against the same to turn therewith. Such irregularity'in cross-section may be obtained in anyone of a number of diderent ways with resulting different crosssectional forms. [as one economical and practical construction l have provided a rib 7 extending axially for most of the length of worllfing barrel 2 and extending radially inward from the inner face or the wall of said chamber 2, which, except for said rib, is circular in cross section. lt is of no iinportance whether this rib 'l' be structurally integral with the body l, and as a matter of fact l have found it more practical to make a slot in the wall of chamber 2, after first boring or otherwise forming the inner true circular form in cross section, and to then insert the rib 'l' as a separate piece or lzey in said slot so as to extend radially into said chamber 2 and to then secure said rib 7 in said slot, as by welding, or in any other suitable manner, so asto be held immovable with relation to said body l to be, operatively considered, integral therewith.
A large operating or release nut 9 of the same cross-sectional shape as, and of a size to make a nice working lit in, the barrel 2 is arranged therein. lt follows from the foreA going that said nut 9, in the present embodiment,is externally slotted parallel to its axis to receive and slide longitudinally of the rib 7 and to engage with the saine to prevent independent rotary movement between said body l and nut 9, though permitting a limited amount of relative longitudinal movement between said parts limited by the stops 3 and 5. Said nut 9 is formed with a right-hand internal screw-thread as shown to receive the cooperating `external screw-thread on the upper ring portion l0 of the gripping element Which depends therefrom.
The lower portion of said gripping elementis formed with an externally downwardly converging wedging face, conforming to the opposed face of the bowl S, and being of in verted frusto-conical form in the embodiment illustrated, and is preferably of appreciably greater thickness than the rest of said gripping element.
Said gripping element is preferably a single integral piece, tubular in form, and is slotted as at ll from its lower end through the thickened portion and for the greater portion of the length of said element, there being preferably three such slots, as shown, or more, to form a plurality of segments or gripping jaws l2 depending by integral spring or resilient portions from the ring portion l() integral therewith, and normally held, by said spring or resilient portions, spaced from each Ik(if) other so that the walls of said slots 11 are parallel. f f
The inner faces oi" said jaws 12 will preferably be serrated and approximately vertical, as shown, or they may be otherwise formed to afford a positive grip for biting into the rod or other article to `be recovered. The diameter of the opening defined by said jaws 12 prior to compression by the bowl 8 will be 'less than the diameter of the mouth in the bottom of the tool, and less than the internal diameter of the gripping element at any other point and less than'the internal diameter of any chamber of the` body 1 and of the collar B and string of drilling pipe A. Further, all portions of said gripping element below the screw-threaded portion of the ring portion 10 and including the jaws 12 will be of such external diameter as to permit the easy withdrawal of the :gripping element completely from the body 1 after the collar B and body 1 shall have been separated by unscrewino'.
bln operation, the parts are first adjusted f approximately as rillustrated in. Figure 1, the
operating or release nut4 9 extending slightly above the upper end of the ring portion 10 of the grippingl element, so that said nut 9 and the gripping element may move freely in either longitudinal direction in the body 1, the contact, as the tool is lowered, with the rod or article being recovered, holding said gripping element,with the release nut 9, raised until the shoulder 3 drops down on the upper i end of nut 9,see Fig. 2, forcing the gripping element down along therod being recovered, the jaws 12-slightly yspreading to admit the said rod. Then the upward pull is begun, pulling the body upward with relation to the grippingV element, which is held by its frictional grip with the said rod, until the outer faces of the jaws 12 are engaged by the op-r posed face portions of the bowl 8, as illustrated in Figure 3, when continued upward pull moves the body 1 longitudinally upward with relation to the jaws 12 in contact with Said bowl 8 and thus by wedging action forces said jaws 12 radially toward each other, causing them to bite into the said rod until the adjacent edges of the jaws 1.2 are in contact, or until relativelongitudinal movement between the body 1 and the gripping element ceases,`the extent of such movement depending in large parten the weight of the said rod orother article being recovered and the pull n necessary to free it if caught. y
Assuming that said rod is gripped as above, but is hitched in the well and cannot be pulled, so that it is desired to release the grip and re move the fishing tool,`the string vof 'drilling pipe A, collar B and the rbody 1 are first slackened off so that the partsk assume approximately the relation shown in Figure 2, and then rotated to the right, causing the nut 9 to ride downover the ring portion 10 of the gripping element-until said nut 9 engages the f upper face of stop 55,' so holding the gripping elementin raised inoperative position with the outer faces of the jaws 12 held well out of contact `with the inner face of the bowl 8,' as illustrated in Fig. 5,' so that the `grip on the said rod is released and the gripping element rendered inoperative 'to yfgrip again until in combination with`r arrinternallyfscrew threaded release nut mounted in said working barrel to turn with said body and-adapted to` have movement in said working barrel longitudinally thereof, a gripping element 'comprising an externally screw-threaded upper ring portion in cooperative engagement with j said Inut, and a: pluralityfof jaws, each said jaw depending yfrom said ring portion 'and having a downwardly inwardlyf tapering outer face, whereby said jaws in moving downwardly into Contact with the `inner face of` said bowl are forced'radially inward toward leach other with alwedging action" 'to grip an article between theirinn'er jaws,'and a stop, said nut in rotatingin one direction `with said body being 'adapted to move ldown over said gripping element into Contact with said stop to hold said jaws out of contact withsaid bowl. i f' l 2,.r A fishing tool comprising a tubular bodv formed with a ,working barrel and a ydownwardly converging open bottom bowl in its lower portion below said working barrel, said barrel and'bowl being in communication, in combinationwith an internally screw-thread 'ed release nut mountedin said barrel to rturn with saidlbody and adapted toliaveniovement in said'worling' barrel longitudinally thereof, means limiting the" longitudinal movement of said nut awayfrom said bowl, 7
a stop limiting suchinovement of said nut toward saidr bowl, anda gripping element comprising an externally screw-'threaded ring portion in cooperative engagement with said nut, and a plurality of jaws depending from V said ring portion, each saidjaw having a vdownwardlytaperingouter face adapted to move downward and simultaneously radially inward in contact with the opposing portion of the innerface yof said bowl, y'said nut in rotating in one direction with said bodybeing adapted `toinove down over 'said grip ing element into contact with said stop yto iold said jaws 'in inoperative position." f
y3; Alishing tool comprising a tubular body JOS formed with a working barrel and a downlwardly converging yopen bottom bowl in its lower end portiony below said barrel, said barrel and bowl being in communication, in combination with an internally screw-threaded release nut corresponding in shape to the cross-sectional shape of said working barrel and being noncircular in cross-section mounted in said barrelfor limited aXial movement therein longitudinally thereof, a stop, and a gripping element comprising an'externally screw-threaded' upper ring portion in cooperative engagement with said nut, and a plurality of jaws integral with and depending from said ring portion, each said jaw having an inner gripping face and a downwardly inwardly tapering outer face adapted to cooperate `with the opposed portion of the inner face of said bowl, said nut in rotating in one direction with said body moving endwise of the gripping element into contact with said stop to prevent movement of said gripping element with relation to said body toward said bowl.
4. A ishing tool comprising a tubular body, and a stop extending radially inward from the inner face of said body and operatively immovable with relation thereto, said body being formed with-a working barrel above said stop and a downwardly converging open bottom bowl belowrsaid stop, in combination with an internally screw-threaded release nut mounted in said barrel to turn with said body and to have limited longitudinal movement in said working barrel, and a gripping element comprising an externally screwthreaded ring portion in cooperative engagement with said nut and a plurality of jaws integral with saidring portion, each said jaw having an inner gripping face and a downwardly inwardly tapering outer face adapted to slidably engage the inner face of said bowl, said nut in rotatingin one direction with said body being adapted to. move endwise of the gripping element down into engagement with saidV stop while said jaws are out of contact with the opposed face of said bowl and to hold said jaws in such inoperative position.
5. A fishing tool comprising a tubular body open at both ends, andV a stopprovided in said body extending radially inward from the innerface thereof and operatively immovable with relation thereto, said body be ing formed with a working barrel above said stop, an expansion chamber nextbelow said stop, and a downwardly converging open bottom bowl below said expansion chamber, in combination with an itnernally screw-threaded release nutY mounted in said working barrel to have limited longitudinal movement therein and to turn with said body, and a gripping element comprising anmexternally screw-threaded ring portion in cooperative engagement with said nut, a plurality of resilient segments depending from said ring portion, and a plurality of jaws respectively depending from the respective resilient segments, each said jaw having a serrated inner gripping face and a downwardly inwardly t-apeing outer face corresponding in form to the opposed portion of the inner race of the bowl portion of the body and cooperating therewith, said nut being adapted to be moved endwise of said gripping element down into contact with said stop while said jaws are out of engagement with the inner Jface of said bowl. n
6. A fishing tool comprising a tubular body open at both ends, an upper stop, a'lower stop provided .in said body, and a rib extending axially of said body and projecting radially inward from the inner 'ace thereotbetween said stops, said body being formed with a working barrel between said stops, an eX- /ansion chamber next below said lower stop, and a downwardly converging open bottom bowl below said expansion chamber, in combination with an internally screw-threaded externally slotted nut mounted in said working barrel for limited longitudinal movement therein between said stops and receiving in its external slot said rib to be held thereby inst rotation independent of said body, and a gripping element comprising an externally screw-threaded upperring portion in cooperative'engagement with said nut, a plurality of yresilient segments depending from said ring portion, and a plurality of aws respectively depending from the respective resilient segments, reach said jaw having a serrated inner gripping face and a downwardly inwardly tapering outer face to cooperate with the opposing portion of the inner face of said bowl, said nut being adapted to be moved endwise of the gripping element into Contact with said lower stop while said aws are out of contact with the inner 'face of said bowl.
7. .fi `fishing tool comprising a collar having its lower portion externally screw-threaded, a tubular body having its upper portion internally screw-threaded and receiving said lower portion of the collar, the loweri'ace of which is of substantial thickness and extends substantiallyv perpendicularly to the adjacent portion of the inner face of said body member, a lower stop provided in said body member and extending radially inward from the inner i'ace thereof and operatively immovable with relation thereto, and a rib operatively immovable with relation to said body and extending axially thereof and projecting radially inward from the inner face thereol1 between said stops, said body being formed with a working barrel between said stops, an expansion chamber nent below said lower stop, and a downwardly converging inverted frustro-conieal open bottom bowl below said expansion chamber, in combination with an rality of resilient portions depending from said ring portion, and a pluralityV of jaws respectively carried by said resilient portions, each said jaw having a serrated substantially vertical inner gripping face and a downwardly inwardly tapering outer face corresponding in form to the opposed portion of the inner face of the bowl portion 'of said body and cooperating therewith7 whereby said jaws in moving downward in contact with said bowl are forced radially inward toward each other with a wedging action to grip an article between their inner faces, said nut being adapted to be turned with said body about said gripping element to move downward of the latter into contactl with the lower stop with the said jaws out of engage ment with said bowl and to hold said gripping elementin such inoperative position.
8. A fishing tool comprising tubular body open at both ends, a stop immovable with relation to, and projecting from, the inner face of said body, and a nut mounted in said body to turn therewith and to have a limited longitudinal movement above said stop, the said body having a downwardly converging` open bottom bowl below said stop, in combination with a tubular gripping element having an externally screw-threaded ring portion engaging in said nut and comprising downwardly depending jaws connected thereto, each said jaw having an inner gripping face and an outer downwardly inwardly tapering face cooperating with the opposed portions of the inner face of said bowl, the said nut being adapted to move downward on said gripping element when the jaws of the latter are out of contact with said bowl and to engage said stop to hold said element in such inoperative position, and the said body, nut and gripping element being of such construction as to provide a straight unobstructed passage through the tool of a transverse area at all points at least as large as the transverse area between said jaws while out of contact with said bowl. y i
In testimony whereof, I have signedmy name to this specification at Orangeeld, Texas, this 26 day of October, 1927.
JARRETT L. CAMERON.