US 1732540 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 22, 1929. SAYL 1,732,540
METHOD FOR MAKING FAST COLORED CREPE PAPER AND RESULTING PRODECT Filed 001;. 2, 1926 Patented Oct. 22, 1929 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GALEN H.
SAYLER, OF FRAMINGHAM, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR T0 DENNISON TION OF MASSACHUSETTS METHOD FOR MAKING FAST-COLORED CREPE PAPER AND RESULTING PRODUCT Application filed October 2, 1926. Serial No. 139,176.
This invention relates to a method for making colored crepe paper (more especially from light weight papers or tissues) which is non-bleeding or relatively fast, and to the resulting product.
In the art as heretofore known and practiced, it has not been accomplished to make a crepe paper of brilliant coloration which also retains its color upon becoming wet. As a consequence, in subsequent steps of manufacture or in the course of using such products it has been necessary to avoid any appreciable contact with moisture, since the coloring matter is readily dissolved and removed. Even' slight dampness causes the dye to bleed and may in turn effect the dyeing of other materials, with which it comes into contact, morepermanently than the paper, while excessive moisture or repeated wetting will largely dissolve and remove the color from the dyed sheet.
The procedure hitherto available for dyeing paper have consisted in either dyeing the pulp from which the paper was subsequently to be made or passing the paper through a bath of dye (or between calender rolls wet with the dye) followed by subjecting it to the usual operations for creping.
Paper made by merely dyeing the pulp in the beater is generally not entirely satisfactory for the subsequent operations required for creping on account of the tendency for the dye to go into solution in the creping bath.
Furthermore, if it be attempted to render the colored pulp resistant to water, as by mordanting, this results in depositing an insoluble color lake upon and between the fibers, thus more or less filling the interstices and covering the surface of the fibers with a superficial insoluble layer of the dye. Not only is such a result uneconomical of d e but the colors thus obtainable are dull and ustreless. Moreover, only a relatively small portion of the dye being combined within the fibers, an appreciable proportion is retained only by virtue of its mechanical adhesion to the fiber surfaces.
This dullness of color is attributed to the fact that surface deposits of color substances are not susceptible of presenting a high degree of lustre or brilliancy of color. On the other hand, transparent colored material, has an inherently bright color value and also possesses an additional surface lustre or sheen. These conditions in fact obtain with individual cellulosic fibers which have been dyed with a cellulosic-soluble dye but such fibers, as dyed in accordance with prior practices of the art, have been overlaid by adherent coatings of the solution which up on drying leave a deposit of dye which somewhat impairs such brilliancy. Moreover, when it has been attempted to mordant the dye, as in beater dyeing, this superficial coating has been rendered insoluble and relatively opaque and dull, and hence the obtainment of bright colors and resistance to moistureshave been heretofore diametrically opposed factors in the art of making colored paper, and more especially so when undertaken in conjunction with the creping operation. It is therefore desirable to decrease so far as possible or practicable the surface deposit of dye and at the same time to provide a sufficient amount of color substance adsorbed or dissolved within the cellulosicfibers to produce the desired color shade, and to fix it therein.
It has also been practiced to carry the paper through a dye treatment, either by passing the sheet through a solution of the dye, or between calender rolls adapted to apply the solution thereto, and then running the sheet through a creping bath or using a single creping bath containing the dye therein, followed by creping from the surface of a heated roller in the customary manner of procedure forobtaining the result. But the product as produced by former practice contains dyes which are in large part water soluble so that they are easily removed upon subsequent wetting or by dampness.
It is therefore an object of this invention to make a colored crepe paper in which the colors shall be brilliant and substantially or completely contained within the fibers, and which shall be non-bleeding or relatively fast with respect, to the action of moisture thereon. It is a further object that the process shall be economical of time, labor and ratio, as hereinafter to be explained. F urt-her objects of the invention will appear from the following disclosure.
In brief, and as representative of its more essential elements, the method of the invention includes the steps of treating a sheet of paper with a solution of a dye and with a fixing reagent (with or without intermediate removal of excess of the first solution and/ or drying of the sheet, and either in the sequence stated or in the reverse order or simultaneously) followed by creping the dyed sheet, preferably while still wetor damp from the previous stage of treatment. The liquid used in the second treatment may also conveniently ISJBIX}? the additional function of a creping The dye may be any suitable dyeing compound of the desired color so long as it does not manifest any deleterious action upon the paper and is capable of thoroughly and uniformly wetting and permeating the cellulosic fibers of the same. Basic dyes are ordinarily to be preferred and it is further generally desirable that the dye shall not be affected by nor in turn corrode the apparatus employed.
For example, for an orange coloration of the paper the following dye solution has been found eminently satisfactory:
Auramine (concentrated) 32 ounces, rhodamine 6 G DN ex 14 ounces, water 60 gallons; while for green- Auramine (concentrated) 60 ounces, methylene blue (zinc free) 80 ounces, water -60 gallons, gives good results.
The fixing reagent will of course depend primarily upon the dye which is to be fixed or rendered insoluble and permanently associated with the paper sheet. In addition, it is desirable that it should not react appreciably with the apparatus nor be affected thereby, unless the apparatus be protected to prevent such reaction. It is also desirable for some purposes that the fixing reagent and its reaction product with the dye within the paper fibers shall be relatively transparent or translucent rather than opaque solids, so that the full color value and brilliancy of the fixed dye may be effective.
For the purposes of the present invention, however, it is essential that neither the dye or fixing agent shall seriously impair the creping operation. The creping operation,in general and more especially when making a closely folded or finely creped paper,requires the provision of firm adhesion to a smooth surface or creping roll from which the paper issubsequently removed by a scraper or doctor blade, the paper leaving the roll as the pressure of the doctor blade exceeds the strength of the adhesive. The plaited or creped efiect is imparted to the paper as the successive portions of the sheet thus crinkled up leave the roll. To effect this result an adhesive such as glue, dextrine or the like is added to that solution from which the sheet passes to the creping operation. Accordingly, for the purposes of the present invention it is important that neither the dye nor fixing agent shall seriously impair the adhesion of the paper to the roll nor react with the adhesive material employed. In other Words, the several reagents should be mutually compatible. It is further advantageous if the adhesive may be freely admixed, in the requisite proportions, with the dye solution or, more desirably, with the solution of fixing reagent, without precipitation or other adverse effect upon either reagent and without deleterious effect upon the properties of the resulting solution. The latter may thereby serve the two-fold purpose of a dyeing or fixing solution as the case may be and of a creping bath.
A fixing reagent which is especially appropriate to the conditions encountered in coloring and making crepe paper is known as Katanol-O which is a reaction product oforthochlorophenol and sulfur in alkaline solution at elevated temperature. However, other fixing agents may be employed such as tannin, tartar emetic, direct dyes, the usual mordants and other reagents of like characteristics.
' A typical and preferred application of the invention will be described with respect to the production of a high crepe ratio or a closely creped tissue paper, or both, by means of the apparatus illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which,
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic side elevation of apparatus suitable for the continuous dyeing and creping of paper in accordance with the present invention; and
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of apparatus adapted for the dyeing procedure alone, when the process is conducted in two separate stages of operations.
Referring to Fig. 1, the apparatus includes a roll 1 of the paper to be colored and creped which is carried upon a roller 2 mounted upon trunnions 3. The dyeing means or fixing bath 4 includes a guide roller 5 followed by a flooding bar 6, a rubber roller 7 which dips into the dye solution 8 contained in tank 9 and a cylindrical drying drum 10 rotatably mounted at 11 and preferably hearing with adjustable pressure against the rubber roller 7. At the point of off take from drum 10 there is placed a guide roller 12. An air nozzle or blower 13 may also be provided adjacent the oil take from the'drying drum.
The creping means 15 include a guide roller 16 a flooding bar 17 a rubber roller 18 which dips into the creping bath 19 contained in tank 21 and contacts with creping roller 22 rotatably mounted thereabove.
Cont-acting with the surface of the Creping roll is mounted a doctor blade or knife 23 inclined at a suitable angle and adjusted in accordance with the type of creping to be effected upon the paper. A guide roller 24 is placed above the doctor blade, and re- Winder or gathering roller (not shown) is provided for taking up the finished creped product. An air nozzle 26 may also be placed adjacent to the creping roll for effecting a more complete drying of the paper preliminary to the removal thereof by the doctor blade.
The paper used is preferably light weight or tissue paper and is advantageously finished with a smooth side such as that produced by passing over a hot calender surface in the original manufacture thereof. It is also desirable that the sheet shall be readily wet and penetrated by liquid and that the individual fibers shall be rapidly saturated by the dye solution to be used, but that it shall not absorb and retain large volumes of the solution. A still further helpful though not essential qualification is that the sheet shall be relatively strong both while wet and while dry.
Preliminary to the operation of the apparatus, the sheet 1 is drawn from roller 2, passed over guide roller 5, under the flooding bar 6 over rubber roller 7,-through the nip between the roller 7 and drying drum 10, and thence over the drum and under guide roller 12. The sheet is then passed over guide roller 16, under flooding bar 17 over rubber roller 18, through the nip between roller 18 and creping roll 22 to the doctor blade 23, and thence over guide roller 24 to further drying apparatus or a re- Winder, of any convenient tpye.--not shown.
In order to preserve the finished side of the sheet until after the creping operation and also to develop and retain the sheen therefrom in the finished product, it is preferable to bring this side into contact with the smooth creping surface employed (which is preferably also heated).
The gathering apparatus or re-winder may be positively driven and it is usually preferably that the heavier rollers of the series should also be positively driven, in proper relation with each other and without creating unequal strains upon the sheet either while wet or dry, but more especially while wet.
The dye, solution (such as that prepared according to the formu a above given) is then supplied to'tank 9 while a solution of an appropriate mordanting reagent is added to tank 21, preferably Katanol-O of a concen tration of 2% more'or less, in water, for example. To the second bath is added a small amount of adhesive, thereby rendering the mordanting bath of suitable properties for use as a creping bath also. The adhesive may consist of glue, dextrine, or like sub stances, which are soluble in water, adhesive, and not adversely affected by the mordanting reagent. It will be clear that, if the mordanting reagent be applied first (as from tank 9) and the dye solution second (as from tank 21) the adhesive or creping reagent may be added to the dye bath. It may also be practised to add the creping reagent to the first bath but ordinarily this order of procedure will result in disadvantages and inconveniences.
In operation, the paper is drawn from roll 2 and over guide roller 5 and thence under flooding bar 6 and through the nip between rubber roller 7 and drying drum 10. As the rubber roller 7 rotates, it carries upon its outer surface a copious supply of dye solution from tank 9. Upon contacting with the under surface of the sheet 1 this solution wets and penetrates the same, and as the surface of the roller carries it through the nip of drum 10, the pressure therebetween forces an appreciable part of the dye solution through the sheet and out upon the upper surface. It then flows backward over the upper surface of the sheet and collects along the flooding bar 6 which tends to uniformly distribute the pool of dyeing solution thus formed throughout he width of the sheet. The pool of dye solution and the contact and slight rubbing action of the flooding bar at this point upon the upper surface of the sheet still further promotes the uniform wetting and penetration of the sheet by the solution.
As the dye-wet sheet passes between the rubber roll 7 and drying drum 10 a close contact of the sheet with the surface of the drum is effected and at the same time substantial- 1y all of the superficially adherent and entrained solution is removed therefrom. The drum is preferably heated, as by steam, which, assisted by a current of air from the blower 13, may remove substantially all of the entrained moisture leaving the sheet relatively dry or with the amount of liquid required for the fixing and creping operations. A lesser degree of drying may be suflicient, especially in continuous sequence of operations, but removal of the excess dye solution before submitting it to the fixing reagent is extremely important if not essential for the obtainment of bright colors and a brilliant sheen in the paper surface.
The sheet then travels under guide roller 12 over roller 16 under the flooding bar 17, where it is thoroughly permeated by the solution of mordanting regaent or Katanol-O which may also contain glue or other adhesive (which is inert with respect to the mordant) thence over roller 18, and-between roller 18 and creping roller 22. The roller 18 carries the fixing reagent and crepin solution into contact with the under sur ace of the sheet, thereby thoroughly wetting the same. Part of the solution penetrates the sheet and more is later forced therethrough as the sheet passes between the rubber roller 18 and the creping roll 22. The solution which penetrates the sheet flows down over its upper surface and gathers into a pool which spreads along the flooding bar 17 relatively uniformly and throughout the width of the sheet.
The sheet, as it passes between the rubber roll and creping roll, intimately contacts with the latter and firmly adheres thereto as the solution evaporates under the heat of the roll and in the air currents from blower 26. When the sheet 1 reaches the doctor blade 23, the closely fitting blade skives the sheet off from the creping roll and folds it back upon itself in a succession of plaits or wrinkles thus forming hills and valleys of a greater or lesser height, de ending for example upon the adhesion of t 1e paper to the roll and also upon the position and shape of the doctor blade.
The length of the sheet is shortened by the creping operation,'1Q inches of paper being insome instances reduced to four inches or less after creping while in others the shortening may be of the order of 5 to 4. This proportionate reduction in length is known as the creping ratio.
The creped sheet is then drawn up over guide roller 24 and may be passed through further drying apparatus if desired and thence to a take up roller, re-winder or other device for gathering it in convenient form.
As a modified form of the adaptation of the invention in actual practice, it may be desirable to conduct the same inseparate stages of operation. To this end-the paper may be dyed (or mordanted) in an apparatus as shown in Fig. 2, in which like numerals correspond to like parts in Fig. 1,the paper being dried immediately after the dyeing (or mordanting) operation and taken up on a re-winder 27. The thus dyed (or mordanted) roll of paper may be stored and subsequently creped as desired, as in the man-,
ner already described, the creping solution containing the required dye or mordant.
The colored crepe paper thus produced by either treatment is characterized by being susceptible of possessing either a high crepe ratio or a'fineness of crepe texture or both and also by its brightness of color, a brilliant sheen and marked uniformity in both texture and appearance. These properties are further enhanced by employing tissues having a finished surface, but they are primarily to be attributed to the Penetration of the fibers by a large proportion of the dye solution and the fixation of the thus adsorbed dye, andto the removal of a. large part of the superficial deposits of dye from the surface of the sheet.
Accordingly, the relatively dye free cellulosic surfaces retain their lustre or quality for acquiring a lustre, and the total of reflected and transmitted light is thereby greatly increased, resulting in the marked brilliancy of the colored paper.
WVhatever the true explanation of the several desirable properties and 'qualities manifested by paper colored and creped in accordance with the invention, it is sufficient to state that in general a much more satisfactory and desirable product is attained by this procedure, that it may be controlled and produced at will upon an industrial scale of operations, and that it constitutes a product not hitherto known to the art.
It will be apparent that numerous changes may be made in the procedure of the invention and in the raw materials and reagents used, when it is applied in actual practice and adapted to the varying conditions of operation and for the production of different qualities and kinds of products desired, such changes and modifications are however, to be considered as comprehended by the above disclosure and included within the terms of the following claims,
1. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper, which comprises treating a sheet of paper with a dye solution and with a fixing reagent, and creping the same.
2. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper, which comprises treating a sheet of paper with a dye solution and with a solution of fixing reagent in the desired order, and thereafter creping the same, the second of said solutions serving as a creping bath.
3. Method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises treating a sheet of paper with a solution of dye and with a solution of a fixing reagent in the desired order, and with intermediate removal of any excess of the first solution, and creping the sheet.
4. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises treating a sheet of paper with a dye solution and with a solution of fixing reagent in the desired order, and thereafter creping the same, the second of said solutions containing an adhesive and serving as a creping bath.
5. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises treating a sheet of paper with an excess of dye solution, removing the unadsorbed residue of dye solution therefrom, treating the sheet with a solution of a fixing reagent, and creping the sheet directly after treatment with the fixing solution.-
6. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises treating a sheet of paper with an excess of dye solution, removing the unadsorbed residue of dye solution therefrom, treating the sheet with a solution of a fixing reagent, containing an adhesive, and creping the sheet direct- 1y after treatment with the fixing solution.
7 A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises subjecting a strip of paper first to a dye solution, then to a fixing reagent, and finally creping the same in continuous succession of steps.
8. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises subjecting a strip of paper to a dye solution, by flooding the surface thereof, removing any excess of dye solution from the sheet, subjecting the sheet to a solution of fixing reagent and finally creping the dyed sheet.
9. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper which comprises subjecting a strip of paper to a dye solution, flooding the surface, removing any excess of dye solution from the sheet, subjecting the sheet to a solution of fixing reagent, flooding the surface and finally creping the dyed sheet.
10. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper, which comprises subjecting a strip of paper to a solution of a basic ye, removing any superficial excess of dye solution therefrom, treating the same with a fixing agent and thereafter creping the thus dyed sheet.
11. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper, which comprises subjecting a strip of paper to a solution of a basic dye, removing any superficial excess of dye solution therefrom, treating the same with a solution of Katanol-O and thereafter creping the thus dyed sheet.
12. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper, which comprises treating a sheet of paper with a basic dye solution and an ammoniacal solution of Katanol-O and thereafter creping the sheet.
13. A method for making non-bleeding colored crepe paper, which comprises treating a sheet of paper with a dye solution and a solution of fixing reagent and creping the wet sheet.
14. As a product of manufacture, colored tissue paper characterized by brilliancy of color, by containing a dyestutf therein non bleeding with respect to water, and by possessing a creped surface.
15. As a product of manufacture, colored tissue paper characterized by brilliancy of color, by containing a dyestuff therein nonbleeding with respect to Water, and by possessing a creped surface of a high degree of fineness.
16. As a product of manufacture, colored tissue paper characterized by brilliancy of color, by containing a dyestuff therein nonbleeding with respect to Water, and by possessing a creped surface having a high crepe ratio.
17. Asa product of manufacture, colored tissue paper characterized by containing the color substance largely within the cellulosic fibers thereof, in relatively insoluble or nonbleeding condition and possessing a creped surface.
18. As a product of manufacture, colored tissue paper characterized by containing the color substance largely within the cellulosic fibers thereof and fixed, in relatively insoluble or non-bleeding condition, by a mordanting reagent and possessing a creped surface.
19. As a product of manufacture, colored tissue paper characterized by containing the color substance largely within the cellulosic fibers thereof and fixed, in relatively insoluble or non-bleeding condition, by Katanol-O and possessing a creped surface.
Signed by me at Framingham, Massachusetts', this twenty-eighth day of September,
GALEN H. SAYLER.