US 1734941 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 5, 1929. cs. P. COWLES 1,734,941
I ELECTRICAL ACTUATING MEANS FOR CLOCKS AND OTHER INSTRUHENTS Filed Jan. 5. 1928 2 Shets-Sheet 1' IR/Tuba 25. v W ATTORNEY Nov. 5, 1929* e. P. COWLES ELECTRICAL ACTUATING MEANS FOR CLOCKS AND OTHER INSTRUMENTS Filed ,Jan. 5, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 4; Q. RM
ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 1929 UNITED" STATES PATENT OFFICE Gnonen' r. commas, or BROOKLYN, NEW YORK Application filed January 5, 1928., Serial No. 244,720.
This invention relates to electrical actuating means for clocks andother instruments and, with regard to certain more specific features thereof, to electrically driven clocks.
5 One of the objects of the invention is to provide an electrically actuatin means of the above nature which is practica and efiicient.
Another object is to provide an electrical actuating means of the above nature which is simple in construction and dependable in operation. -Another object is to. provide an electric motor for driving clocks or other measuring or'like-instruments which is small,
compact, economical to run and inexpensive to build. Another object is to provide a device of the above nature by means of which a plurality of inde endent mechanisms may be actuated econom cally. Anotherobject is to provide an electrically actuated clock which .20 is accurate and dependable. Other objects.
' will be in part obviousuor in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordinglyconsists in the features of construction, combinations of ele- 2 ments, and arrangements of parts as will be exem lified in the structure to be hereinafter described and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
a In the accompanying drawings, in which 'is shown one of the various ments of this invention,
' Figure 1 is a front elevation of a clock mechanism;
Figure 2 is a rear elevation of an electrical actuating means or motor which, in the embodimenthere shown, is mounted upon the rear of the clock mechanism seen in Figure 1 Figure 3 is a section taken substantially as indicated by the section line 3+3 in Figure 1 I Figure 4 is an end view of the electrical driving means;
possible embodi- Figure 5 isadetail view showing fpart of the clock mechanism in various positions, and Figure 6 is another view of the part shown in Figure 5 and on a smaller scale 'than the scale used in Figure 5.
Similar reference characters refer to sim'ilar parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
Referring now to the drawings more in detail, I have shown the electrical actuating means herein in conjunction with, and for supplying energy to drive, a clock mechanism. s shown most clearly in Figure 3, the clock mechanism which I have illustrated is mounted upon and supported by two spaced frame members, a front frame member 8 and a rear frame member 9, and I have shown the electrical actuating means or motor mounted upon the rear side of the frame member 9.
Referring to Figure 2, the electrical driving means or motor which I; ;have shown here in includes two rotors indicated generally in Figure 2 by the reference numerals 10 and 11. The two rotors are mounted respectively upon shafts 12 and 1 -which are rotatably suppor'tedin any suita le manner; for example, as shown in Figure 3, the shaft 13 is shown having a bearing at one end in the frame member 8 of the clock mechanism at 16 and having a bearing at the other end 17 in the end face 18 of a tubular member 19 which is made of a suitable non-magnetic material such as brass, for example, and which surrounds the rotor, being suitably secured to the frame member 9 of the clock mechanism and projecting rearwardly therefrom.
' The two rotors, which I have indicated generally by the numbers 10 and 11 in Figure 2, are preferably similar in "construction and similarly supported so that one only need be described in detail. The rotors may be of any suitable construction which adapts them to rotate in a rotating magnetic field and to thus operate upon the principle of the induc-' tion motor. For exam le, the rotors may be. constructed substantia 1y as is illustrated in Figure 3, consisting of an open-ended cylinder 20 of iron or other magnetic material secured about an inner member or spider 21 of suitable non-magnetic material such as brass, the member 21 being fixed upon the rotor shaft.
Referring again to Figure 2; there is shown I a .winding'or coil 22 which may be connected to any suitable source of single phase alternat-ing current such, for example, as a house goo lighting circuit. The magnetic fields v in 5:
. 26 extending outwardly on the other side leg, as viewed in thereof. The stator core or frame shown herein is of substantially the same construction on both sides of the center leg 23, the two rotors 10 and 11 cooperating with portions of the stator frame which are substantially identical, and therefore it will be sufficient to describe in detail the frame or core construction on one side only of the center leg 23 or the portion cooperating with one rotor only. 'Considering, therefore, the construction at the ri hthand side of the center igure 2, the two arms 25 and 26 are at theirends provided with, or shaped so as to provide, suitable pole pieces for 'coaction with the rotor 11. Thus, the laminations making up the stator frame portions 25 and 26 are shaped to provide pole pieces 27, 28, 29 and 30, the latter in turn having curved extensions forming pole tips 27*, 28 29-and 30 respectively. a The pole tips 27 and 29 may be inter-leaved and also the pole tips 28 and 30*, this inter-leaved arrangement being achieved by extendingcen tain of the laminations of the pole pieces toward one another, but with appropriate air gaps between their side faces and end faces,- as will be clear from a consideration of Figure 4:. The air gaps may be achieved in various ways and without the inter-leaved arrangement if desired. As will be clearlyseen in Figure 2, the inter-leaved pole tips extend substantially about the rotor 11.
Consideri g now the action of these parts, as the curre t flowing through the coil 22 sets up a magnetic flux in the stator core frame 24;, and considering the flux-set up during or as a result of a single half cycle of-the ener-' gizing current, this flux may be considered as passing through the core leg 23, thence through the part 25, whence it becomes subdivided into a flux component passing through the pole piece 27 and another flux component passing through the pole piece 28. These two flux components pass through the iron of the rotor 11, suitably guided by the pole tips, and thence through the core part 26 and back to the core part 23.
The two flux components are given an appropriate phase displacement with respect to one another by any suitable means; preferably, this is achieved by means of the menn' bars 31 and 32, each consisting of a bandyor upon itself and extending, about these portions of the magnetic circuit. ;A flux component-sets up a current in the members 31 and 32, which current so reacts upon the flux that this flux component is thrown out of phase with respect to the other flux component. The two flux components, thus thrown out of phase, produce the effect of a rotating magnetic field which tends to rotate the rotor 11.
As the one half cycle ofthe energizing current in the coil 22 is-completed, and the succeeding half cycle comes on, the flux set up by the coil 22 is reversed and the two flux components above described are also reversed in direct-ion, but with the same results, so that. the rotating magnetic field is constantly maintained andexerts a constant torque on the rotor 11'. p
' At the same time that the flux is acting upon the rotor 11 as above described, another portion of the flux produced by the current in the same coil 22 pasess through the magneticcircuit including the arms 25 and 26 on the opposite side of the center leg 23. This latter portion of'the flux co'acts with the rotor 10 and in the same manner and with the same action and effect upon the rotor 10 as has been described above in connection with the rotor 11, so that a constant torque-is'exerted upon the rotor 10.
The single coil 22 thus sets up a magnetic fiux which continually tends to rotate the two independent rotors 10 and 11 as long as a proper source ofenergy is applied across the coil. The flux set up by the single coil drives the two rotors independently f'each other and without one being affected by stopping or-st-arting or change in load upon the other. In the embodiment shown herein, employed in conjunction with a clock mechanism, I have shown two rotors, but it is to be understood that the core frame 24; may be extended or differently shaped to accommodate at larger number of rotors each driven by the'magnetic flux set up by the coil 22 and each independent of the others. In conjunction with the clock mechanism here shown, two rotors are all that .are required,- as will be pointed out more fully hereinafter but with certain types of measuring instruments or other similar'instruments it may be found desirable to increase the number of rotors.
In the embodiment here shown, the rotor 11 is adapted to ,supply energy for driving thetime train of the clock mechanism and the rotor 10 is ada ted for supplying energy to actuate the stri e train or strike mechanism. Referring now to Figure 3, the shaft 13 of the rotor 11 extends between the two clock frame members' 8 and 9 andhas fixed thereon a gear lever 54 ,which is suitab 35-. This gear 35 meshes with a larger gear 36 which is formed integrally with or fixed upon a hub or sleeve 37, the sleeve 37 being rotatably mounted upon a shaft 38 which is a part of the clock mechanism. About the shaft 38 is a coil spring 39 the inner end of which is connected at 40 to the shaft 38, the spring 39 being thus connected to rotate the shaft 38 as it uncoils. The spring 38 is preferably enclosed in a housing member 41 and the outer end of the spring is fixed to the inner side of this housing member at 42. The housing member 41 is fixed to the gear 36, as by means of rivetted-over lugs 43 and, with the gear 36, it'is rotatably mounted about the shaft 38 by means of a hub portion 44.
As the spring 39 uncoils and rotates the shaft 38, it drives the gear 45 which is fixed upon the shaft 38, and the ear 45 drives the hands of the clock held in c eck by a suitable escapement mechanism which is indicated generally by the numeral 46. The escapement mechanism and the gearing through which the spring 39 drives the hands of the clock are shown herein only diagrammatically and need not. be described in detail since they may take any of various well-known forms. It is thought sufficient to point out herein that, as shown in Figure 1, the escapement 46 controls the speed of rotation of the gear 45 under the driveof the spring 39 and, from the gear 45, through suitable gearing indicated only in part at 47, 48 and 49, the center arbor 50 and sleeve 51 th'ereabout are rotated at the proper speeds to move the hour hand and minute hand.
In the particular arrangement of parts shown herein, the gear 45, and hence the shaft 38 about which the spring is coiled, rotate once a minute. that the spring may ooact with a part of the clock mechanism which rotates once a minute or once an hour or at any other suitable i11- tervals of time. From the description above,
it will be understood that the outer end of the spring 39 is anchored tothe housing 41, or the gear 36, and that, as the clock is driven, the inner end of the spring turns with the shaft 38 and gradually uncoils, a constant driving force being provided by the spring for driving the time train of the clock. Still referring to Figure 3, projecting rearwardly from the face at the gear or disk 36 isa pin 52, and projecting forwardly from the face of the gear 45 is a pin 53, the two pins being positioned preferably at different distances radially from the axis of the shaft 38. Cooperating with these two his 52 and 53 is a y pivoted upon the frame of the clock, as shown at 55 in Figure 1. This lever 54 has an arm 56 for cooperating with the pin 53 and an arm 57 for cooperatin with the pin 52, as will be describedin detail? The magnetic flux setup by the coil 22 exerts a constant torque on the rotor 11 tend- ,pin 53 It is to be understood, however,-
ing to turn the same and to turn the shaft 13 therewith. It will be seen that when the shaft against a shoulder 58 on the lever arm 57 the rotor shaft 13, tending to rotate the plate 36 in a direction to coil the spring 39, holds the pin 52 against the shoulder. 58 and the shoulder 58 thus holds the rotor shaft 13 and the rotor 11 stationary against the action of the magneticfiux tending to turn them. The force exerted by the spring 39 in tending to uncoil opposes the force of the rotor, but the torque produced by the magnetic flux is sufficient to overcome this spring pressure and to hold the pin 52 against the stop shoulder 58. As the spring uncoils in driving the clock, the moves around with the gear 45 and approaches the full line position shown in Figure 5; it then moves under the surface 59 of the lever arm 56 and, as the drive of the clock continues, the pin 53 raises the lever 54 about its pivot 55 until the shoulder 58 is raised out of the path of the pin 52; as soon as this occurs, the rotor shaft turns the plate 36 to wind up or coil the spring, the pin 52 moving across the surface 59 of the lever arm and thence across the surface 60. When the rotor hasrotated the plate 36 a suflicient distance to bring the pin 52 under the portion 60 of the surface 60, the lever israised, by the action of the pin 52 on' the surface 60, from the dotted line position A to the doted line position B. This raises the lever arm 56 so that the pin 53 clears the downwardly projecting lug 61, the time train of the clock being driven uninterruptedly by the action of the spring during the eriod of time that the spring is being wound by the rotation of the rotor shaft '13. When the pin 52 has lever arm 57 and moved off the end of the reached a position in the neighborhood of that shown at 52 in Figure 5, the pin 53 has moved beyond the projection 61, and the lever 54 thereupon drops against its lower stop 62. When the rotor shaft 13 has rotated the disk 36 through one rotation, the pin 52 thereupon comes again against the shoulder'58 of the lever arm 57 and the wind ing of the spring is stopped.
Thus, with'each rotation of the gear 45, or
at predetermined intervals oftime depending upon the speed of rotation of the gear 45, the
sprin 39 is wound upor coiled through one turn 15y the action of the rotor shaft 13. The spring may thus be kept at a proper and substantially uniform tension for most eflicient action, t
characteristics given to the spring when built. 7 The spring delivers a constant power e tension being determined by the for driving the clock and, automatically and at predetermined intervals the spring is wound. The magnetic flux set up by the coil 22 exerts a constant torque uponthe rotor 11 and hence, so long as theproper current flows through the coil, the driving force necessary to wind the spring is always available in the rotor shaft 13.-
If the source of electrical energy supplying current to the coil 22 fails for any reason, the action of the spring 39 will rotate the plate or gear 36 and the pin 52 in a counter-clockwise direction, as viewed in Figure 5; as the pin 52 rotates in this counter-clockwise direction, it leaves the surface 63 of the lever arm 57 and permits the lever to drop against the lower stop 62, the lever arms 56 and 57 coming into the dotted -line position C.' This brings into the counter-clockwise path of travel of the pin 52 a groove 64 in the end portion of the lever arm 57. As the pin 52 continues its counter-clockwise rotation itenters into the groove 64 and comes against a shoulder of the lever arm 57, and here the counter-clockwise rotation of the pin and of the gear or plate 36 is arrested.
When the lever -z:lrops to the dotted line position G, due to failure of the power and consequent counter-clockwise rotation of the pin 52, the extreme end 66 of the lever arm 56 drops into the path of movement of the pin 53. Thus, the power having failed, the time train will continue to move under the drive of the spring 39 until the pin 53 comes against the end 66, at which point the clock will stop. When the coil 22 is again energized, the pin 52 is quickly moved by the rotor shaft in a clockwise direction to again wind up the spring and until it comes against the shoulder 58; the pin 52 moving against the surface 63 raises the lever to brin the part 66 out of the path of the pin 53 an thereupon the drive of the time train of the clock starts.
If the electrical energy fails at a time when the pin 53 is positioned beneath the 1 surface 59 the pin 52 will rotate in counterclockwise direction until it comes against the end 57 a of the lever arm 57. The clock will continue to run until the pin 53 comes against the projection 61 at the end of the surface 59. Thereupon, when the coil 22 is again energized, the pin 52 is moved by the rotor shaft in a clockwise direction and, the shoulder 58 being held out of its path by the action of the pin 53 on the surface 59, the pin 52 immediately winds the spring through one turn as hereinbefore described, its action upon the i surface 60 raising the lever to permit the pin 53 to clear the projection 61 whereby the drive of the time train is restored.
From the above it will be seen that the time train of the clock ,is dependably provided with driving energy from the action of the magnetic flux upon the rotor- 11. The rotor at predetermined intervals stores up energy in the spring and the spring constantl drives the time train with accurate and uni orm results which are not affected by variations in the supply of electrical energy. It may be here noted that the electrical constants of the coil 22, of the short-circuited windings or conductors 31 and 32 and of the rotors 10 and 11, and the constants of the magnetic circuit coacting therewith, are so selected and proportioned with respect to one another that an ample power output by the rotor 11 may be achieved while, at the same time, the rotor 11 may be held against rotation or stalled as above described without impairment of the apparatus and without materially increasing the electrical energy supplied thereto.
Considering now the rotor 10, which is adapted herein to drive or actuate the strike mechanism of the clock, reference is had to Figure 1. In this figure there is shown the rotor shaft 12 upon which is a gear 7 O meshing with a gear 71. From this gear 71 the strike mechanism of the clock is actuated. The strike mechanism is not shown in detail herein since it may take any of various wellknown forms and its details are in themselves unimportant as relating to the features of this invention. Referring to Figure 1, it may be noted, however, that the strike mechanism is held stationary and released at the proper intervals by means of a lever 72. This lever 72 has at its end a projection 73 which c0- operates with a pin 7 1 projecting from the face of the ear 71. When it is time for the clock to stri e, the lever 72 is raised about its pivot 72 by suitable mechanism rotating in the time train, and the part 73 of the lever is thereby raised out of the path of the pin 74. The gear 71 is thus permitted to rotate I and actuates the strike mechanism, the number of strokes being predetermined by a suitable mechanism which includes a rack 75 and a cam 76 and which need not be described in detail herein.
The magnetic flux set up by the coil 22 and acting upon the rotor 10 and the rotor shaft 12 exerts a constant torque tending to rotate the gear 71. When the stop lever 72 is released by the mechanism actuated by the time train, the rotor 10 rotates to drive the strike mechanism. It has been mentioned above that the electrical constants and the constants of the magnetic circuit are so selected and proportioned that the rotor 11 may be held against rotation or stalled without inipairment of the apparatus or materially increasing the electrical energy supplied thereto. This same applies to the rotor 10 which is stalled or held'against-rotation in op osition to the drag of the magnetic flux an is released at intervals to actuate the strike mechanism.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that there is herein provided an electrical actuatilgfi means which is thoroughly practical and e cient and economical of electrical energy, as well as economical of parts required in ltS construction. The two rotors are independent of each other, and the magnetic flux which rotates them although it is supplied by a single coil, exerts a torque upon the independent rotors of such a nature that the operation of one rotor does not affect the other or others.
The magnetic flux set up by the coil'is divided between the several rotors and is constantly available to exert a torque tending to drive the rotors.
Furthermore, it is to be clearly understood that thepresent invention is not limited to the specific t pe of rotors disclosed, but the use of many 0t or types of rotors-non-synchronous and synchronous, non-self-startmg and self-startingis' within its general spirit and swipe. f
, s man possible embodiments may be made of the above invention and as many changes might be made in the embodiments above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter hereinbefore set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense. i
I claim: a Y 1.- In apparatus'of the general nature of that herein described, in combination, a time train, a strike mechanism, a winding for conducting an alternating current, means providing a magnetic circuit'for the passage of flux set up by current flow in said winding,
a rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the passage of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to drive said time train, and a second rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the action of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to actuate said strike mechanism.
2. In apparatus of the general nature of that herein described, in combination a time train, a strike mechanism, a winding ior conducting'an alternating current, means providing a magnetic circuit for the passa e of flux set up by current flow in said win ing, a rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the passage of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to drive said time train, a second rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the action of said flux. and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to actuate said strike mechanism, means adapted to hold said second rotor stationary agamst the action thereon of said flux, and means for releasing said holding means at predetermined intervals to permit said rotor to rotate and to actuate said strike mechanism.
3. In apparatus of'the general nature of that herein described, in combination a time train, a strike mechanism, awindingii sage of ond ducting an alternating current, means providing a magnetic circuit for the assa e of flux set up by current flow in sai win ing,
a rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be. rotated by the passage of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to.
drive said time train, a second rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the action of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to actuate sald strike mechanism, a coiled spring connected to drive said time train as it uncoils, means for connecting said first rotor to coil said sprin and means for rendering said first rotor e ective to coil said spring at predetermined intervals of time.
4. In.apparatus of the general nature of that herein described, in combination, a time train, a strike mechanism, a winding for conducting an alternating current, means providing a magnetic circuit for the passage of flux set up by current fiow'in said winding, a rotor in said magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the passage of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to drive said time train,,a second rotor insaid magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the action of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to actuate said strike'mechanism, a coiled spring connected to drive saidtime train as it uncoils, means for connecting said first rotor to coil said spring, means for holding said first rotor stationary against the action thereon of said flux, and means for reintervals to permit said first rotor to rotate and to coil said spring.
5. In apparatus of the. general nature ofthat herein described, in combination, a time train, a strike mechanism, a winding for conducting an alternating current, means providin a magnetic circuit for the paswindin e of said flux and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to drive said time train, a secrotor in said ed to be rotated by the action of said and adapted by its rotation to supply energy to actuate said strike mechanism, means adapted to hold said second rotor station ary against theaction thereon of said'flux,
assag means for releasing said holding means 'at predetermined intervals to permit said rotor to retate and to actuate said strikemech vanigin, a coiled spring connected to drive -S8.1
time train as it uncoils, means for connecting said first rotor to coil said spring, means for holding said first rotor stationary against the action thereon of-saidflux,
and means for releasing said holding means leasing said holding means at predetermined" magnetic circuit adaiiftux set up by. current flow in said a rotor 1n sa1d magnetic circuit adapted to be rotated by the 1 Ill art-predetermined intervals to 'permittsaid first rotor to rotate and to coil said ring. or coni e. In anelectric clock, a stator 'fiel core frame providing'a plurality of independent magnetic circuits for the passage of magnetic flux, a single winding surrounding a portion of said frame, a rotor in each of said magnetic circuits adapted to be rotated by the passage of flux therethrough, and a time train driven by one of said rotors and auxiliary mechanism driven by another of said rotors. i 7 In an electric clock, unitary means for conducting an alternating current, a stator field core frame having an arm located Within said means, said frame having two pairs of spaced arms connected with said first 'arm and spaced outwardly therefrom, and rotors between each of said'two pairs of spaced arms adapted to form with said arms two magnetic circuits for the passage of magnetic flux, one of said rotors being connected to atime train the other rotor being connected to auxiliary mechanism.
8. In an electric clock, unitary means for conducting an alternating current, a stator field core frame having an arm located with in said means, said frame having two pairs of spaced arms connected with said first arm and spaced outwardly therefrom, and rotors between each of said two pairs of spaced arms adapted to form with said arms two magnetic circuits for the passage of magnetic flux, one of said rotors being connected to a time train, the other of said rotors being connected to a strike mechanism.
9. In an electric clock, a plurality of'rotors, unitary means for producing a single field 'for energizing all of said rotors, a timing mechanism connected to one of said rotors and adapted to be driven by energy derived from said field, and an auxiliary mechanism operatively connected to another of said rotors. I
10. In an electric timing device, a plural- I ity of rotors, unitary means for producing a magnetic field common to said rotors, timing mechanism driven by one of said rotors, and auxiliary mechanism driven. by another of said rotors.
11. In an electric timing mechanism, a plurality of rotors, unitary means for producing a magnetic field common to all of said rotors, a core energized by said field and including a plurality of portions each having a rotating magntic field therein, and clock mechanisms driven by each of said rotors.
12. In a timing device, a plurality of rotors, unitary means forproducing a common field for energizing said rotors, a timing mechanism operatively connected to one f said rotors, and a time-controlled mechanism operatively connected to another of said rotors.
13. In a timing device, a plurality of rotors, unitary means for producing a field common to said rotors, and timing mechanisms operatively connected to each of saig,
14. In an electric clock, a plu ality of rotors, unitary means for producing a field common to said rotors, means connected with one of said rotors for periodically winding a time-train-operating sprin and means connected with another of said rotors for periodically operating time'striking mechan1sm.,
15. In a timing device, a plurality of rotors, unitary means for producing a field common to said rotors, means connecting one of said rotors with a train of gears operating time-indicating means, and auxiliary mechanism connected to another of said rotors.
In testimony whereof, I have signed my name to this specification this 15th day of