US 1739754 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. I7, 1929. T. J. FOSTER BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 13. 1926 /Ljl Patented Dec. 1.7, 1929 TENT .ortica THOMAS J'. FOSTER, OF RIDGEWOOD, NEW JERSEY Application filed April 13, 1926. Serial No. 101,645.
` capable of being easily and cheaply constructed of fire-proof or lire-resisting materials by house carpenters of no more than ordinary skill, and not subject to cracking, warping, shrinking, swelling or other deformation orl deterioration from variable conditions of temperature and humidity.
vWall boards of either the liber type or the plaster-filled type, are not entirelysatisfactory when used in buildings which include a considerable amount of wood framing, such as the ordinary dwelling house, because of a tendency to warp, in the case of the fiber type, or to crack, with the plaster type. This is due artly to the expansion and contraction of the wood studding under the influence of heat and moisture, and partly to the distortion or settling of the structure, particularly if the walls help carry the weight of the building.
My invention is particularly designed for use in structures wherein the weight is supported by a steel frame, the outer walls and inner partitions being me-re curtains which carry no superimposed loads, but is not restricted to such structures.l rlhe invention comprises suitable Composition sheets, each preferably made of a plurality of superimposed layers, secured to opposite sides of an improved composite studding, the sheets and studding both individually and collectively, being comprised in the invention, but the studding only being the subject of this patent application. An illustrative embodiment vof the invention is shown in the accompanying Vdrawings and hereinafter described, and what the invention includes may be ascertained by reference to the appended claims,
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a horizontal cross-section of an embodiment of my construction as applied to a portion of 'an outside wall,
Figy is a vertical section of the stud on llineQ--Q in Fig. 1,
Fig. 3 is a perspective viewof a portion of an outer wall sheet; and
Fig. l is a perspective view of a portion of an inner wall sheet embodyingmy improved construction.
rilhe form of my invention herein shown as applied to an outside wall, consists of a series of studs to which are secured an outside laminated sheeting 12, and an inside laminated sheeting 13, the studs and sheeting preferably being composed of noncombustible or heatresisting materials.
about the size lof a Wooden two-by-four, advantageously comprises two opposed side members 14, preferably` made of expanded metal, with ribbed edges 15, suitably connected to each other. I do not limit myself to this particular form, but it is one that I have found satisfactory, being light, rigid, strong, and cheaply made, and because it provides abroad bearing and ready securing means for the sheeting.
In the form of studs shown, at Asuitable intervals, depending upon the nailhold desired, the two metal side members 14 are connected by nailing blocks 16 of wood or other substance of a nature to hold firmly nails, screws, or other securing means. The metal members may be fastened thereto, for example, by nailing, as shown in Fig. 1, or by casting any suitable cementitious material 17 around them. The body of the stud may be filled with any suitable plastic substance of light weight, but preferably is made of gypsum, which is cast around the nailing blocks 16 to protect them from fire.
- Gypsum is especially well adapted for the purpose of embedding the nailing blocks,` since it combines the `features of strength and light weight, is lireproof, and may be cut by woodworking Atools or light hacksaws. Spaces or openings may advantageously be left in the filling between the metal members 14 forming openings above and below the nailing blocks, thus saving weight. In practice the size of the openingsin this filling and the spacing thereof longitudinally of the studmay be such that from about one-half to two-thirds of the total length of the stud will have no filling. The size and spacing Aofthe openings in the filling of the studs will Each of these studs, which will usuallyV be o ordinarily be such as to permit the passage of pipes, wires, and other things that it is desirable to conceal in the walls, by merely puncturing the metal lath side members opposite the openings through which they are desired to pass. rlhis construction gives a stud of great rigidity and little weight, comparing favorably in these points with wood, and better adapted to the requirements of modern buildings.
The wall sheets are assembled apart from the studs, and are applied to the latter in the course ot building, in much the same way that wall board is ordinarily applied to wooden studding. They will generally be the full height ot the room, thus avoiding horizontal joints. It desirable, additional coats ot plaster or wall-finish material may bev applied to the sheeting after it is fastened in place. The sheets will ordinarily break joints over a stud, and the crack may be tilled with plaster ot Paris or other plastic material, or covered with strips of paper, battons, or molding, as desired.
In describing vthe sheeting in detail I wish to be understood as not limiting myself to the exact materials named, nor to the exact number of layers or arrangements shown. These details may be modified according to circumstances, so long as the objectis attained of producing a wall material in unitary sheet form which is strong, light in weight, waterproof, lireproot or fire-resistant, and sound deadening.
In thc present illustration, for interior sheeting a body sheet 18 (see Fig. l) of com- [nercial plaster board covered with paper 19 on each side, is taken as a base. It' advisable, I might use a sheet ot brous wall board, instead of the plaster board. It Vwill be usually be advantageous to use plaster' board or gypsum sheets because ot' the superior tire-resistant qualities. I coat the inner side of this with a water-proofing layer 2O of some strong w'axy material which has adhesive characteristics, and preferably of a nature such that it never loses its elasticity. In this layer I imbed a continuous metallic reinforcement 2l of light weight. Poultry netting is satisfactory for this purpose. I put a layer ot sound-insulating material 22, such as hair felt, in contact with the adhesive waterproofing, and preferably impregnato it with adhesive material. Thus a composite sheeting is built up which is highly resistant to the passage ot sound, moisture, and heat, and is vvery strong in proportion to its weight.
This composite sheeting is positioned with the sound-insulating layer 22 against the studding. Nails 23, or other suitable fastening means, may be utilized 'for securing` it in place as is readily apparent by reference to Fig. l.
It the sheeting` is intended for the outside of a house (see Fig. 3) it is made and fastened to the studding in the same way as described or interior use, except that the reinforcement 21 may not always be necessary and may accordingly be omitted. The outer tace may have an additional water-proofing layer 23, ordinarily ot material similar to that on the sheet 13, adapted to hold a suitable top coat 24:, of stucco or other attractive weather resistant material, preferably reinforced with metal lat-h 25 or other type of reinforcement which may be nailed or otherwise secured to the body sheet 18.
Usually it will be more satisfactory to assemble the interior sheets complete, and the inner layers ot the exterior sheets, at the tactory, and to add the outer layers of waterproofing and stucco after securing the exterior sheets to the wall. It is to be understood, however, that my invention is not limited to this method, and that I contemplate the use A oit such methods of assembly as circumstances may suggest. For instance, the entire outer sheeting structure, including the water-prooi"- ing 23, the reinforcement 25, and the stucco 24, might be made up in advance. Conversely, the sheet might be assembled on the wall by nailing a layer 22 of hair felt, sutliciently stitll ior the purpose, to the studding, and adding the successive layers of waterprooling, plaster board, etc., thereto.
t is to be understood that this invention contemplates the use of such sheeting on the respective sides ot' the studding as the exposure on eacl side renders necessary. For example, I have shown in Fig. l a typical outer wall, with a sheet l2, designed tor outdoor exposure, on the weather side, and a sheet l-for interior use, on the room side. It will be understood that for an interior partition wall, both sheets would show surfaces suitable tor interior finish; In like manner I can vary my construction to suit other conditions, as by using two outside sheets secured to my studding, or by substituting glass or other materials for portions ofthe sheeting, as circumstances may require.
The studding may advantageously be used with sheeting ot ordinary commercial type, such as is commonly sold under the names beaver board, plaster board, gypsum board, Sheet Rock and other trade or proprietary names, and with any of the well known types of stucco wall covering.
The invention is not restricted to the illustrative embodiment, but what is claimed is as follows:
l. A composite stud for buildings comprising oppositely ,disposed expanded metal strips, spacer blocks between the edges of said strips, at their opposite sides, adapted to receive nails or other astenings, and a hardened mixture of cementitious material also between said strips to support said blocks and provide a more rigid structure.
2. A composite stud tor buildings comprisbetween said strips to support said blocks and provide a more rigid structure.
3. A composite stud for buildings eomprising oppositely disposed expanded metal strips having their edges formed with ribs for stiifening them in a direction at right angles to the plane of the wall, means for securing said strips in spaced parallel relation to receive nails or other astenings, and a hardened mixture of eementitious material also between said strips to provide a more rigid structure.
4. A composite stud for buildings comprising oppositely disposed expanded metal strips having their edges formed with ribs Jfor stiiiening them in a direction at right angles to the plane of the wall, and provided with means to receive nails or other fastenings, and a hardened mixture of cementitious material also between said strips to provide a more rigid structure.
5. A composite stud for buildings comprising oppositely disposed expanded metal strips having their edges formed with ribs for stiiiening them in a direction at right angles to the plane of the wall and a hardened mixture of cementitious material also between said strips to provide a more rigid structure.
THOMAS J. FOSTER.