US 1742699 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jam 7, 1930. w. K. FELLows 1,742,699
FRICTION HINGE Filed Feb. 18, 1929 i TN A fa Z- 75@ f@ 72% 7X n0@ za@ 27% 3 iyf y- ,aff/ .mvENTvoR Z www @filiaal/z eZZoWJ I I fr 27 W 7 if ATTQRNEX Patented Jan. 7, 1931() Fien;
WILLIAM k. rELLows,- orfornendo,y ILLINOIS FRIcTIoN i HINGE Application fuea rebruary'is, 1929; seriaiNL 3420:;7'02? Friction hinges, -beginningV longy ago with crude forms, have 'long'been employed for a wide variety 'of uses in different kinds of ini stallations. During recent years hinges of: 5 this type have come into gradually increas-V ing use on the doors of buildings, more par` ticu'larly in hospitalsand schoolsas standard equipment, 'in o'lice buildings for communicating doors not equipped `with door closers,
10 and for bed rooms, closets and bath rooms of hotels and residences, where ,they are ofspecial advantage. While `of course friction hinges in general'have been more orless improved'from timeV to' time,'the exacting ref 15.. quirements for the uses above noted havede? manded further improvementsin order par throughout the swinging movement, that the friction shall be maintained substantially constant at all times, and that there shall be no likelihood of these hinges getting out of order. y
A general object `of the invention is; to provide an improved friction hinge which will effectively meet the above noted rigid require-v oments, aswell as having other desirable advantages. Another object is -to provide a hinge oft-his kind in which the hinge pin is readily removable, for conveniently 'either hanging or demounting the door. Another 35 object is to provide such a hinge which is adaptable to a wide variety of uses, such as upon swinging closures' of variousl kinds, in-
cluding windows, traps, scuttles, or other more or less similar devices; also for the doorsv i3 of cabinets and bookcases,` where its action in preventing the breakage of glass is particularly desirable; and upon the doors of coaches and automobiles, which would preventy many accidents due to the swinging open of the doors, and also eliminating the usualY rattle which results from wear and looseness of the ordinary coach hinges heretofore commonly used on automobiles. Further objectsare convenience of manufacture,- Veconomy, simplicity, reliability, durability, "strength con-Y venient renewalff parts-and afhandsome ap l pearance. Other objects and advantages of the inve'ntionwill hereinafter appear.
Theinventionincludes vario-us features of construction and combination" of parts, 4as 5 will appear from the following description.V
This invention is anadaptationtoy av two? knuckle hinge :of the invention disclosed as embodiedr in a four-kniukle hinge infm'y` co`- pending companion application for VPatent 60 Serin-Ne'. 340,701 filed February is, 1929, which-became'a patent ofeven ldate with this patent, and having the next preceding/nuIn-l-- ber. Ina two-knuckle hinge, it isdesirable thatthe `hinge pin shall'bej held firmly andfe rigidly by one ofthe hinge'lmuckles, since "in"` a'two-knuckle hinge there is a tilting or rocking strain'on the hinge pin, so that lwith aZ hinge pin freev to'rot'ate'in both knuckles thisji strain wouldcause undue and unequal wear l7o at localized points, which would' soon be likely to resultinloosenessand Inisalignment of the' two hinge knucklesrelativelyto each: other."v It is"therefore" usual'in this type `of hinge tohave'the'hinge pin rigidly carried 75 by one of the' 'knuckleswhile the other knuckle "f is rotative relatively to" tliehinge pin.
In 'carryingfout the inveiitionas disclosed herein in ,a desirablejconstruction, the rhinge leaf carrying[the knuckle lwhich holds `the so hinge4v pin againstrelative "rotation, maybe pressed or stamped "out fronuv lsuitableA s'heet-VV meta-l together' and' all in Onepie'cewithfan in ner part-"of this knuckle 'whichgrips the hinge pin, while, a splitl collar forming an outer por? 85 tion of this, knuckle and' of even length with the 's'aid, inner `portin,surroun ds and firmly grips the inner portion :so as thereby to corniv plete this knuckle, with 'an 'end bearingsur# face of greater extent' than woul'dlbe' provided 90 by thejstampedshe'et metal alone. In @the same hinge 'construction' the leaf which ear! f ries 'the vother vknuckle rotatably relatively to the hinge" pin, "may 'be similarly pressed'- Vorj stamped out to have inonefpi'ece"y therewith 95 outer knuckle 'portion or collar? of l"'oveidsize" diameter, *and'fhaving a :tubular cylindrical" Vmetal Vsleeve or "bushing fixed therein'l and of4 evenl'ength therewith, to .forni a' pa'rtiofthis complete" knuckle, for' thereby" desirably" in@ 100 creasing the extent of the friction surfaces at the ends of this knuckle.
In a hinge designed for less heavy duty, each hinge leaf together with its knuckle in one piece therewith may be stamped or pressed out from suitable sheet metal, one of these knuckles being shaped to grip and hold the hinge pin against rotation, while the other knuckle is rotative on the hinge pin. Als-o, While still carrying out the invention in substantially the same manner, each of the hinge leaves together with its knuckle may be cast in one piece, so as thereby to provide bearing surfaceson the ends of the knuckles of the extent desired, in such case one of the knuckles having a bore cast therein of a shape to hold the hinge pin, while the other knuckle is provided with a cylindrical bore to rotate on the hingev pin. Also in carrying out the invention according to the disclosure herein, 'the transverse or cross sectional shape of the hinge pin may be changed or varied to a considerable extent while still effectively carrying out the invention; in some embodiments of the invention, however, some of' these shapes being more advantageous than others.
The hinge pin, which is of the same transverse shape and size throughout its length and which has end portions projecting beyond the outer ends of the twoaxially aligned knuckles, is non-circular by reason of having a plurality of circumferentially equidistantly spaced circularly arcuate outer portions with intervening depressed portions, which latter may be in the form of two or more flat surfaces or may take the form of two or more longitudinal grooves, the shape of which may be varied. One of the knuckles has a noncylindrical bore shaped to harmonize with the transverse shape of the hingejpin for thereby preventing relative rotation of the latter, although the hinge pin may slide longitudinally in this knuckle having the non-cylindrical bore. Theother knuckle on the other pin. A third similar washer is located on the hinge pin in contact with the outer end of the other knuckle in which the hinge pin is nonrotatable, so that this latter washer does not serveV as a friction washer but provides a smooth outer bearing surface and also completes the hinge as to its symmetrical appearance. The end of the hinge pin adjacent to the latter washer has a head removably secured thereon in the form of a cap, while a cap nut is screwed over the other projecting end of the hinge pin, a spring compression washer being interposed between the head and the adjacent'washer on the hinge pin and a similar spring compression washer being interposed between the cap nut and the adjacent terminal friction washer, so that this nut thereby serves for adjustably compressing bot-h of the spring washers, for thereby varying the frictional resistance to the relative swinging of the hinge leaves.
One embodiment of the invention, together with some variations therein as to some of its parts, will now be described and thereafter the invention will be pointed out in claims, reference now being had tothe drawings, in whichi j Fig. l is an elevation of a friction hinge in which the invention is embodied, shown as installed upon a door jamb and door, with the latter in its fully open condition;
Fig. 2 is a similar' enlarged view in vertical axial section on a plane indicated by the line 2--2 in Figs. 8 and 4L;
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section drawn to the scale of Fig. 2 taken on the line 3-3 of Figs. land 2;
Fig. 4 is a similar section on the line 4--4 of Figs. 1 and 2;
Fig. 5 is a plan View of one of the spring friction adjustment washers; v
Fig. 6 is an elevation or edge view of the same spring washer;
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of one of the friction washers;
Fig. 8 shows in cross section a plurality of hinge pins of diierent modified transverse shape which 4may be employed in carrying out the invention;
Fig. 9 is a view similar to Fig. 3, showing a modification in the knuckle construction according to which the knuckle shown is of smaller diameter and has no bushing sleeve therein;
Fig. l() is a view corresponding to Fig. 4, of the same hinge construction shown in Fig. 9, and shows a modification of the knuckle construction according to which the outer split knuckle collar is omitted;
Fig. 11 is a. horizontal section corresponding to Fig. 3, but showing a slightly modified construction according to which each hinge leaf together with its knuckle is formed by casting, instead of being stamped from sheet metal as shown in the preceding views;
Fig. 12 is a horizontal section corresponding to Fig. 4, of the same hinge construction that is shown in Fig. 11.
The illustrated embodiment of the invention will now be particularly described with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Referring first more particularly to Figs. lto 7 inclusive, it will be noted that Figs. 1 to 4 inclusive show a portion of a usual door jamb l and a portion of the inner edge of a fully open door 2. The door 2 is shown as pivotally hung to thej amb l by means of a friction hinge embodying the present invention, comprising a jamb leaf 3 and a door leaf 4 which are countersunk and secured in place bymeans of screws in accordance with the usual practice and as shown in the drawings. ln this particular construction, each of the hinge leaves 3 and 4:, together with one of the parts of its two-part knuckle, is made from stamped or pressed sheet metal, such 4`as steel, all in one piece. 1
The jamb leaf 3 has formed thereon an in` ner knuckle portion 5 which on its opposite sides is flattened along lines parallel with the plane of the jamb knuckle 3, thereby to provide therein a non-cylindrical bore which has two diametrically opposite bore-reducing portions, shown as flat, and two outer cylin` drically arcuate portions which are diametrically opposite each other, and with the axis of this bore in the plane of the exposed outer surface of the j amb leaf 3. This inner knuckle portion 5 has thereon an outer cylindrically curved split collar portion 6 of even length therewith and which may be forced over the inner knuckle part 5 or may7 be formed theref on, the split in this collar 6 providing for the passage of the knuckle-carrying neck portion of the jamb leaf 3, as appears perhaps most clearly in Fig. 4. The complete knuckle on the jamb leaf 3 thus comprises these inner and outer parts 5 and 6, by reason of which a knuckle of desirably large diameter is provided, for reasons which will presently appear. Tn the construction and installa- ,tion shown iu the drawings this knuckle, by reason of its being the jamb knuckle, forms the lower knuckle of the hinge.
The door leaf i carries an upper knuckle in axial alignment with the above described friction surfaces provided by the ends of this knuckle. This bushing 3 may be made from a piece of steel tubing or of other suitable metal. The outer collar part 7 of this knuckle may be formedclosely around the bushing 8 so as to grip the latter tightly or the collar portion 7 may be first formed and then the bushing 8 may be forced into it with a rigidly tight t. It will be noted that the bushing 8 provides a cylindrical bore through theV knuckle carried bythe door leaf 4, and that the collar parts 6 and 7 of the two knuckles v are desirably of the same diameter.
A non-circularhinge pin 9 which is embodied in this particular hinge construction has throughout its length two diametrically opposite outer circularly arcuate portions',`
at its ends projects beyond the hingev knuckles. This hinge pin has a lrather snug but free sliding fit in the inner iiattened knuckle portion 5 of the knuckle on the jamb leaf 3, this hinge pin 9 however being firmly and securely held by this inner knuckle part 5 against relative rotative movement as also against rocking or tilting movement,las will be evident by an inspection of Figs. .2 and 4. The upper knuckle carried by the door leaf land comprising the outer and inner parts 7 and 8 is freely journaled by its inner bushing part 8 on the hinge pin 9, as will be clear from Figs. 2 and 3. p
The hinge pin 9 carries three washers l0 which are locked thereto against rotation but which are slidable thereon longitudinally of the hinge pin. The holes or apertures in these washers, asis clearly shown in Fig. 7, are complementary in shape to the transverse shape of the hinge pin'9. Thus the hole through each of these washers 7 has two diametrically opposite circularly arcuate outer portions of equal extent together with two intervening diametrically opposite yinwardly projecting-lugs each of which forms an obtuse salient angle. These lugs fit into the above noted shallow angular grooves in the hinge pin 9, as will be clear by comparing Fig. 7 withFigs. 2 and 3.
These washers l0 are located respectively,
one between the two knuckles to serve as a friction washer in cooperation with the lower end of the upper knuckle, another of such washers above the upper knuckle to form a friction washer in cooperation with the upper end of this knuckle, while the third washer is located immediately below the lower end of the lower knuckle. This latter or lowermost washer is not utilized as a friction washer, but completes the hinge as to its outer appearance and also serves to form a suitable lower bearing surface, as will presently appear. These washers 10 may desirably be made of bronze so as to afford smooth uniform frictional resistance and also to provide for a minimum'of wear in frictional cooperation with the end surfaces of the steel parts of the Lipper knuckle on the door leaf 4, and such washers may be readily produced by a stamping operation. v
In carrying out the invention, the upper amountV of friction. In the construction shown, the lower projecting end portion of theV hinge pin 9 below the lowermost washer 10 is provided with a-removable head 11 iin" the form of avsocketed cap which fits over the end of the hinge pin and is held thereon by means of a removable transverse pin 12 which passes through thehead 11 and the lower end portion of the hinge pin 9. The upper projecting end portion of the hinge pin 9 above the uppermostjfriction Washer 10-is screw threaded and has acap nut 13 screwed thereon. v n
In order to produce amore 'uniform 4frictional resistance as well as also to provide a more effective adjustment of the amount of friction developed, a compression spring desirably in the form of a spring washer 14 is interposed respectively, between the head 11 and the adjacent lowermost washer 10, and similarly between the cap nut 13 and the adjacent uppermost friction Ywasher 10. This spring washer 14 may have a round central hole to iit freely over the pin 9, as is Ishown in Fig. 5, since there is no reason for locking these washers against rotative movement on j the hinge pin. This Vspring friction adjustf ment washer 14 is desirably .substantially of the form of construction shown in Figs. 2,5 and 6.
This springcompres'sion washer 14, as is shown most clearly'in Figs. 5 and 6,"has lan inner -annular flat portion from which there projects an even number, Vshown as twelve, of spring tongues forming a complete circumferential series with the tongues-suiiiciently spaced to avoid the possibility of any interference betweenthem in their spring action.
`Alternately in the series, six of these tongues are bent in one direction out of the plane of the central portion of the washer and the other alternate'six tongues are similarly bent in the opposite direction, so that thereby, in the -hinge construction shown inthe drawings, six of these tongues, in each instance atthe top and bottom of the hinge, are bent upward and the other siii are bent downward, so that each of these washers 14 thereby lforms a 1 com ression s rin.. These s rin com ression washers 14 are Vdesirabl'y of steel and may be readily stamped out. j j
The particular above described hinge vpin 9 Vshown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4hasproved to be particularly effective and `convenient in a friction hinge of the construction shown in Figs. 1to 7 inclusive. The two diametrically opposite arcuate outer surfaces are of sufficient extent to provide an eective journal for the door leaf knuckle in the cylindrical bore Vof its bushing 8,y while the two intervening shallow angular grooves not only provide an effective anchorage for the friction washers 10 but also provide a convenient transverse shape of-the hinge pin by which it may be non-rotatably and slidably held within the conveniently formed inner part 5 of the hinge knuckle on the jamb leaf 3,'as should be clear from the drawings, Figs. 3 and 4 particularly.
In Fig. 8 there is shown a variety of alternativehinge pins which differ from the hinge pin 9 only in vtheir transverse shape, which similarly to the hinge pin 9 is the saine throughout their length. It will be noted that each of these hinge pinsshown in Fig. 8 f
also similarly has a plurality of equally circumferentially spaced outer arcuate portions together with intervening depressed portions. It has been found in practice that a non-circular hinge pin having only a single depressed portion provides a less effective anchor for the hinge pin and for the friction washers, particularly the uppermost friction washer, any looseness of which would have a tendency to cause the cap nut 13 to work loose.
Any one of these alternatively yshaped hinge pins shown in Fic; 8 may be utilized in the above described friction hinge construction shown in Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive, in place of the particular hinge pin 9 there shown, with only slight changes in other parts or features of the construction which directly engage and cooperate with the hinge pin. Thus it is obvious that friction washers (not shown) for these hinge pins shown in Fig. 8 should have theirapertures of a shape complementary to the shape of the particular hinge lpin by which they are carried, similarly in that respect to the washers 10 in their relation to the hinge pin 9. Also it will be evident that the inner part of the jamb leaf knuckle would in like manner have a bore of a different shape from that of the inner knuckle part 5, in ordery larly arcuate portions by which this pin may form a journall in the cylindrical bearing shown as provided in the inner bushing part 8 of the upper knuckle on the door leaf 4, as above described. Also it will be noted that the transverse shape of this hinge pin 15, provided by its outer arcuate portions and its flat sides, provide for this pin 15 being nonrotatably and slidably received into the flattened bore of the inner knuckle part 5 of the lll) lower knuckle carried by the jamb leaf 3, as
The hinge pin 16, it will be noted, does not differ greatlyfrom the hinge pin 9, first described. This hinge pin 16 has similar outer circularly arcuate. journal-forming portions diametrically arranged, While the intervening depressedv portions arehollowed out Ona rather long. arcuate curve to form wide shallow grooves which ,provide for rotatively locking the'frictionwashers thereto and also forlocking this pineagainst rotation while providing for its. slidingymovement in the jamb'leaf knuckle, whichmay be of the same construction shown in Fig. 4, asalsolthe door leaf knuckle may be of the same construction shownin Fig. 3. Y
The hinge pin 17, it will be noted, has kfour rightangularly arranged fiat sides andfis provided with circularlyA roundedcorner portions reasonof Whichthishinge pin may forma ournal while at the `same time vit may be held Vagainst rotative movement, as will hereinafter. morev particularly appear. It has been found in practice that a stamped metal inner knuckle portion, corresponding tothe innerknuckle portion 5 on lthe jambI leaf 3,.may be readily formed with a square bore for effectively slidably and non-rotatably holding this hinge pin 17.V
Thehinge pin .18 has four :equidista-ntly spaced circumferentially arcuate outer journal surfaces, with four intervening V-shaped groovesthereby providing for its utilization inafrictionhin esubstantially in thesame manner as hereingbefore described with referencefto Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive.
The khinge pin 19diifers from the hinge pin 18.0nly in the respect that thefour grooves showntherein are of arcuateor curved shape. Thermanner in which this hinge Vpin 19 may be `incorporated in a. hinge construction ysubstantially similar to that above described in reference to Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive appears to be obvious from the foregoing description.
The hinge pin 20, it will be noted, has three inwardly angular grooves which gradually Amerge on curved lines outwardlyvwith three circumferentially curved outer journal-forming portions.
The hinge pin 21 has three circularly arcuate outer journal portions with three intervening grooves of a wide V shape.
The hinge pin 22, it will be noted, differs from the above described hinge pin 2O only in having four, instead of three, inwardly angular `grooves which merge into the four outer circularly arcuate journal portions.
`The tinalfhinge pin 23,V is will be noted,
is :transversely of a triangular fluted shape with three outer arcuate journal-forming Vportions and three intervening rounded grooves, it being noted that 'this hinge pin 23 is in general of a shape :similar to the'hinge pin 21 above noted, and'diifers from the hinge pin 19 in havingwthree, instead of four, journal'surfaces With intervening rounded jgrooves.
In the slightly modied friction hinge construction shown in Figs. 9 and 10,' these figures are similar respectively to Figs. 3 and .4, lbut-broken away to omit outer portions.- With fthe exception of the modified hinge knuckles shown in Figs. 9 and` 10, ythe rest of the friction hinge Y construction throughout is tobe considered as the same as that described with reference to Figs. 1 -to 7 inclusive. The hingeknuckle 24, appearing in Fig. 9, is formed by a'stamping operation in/its entirety directlyupon the door leaf 25, this fknuckle24having a cylindrical bore by Whichit is journaled directly Vupon the hinge pin.9. The .hinge knuckle 26,shown in Fig.
10, is .similarly formed by a stamping or forging operation of a single part formed upon and in one piece with-the jamb leaf 27. This lj amb knuckle`26 slidably but non-rota tivelyreceives the hinge pin 9, substantially similarly in that respect to the inner. knuckle part 5 of thejamb knuckle on the leaf 3, as above described with reference to Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive. It is obvious that any `of the hinge pins shownin Fig. 8 may be similarly em-. bodied in the friction hinge shown in Figsfv 9 and 10:
It Will be noted that this jambknuckle 26, as shown in Fig. 10, is of circularly rounded contour throughout,therebyto have a sightly. appearance and to harmonizewlith the door leaf knuckle24. Alsoit will be vnoted of this jamb knuckle 26, that itis pressed to a shape providing opposite angular inwardly projecting portions or lugs inoits bore, which` enter the shallow angular grooves in thel hinge pin 9. The frictionwashers to be employed. Would be of similar construction to that shownin Fig. 7, but of course of correspondingly smaller outer diameter, in harmony With the smaller diameter of the hinge knuckles 24 and 26. This somewhat simplified construction shown in Figs. 9 and 10 of course will provide smaller friction surfaces than the constructiony shown in Figs. 1 to 7l inclusive, but in some cases may be advan-` tageously employed, for relatively small and light doors.
Figs. 11 and. 12 shovsT the adaptation of the invention yto the forming of the hinge leaves and Vknuckles by a casting operation. These VFigs 11 and v12 are similar respectively to Figs. 3 and 4, the door leaf, however, being omitted from Fig. 12. EXcepting in the respects shown in Figs. 11 and 12 and now to be noted, the complete friction hinge construction in other respects may be similar to that showninFigs. 1 to 7 inclusive. In this somewhat modified construction, a cast metal jamb leaf 28 is shown as having a complete, hinge knuckle V2,9 cast thereon. Similarly a cast metal door leaf 30 has a knuckle 31 cast thereon.
It will be noted from Fig. 11 that the door Aleaf knucklev 31 -is provided with ay cylindrical bore by which it may be j ournaled on a hinge pin having any of the transverse shapes shown in the drawings and above described. The jamb knuckle 29, however, is provided with a non-cylindrical bore for rotatively locking while providing for the sliding movement of the hinge pin, and this bore in the jamb knuckle 29 may be formed as a. part of the casting operation. The particular cast metal hinge shown in Figs. 11 and 12, it will be noted, is provided with the above described hinge pin 17 shown in Fig. 8, this hinge pin 17 being in general of square transverse shape with circularly rounded corners by which it forms a journal for the door leaf knuckle 31. This hinge pin 17 is non-rotatably but slidably mounted in a square hole through the jamb leaf knuckle 29. This modified hinge construction shown in Figs. 11 and 12 indicates that the inventionl may be substantially equally well carried out in a hinge having stamped metal parts, or in a hinge having cast metal parts, as desired or as may be required for different installations.
The operation is substantially the same 'in the complete construction shown in Figs.
1 to 7 inclusive and in the slight modifications thereof shown in the remaining gures of the drawings. Compression to the desired extent may be applied to both of the spring compression washers 14 by adjusting the cap nut 13 on the screw threaded upper end of the hinge pin9. These two spring compression washers 14,.acting together as a pair, press the uppermost friction washer 10 into frictional engagement with the smooth fiat upper end surface of the door leaf knuckle comprising the outer collar part 7 and the fixed bushing 8, andat the same time'draw this knuckle downward thereby to bring its lower smooth fiat end into frictional engagemen with the upper surface of the friction washer 10 which is on the hinge pin 9 between the two knuckles, the weight of the door also supplementing the frictional engagement atthis middle point.
It will thus be seen that tht hinge knuckle ony the door leaf 4 rotates between these two friction washers 10 whichare held rotatively stationary by the hinge pin 9. The spring compression washers 14 automatically take up wear on the friction surfaces. Also the amount of frictional resistance maybe adjusted either for taking `up wear or for varying this resistance as may be desired by adjusting the cap nut 13, thereby correspondingly to vary the amount of compression to Y which the'spring washers 14 areV subjected.
It should be obvious from` the drawings that the entire hinge construction maybe conveniently assembledV and may at any time be as readily taken apart for the convenient renewal or replacement of any parts thereof which may'in time have become worn. l
In a two-knuckle hinge it is desirable that the door leaf knuckle shall be above the jamb leaf knuckle, so that the latter will support the former with the weight of the door, as shown in the drawings. It may be noted, with reference to Figs. 1 and 2, that if the hinge were turned around or rotated 180 in the plane of these figures, with the leaf 3 then attached to the door 2 and the leaf 4 attached to the jamb 1, the general appearance of the hinge would be the same and the operation in general would be substantially the same. In that case the hinge pin arrangement would simply be reversed, the hinge pin then being fixed in to rotate with the door knuckle and rotatable in the jamb knuckle, with the swinging of the door. However, for a door mounted to swing in the opposite direction to that shown, a hinge of a correspondingly reversed construction would be employed, so that its leaves would then open and close in the opposite direction from that shown.
A friction hinge embodying the invention substantially as disclosed herein is suitable for installation on Casement windows; also on the doors of automobiles.
It is obvious that various modications may be made; for example, the hinge pin might be shaped as a long spiral, without any change in the manner of operation.
It will be noted that the spring washers 14 bring an even .circumferential pressure to bear, 'which is of particular importance in evenly'distributing the wear and friction around the upper friction washer 10 and the f upper end of the knuckle on the door leaf 4.
It should be further noted that the fixed ornon-rotatable non-circulary hinge pin, which atthe same time forms a journalfor the door leaf knuckle and locks the friction washersl which cooperate therewith, is readily removi able merely'by screwing ofi' the cap nut 13. Thus the door may be easily and conveniently eithermounted or demounted, which is a matter of considerable importance in the hanging of a door.
It is obvious that various modifications may be made in the friction hinge construction shown in the drawings as an embodiment of the invention and above particularly described, within the principle and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. Y I claim: 1. In a friction hinge, the combination of a pair of hinge leaves, a single hinge knuckle carried by each said leaf in axial alignment withthe knuckle on the other leaf, one of 'the said knuckles having a cylindrical axial bore and the other vknuckle having a non-cylindrical axial bore, aV non-circular hingepin passing through both knuckles and -projecting from the ends thereof and llocked against rotation in the said knuckle having the nonf cylindrical bore by the engagement of the pim.
with the bore, a friction washer slidably but nonrotatably mounted on the hinge pin between the knuckles, another friction washer similarly slidably and non-rotatably mounted on the hinge pin immediately outward from the said hinge knuckle having the cylindrical bore, and terminal members on the projecting ends of the hinge pin one of which is a nut for drawing the friction washers and knuckles into frictional engagement thereby to provide frictional resistance to the relative swinging of the hinge leaves. i
2. In a friction hinge, the comb-ination of a pair of hinge leaves, a single hinge knuckle carried by each said leaf in axial alignment with the knuckle on the other leaf, one of the said knuckles having a cylindrical axial bore and the other knuckle having a non-cylindrical axial bore, a non-circular hinge pin passing through both knuckles and projecting from the ends thereof and locked against rotation in the said knuckle having the noncylindrical bore by the engagement of the pin with the bore, a friction washer slidably but non-rotatably mounted on the hinge pin between the knuckles, another friction washer similarly slidably and non-rotatably mounted on the hinge pin immediately outward from t-he said hinge knuckle having the cylindrical bore, terminal members on the projecting ends of the hinge pin one of which is a nut for drawing the friction washers.V and knuckles into frictional engagement thereby to provide frictional resistance to the relative swinging of the hinge leaves, and a compression spring adjacently inward from one of the said terminal members thereby to be subjected to compression by the said nut so that thereby the said frictional resistance will be applied through the said spring.
3. In a friction hinge, the combination of a pair of hinge leaves, a single hinge knuckle WILLIAM K. FELLOWS.
carried by each leaf in axial alignment with the knuckle on the other leaf, one of the knuckles having through it an axial cylindrical bore and the other knuckle having through it an axial non-cylindrical bore providing in such bore circumferentially spaced inwardly extending bore-reducing portions and cylindrically arcuate outer portions in the bore and extending throughout the length of this knuckle, a non-circular hinge pin having throuhout its length circularly arcuate outer portions with intervening depressed portions so that such hinge pin is thereby rotatively locked in the knuckle having the non-cylindrical bore, said hinge pin projecting at its ends beyond the knuckles, a head removably iixed upon the projecting end of the hinge pin adjacent to the knuckle having the noncylindrical bore, a friction washer slidably and non-rotatably mounted on the hinge pin between the knuckles, another friction washer similarly slidably and non-rotatably mounted upon the projecting end portion of the hinge