US 1742861 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 7, 1930. c. F. JOHNSON 1,742,861-
BUILDING Filed March 24, 1924 Patented Jan. 7, 1930 UNITED STATE S PLATE-NT OFFICE cnEsTEE F. JOHNSON, 015 DETROIT, MICHIGAN BUILDING Application fi1ed'March24, 1924.- Serial No; 701,300,
The invention relates generally to: buildings, such, for example, as dwelling houses,
in the interior of which it is desirable to maintain arelatively constant temperature 5 and is especially concerned with the pro-- the-direct rays of thesun being very high andthe: night temperature falling to a point suchthat the comfortof' the occupants of'a 29 dwelling requires the-use'of heavy clothing or the provision ofspecial domestic heating 'means.--
In accordance with my invention,- it is proposed -.to store up the heat energy obtainable;
from solarradiationwhen the sunv is shining and to: utilize the same for warming. the in-- terior ofthe'building atother= times. Itv'is' further proposed to provide heat-storage? means ofv such character that the building in; 39 connection with which it is utilizedimay be protected from excessive heating during the hoursof'direct sunshine and may be pre-- ventedfrom rapid cooling when theiexternal atmospheric temperature. has fallen.
provision of wall portions or elements containing a" suitable heat-sto'ragemedium which elements or portions are, or may be, exposed tothe heating efiectof the suns rays: The 49 heat-storage capacity may be increased'and the heating effect enhanced by providing additional heating agencies, which may also be'designed to utilize solar energy, associated withv thewall elements ofi the building in such'manner that the temperature of the heat storin'gmedium within-the-wall el'e ments may be raisedto a higheripointthanwouldwbe possible by the-meraexposure of theelements-themselves; Meansmay also 59 be provided to restrict excessive-loss ofheat To this end the invention comprises the;
energy to theiexterior atmosphere during the time when the temperature on the outside is less than that'of the'heat-storage medium which means may be movable or'adjustable in or'der to-permit exposure of thewall elementsto'the sun "when desired; 7
In the accompanying drawings illustrating one mode of carrying out the invention,
Fig. 1 is anelevation of a portion of a building having wall portions adapted to provide storage spaces for liquid-, parts being:
broken away i Fig. 2' is a horizontal section on line 2+2v of Fig. 1;:
Fig. 3-is a vertical section on line'33. of Fig. 2, parts beingbroken away;
Figx l'is aview Withparts brokenaw'ay showing in side elevation an'auxiliary heat-- ing means and also showing diagrammati-- cally the connections between said means and the wall structure;
Fig.- 5'is a section' on-line 5 -5 of Fig.4, and
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary view showing movable means for: covering or protecting the surface of. the liquid-storing elements.
Referring to the drawings, 6- indicates abuilding, such as a dwelling. house, which:
may be of any usual or desired configuration. The building may have the usual :frame elements as sills 7, studding 8, and plates 9. The J'Wfl'll. portions of the building, however;
consist, at-leastin part, ofelements 10, pref erably of sheet metal, which are formedza's containers for amaterial having high heat storage capacity, such as: water, indicated at'llb The containers as shown comprise walls 12 and 13 which may be connected at their edges to 1 form flanges 14 adapted to rest against 7 either the inner or outer faces of'the studding They may be supported attheir'lower endsi upon the sills 7 and be of such dimensions as to substantiallyifill the spacesibetween the studding; As a convenient means for retain'ingthe containers in place I: have shown the flanges 1.4:? securedby battens '15 which:
cov'er'andconceal the edges ofithe' flangesand: are fixed to the studding by suitable fasterv ers 16.' The wallsw12'and 13, w-hileillustrated as fiat or plane, may be shaped as desired and may be suitably finished or decorated to present a neat and pleasing appearance. If desired, however, additional wall elements may be mounted upon either the inside or the outside, or both, of the wall, which elements would then constitute the visible or exposed portions of the wall. In Fig. 2, such additional elements 17 are shown as forming the inner wall surface, the containers 10 forming the outer wall surface. In Fig. 6, the re verse arrangement is shown, the additional.
wall elements 17 being mounted outside of the containers 10. With this arrangement, it
may be desirable to support the additional elements pivota'lly, for example at the lower 7 edges, as shown,"so thatthey may swing, somewhat in the manner of shutters, thereby per-..
end by a pipe 18 to a pipe 19whereby the liq-.
uid utilized, as water, may be supplied to the containers to fill them to any desired extent. Any 'availablesou'rce of supply may be utilized, such as a connection to a city water system, such connection being shown at 20, the flow of water to the containers being controllable'iby a -valve21. r 7
Each container is also connected at the upper end by'a pipe 22 to aheader 23 which is provided with an outlet by means of pipe 24 havin a valve 25. Since the containers are entirely closed or liquid-tight, except for the connections to the upper and lower headers, the entire system may be completely. filled by admission of water through the valve 21. Pipe 24 may be utilized, if desired, as a source of water supply for domestic use. containers are exposed to the heat of the sun the water thereinwill: normally be warmer than that drawn directly from the city supply system. I 7
1 Additional means may be provided for employing solar radiation to heat the contents of the containers. Such means is illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5 as including a receptacle 30 suitably supported in a position to receive the suns rays as eificiently as possible, for exampleby inclining it in such manner as to expose the maximum heating area. Auxiliary devices, such as reflectors 31,. are arranged 'in such position as to intercept and direct upon the walls of the receptacle 30 the rays from a considerable area adjacent to the receptacle. Pipes 32, 33, join the upper and lower portions respectively of the receptacle 30 to the water system of the building,
.as by connection to the headers 23 and 19,
Since the thus providing for flow of heated liquid from the upper portion of the heater to the wall containers and of cold liquid from the containers to the heater. Any desired form of solar or other heater may be employed in this culating system of the vertical wall portions.
In the operation of the structure it will be understood that theliquid-containing elements of the system will be exposed to the heating effect of the external atmosphere and the rays of theisun. The heat energy will be expended largely in raising the temperature of the heat-storage medium which is preferably of such character that it has a high heat capacity. For this reason, as well as by reason of its cheapness and availability, the use of water is preferred. The interconnection of the parts of the systemalso permits circulation of the liquid contained therein whereby the temperature of various sections of the wall portions is equalizedeven though they are not all exposed directly to solar radiation.
The wall elements containing the heat-' storage medium act to prevent the'transmis sion of the heat to the interior of the building, thereby serving to a certain extent as insulating means to maintain lower temperature of the interior'during the day than would otherwise be produced. When theexterior tem perature falls, however,"as during the night,
the heat stored in the system during the day becomes eflective' to warm theinterior of the building while serving at the'same time as an insulating means to prevent rapid loss of'heat from the interior. Asa result, fairly uniform temperature conditions may be maintained within thebuilding notwithstanding the occurrence of relatively great variations in external conditions.
details of construction may be made without v 7 no It will be understood that modifications in departing from the purpose and scope of the invention nd therefore Ijdo not-wish to be limited tothe specific structure herein described except as required by the language of the appended claims in view of the prior art.
1. A building structurecomprising'stud-' ding, sheet metal containers secured to said studding and constituting the main portion of the building wall, the outer wall of said con tainers being'exposed to solar radiation and the inner wall arranged to radiate heat to the interior of the building, conduits connecting said 'contalners in series and providing for -c1rculat1on of liquid both laterally and vertically throughout said series and means for supplying l1qu1d to said containers and withdrawing it therefrom." 5
2. A building structure comprising a series of containers for a heat-storage medium arranged to form the major portion of the building Wall, said containers positioned to be exposed to solar radiation on the exterior of the building and to radiate the stored heat to the interior of the building, and means on the exterior of the containers adapted to prevent radiation from said containers to the exterior of the building, said means being adjustable to a position to expose said containers to the sun or to shut ofi such exposure.
3. A building structure comprising studding, closed containers for a heat-storage medium positioned in the spaces between said studding and constituting the main portion of the building Wall, the outer Wall of said containers being exposed to solar radiation and the inner Wall arranged to radiate heat to the interior of the building, and conduits connecting said containers in series and providing for circulation of the medium therein both laterally and vertically throughout the series.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature.
C. F. JOHNSON.