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Publication numberUS1743167 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 14, 1930
Filing dateDec 29, 1923
Priority dateDec 29, 1923
Publication numberUS 1743167 A, US 1743167A, US-A-1743167, US1743167 A, US1743167A
InventorsStyer Charles A
Original AssigneeWestinghouse Electric & Mfg Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and means for providing inert atmospheres
US 1743167 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. 14,v 1930. c. A. sTYER 197439157 METHD OF AND MEANS FOR PROVIDING INER'F ATMOSPHERES 2 'sheets-snee: l

INVENTOR WITNE'SSES: Charles S10/er.

Jan. 14, i930.

WITNESSES:

, f ATTORNEY c. A. STYER l,743,67

METHOD OF AND MEANSl FOR PROVIDING INERT ATMOSPHERES Filed Deo. 29. 1923 2 Stmas-snee*Y 2 Fig. .5 Fig.

` INVENTOR C har/es 5f er Patented Jan. 14, 15930 CHARLES A. STYER, 0F WILKINSBRG, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO WESTINGHOUSE ELECTRIC & MANUFACTURING COMPANY, A CORPORATION 0F PENNSYLVANIA METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR PROVIDING IN ERT ATMOSPHERES Application filed December 29, 1923. Serial No'. (S8-3,379.

My invention relates to the removal of oxygen from mixtures of gases containing the same, more particularly to the provision of inert atmospheres in electrical apparatus.

In transformers, circuit breakers, oil switches, and the like, there is provided withinthe vessel containing the apparatus, an insulating oil, above which is a space to allow for expansion and contraction of the oil under normal operating conditions. It is desirable to remove oxygen from the space above the oil, and to prevent the access of oxygen thereto, because of the detrimental effects thereof. It has been found that oxygen reacts with the oil, producing a sludge which lowers the insulating properties of the oil. During the operation'of the apparatus, arcing may occur with the production of combustible gases, which, if mixed with oxygen, may give riselto explosive mixtures. These mixtures are sometimesignited by arcs within the apparatus, damaging the same and endangering the safety of workemn. p

To overcome these difficulties, it has been proposed to provide an atmosphere in the space above the oil, which is inert in that it does not combine with the oil and does not form explosive l mixtures with combustible gases produced from the oil.

. My invention is directed to such devices, it being among the objects thereof to provide an inert atmosphere by simple and effective means.

It is a further object of my invention to provide a method of and a means for producing inert atmospheres, which shall be positive in its action, incapable of deterioration on standing, and which shall not require any appreciable amount of maintenance. i

In practising my invention, I provide a carbonaceous material and heat the same to a temperature sufficiently vhigh to facilitate the reaction of the said material with oxygen. The mixture of gases containing oxygen are passed through the heated material and the oxygen is caused to combine with the carbon to form carbon dioxide, which is inert. More specifically, I prefer to use ashless material,-

such as sugar carbon, andI provide lmeans for replenishlng the carbon as 1t 1s consumed.

In the accompanying drawings, Vconstituting a part hereof, and in which like reference characters indicate like parts,

Figure 1 is an elevational View of a transformer, a part of the casing being broken away to show my device in position;

Fig. 2 is a vertical cross-sectional view of one form of my device; and

Figs. 3, 4, 5 and G are diagrammatic, verticalsectional views of various modifications of my invention.

lVithin the casing or vessell is a transformer body 2 covered with oil 3. Terminals 4 and 5 connected to the transformer body, pass through the cover 6 of the casing 1. A container 7, embodying my invention, projects into the space 8 above the oil level in the casingl. The container 7 is provided with an annular iange 9, which rests upon the cover 6 of the transformer and is secured thereto by any suitable means, as by a welded joint 10. The major portion of the container is in the space 8.

The lower end of container 7 is provided with heat-insulting material 11, through which a passage 12 is formed. A gauze 13 is embedded in insulating material 11 across the passage 12. .A pair of heating` elements 14 and 15 are also secured in the insulating material at points above the gauze 13. The heating elementsmaybe of any desired construction, but preferably they are formed LVby first providing a frame of sheet-insulating material such as mica, and threading therethrough and across the central opening there- "of, a plurality of turns of resistance wire.

Carbonaceous material 16, preferably sugar carbon, is placed on gauze 13 so that it covers both heating elements.

A passage 17 offers communication between the passage 12 and the opening 18 in container 7. An additional passage 19, communicating with the outside air at the opening 20, has its outlet between the heaters 14 and l5. A hopper 21, having a mass 22 of carbonaceous material, communicates with the body 16 of the same material and provides a continuous -supply of the-same. A cover 23 is secured to the top of container 7 in any suitablefmanner.

In Fig. 3, I have shown a slight modification of my invention, wherein I provfide a container 24 having a gauze 25 secured therein and a heating element 26 with carbonaceous material 27 covering the same. Passages 28 and 29 allow free circulation of gases through the material. The circulation may be either forced or thermo-siphonic or both. l l A similar structure is shown in Fig. 4, with the exception that, instead of a single passage 28 at the lower end of the container 24, I have provided an enlarged passage 30 and a concentric passage 31, which may communicate with the outside-air. This provides separate paths 31 and 30 for the forced and lthe thermo-siphonic circulation, respectively.

In the embodiment shown in Fig. 5, there is provided a plurality of concentric ganzes 32 and 33, the top of gauze 32 being closed by member 34. The two ganzes are connected together at their lowei ends by the annulus 35. The space therebetween is filled with carbonaceous material 36, which surrounds the heater 37. The upper portion 38 of the container constitutes a storage space for reserve material 39. A tube 40,v communicating with the outside air, projectsinto the space 41 and provides an additional passage 42 similar in function to that shown in Fig. 4.

The embodiment illustrated in Fig. 6 is very similar to that shown in Fig. 5, with the exception that the thermo-Siphonic circulation is caused to pass through passages 44 and 45, and the forced circulation through tube 46, which is connected tothe outside air.

The operation of my invention,l as applied to the embodiment shown in Fig. ,2, is as follows: The apparatus is illed with carbonaceous material and the heaters 14 and 15 connectedI to any suitable ,source of energy, not shown. The source of energy may be the transformer itself, or it may be an independent circuit. Any suitable reaction temperature may be used. I have found that 600o C. provldes a suiiiciently rapid rate of oxidation for most purposes. If desired, a lower temperature, even as lew as 300O C. may be used;v

andit is obvious that higher temperatures are suitable. 'i

Owing to the higher temperature ofthe heaters 14'and 15, a thermo-siphonic circulation is induced in the space 8 above the oil 3,

whereby the gases enter passage 12, pass through the heaters and the carbonaceous material into passagel 17 and return to the space 8 .through opening 18 in casing 7 In the passage through the heaters, any oxygen present is caused to combine with the heated carbon to form carbon dioxide, or, in some cases, carbon monoxide.

'During 'the breathing'- ofl the transformer because of expansion and contraction of the .oi1, air is drawn in throughtube 19, passing Y- through heaters 14 and 15 where the oxygen is removed from the air by the heated carbon transformer, but also removes any oxygenl which may have been in the space 8 originally, or which may enter the said space accidentally because of leakage at points other than opening 20. Various changes may be made in the,

-details of Iconstructionof my device within the scope of my invention, as will be apparent to those skilled in the art.

I claim as my invention:

1. Means for providing non-combustiblel y inertatmospheres substantially of 'nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprising a container, a

fora-minous partition therein, carbonaceous' 'material supported at least partly thereby,

means for heating said material, means forV passing gases from an independent source therethrough and means for by-passing other gases therethrough. j i 2. Means for providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprisinga container, a

foraminous partition therein, carbonaceous material supported at least partly thereby, means for heating a portion of said materia/l and means for repeatedly passing gases through said heated portion ef the material.

3. Means for providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprising a container, a foraminous partition therein, carbonaceous material supported at least partly thereby, means for heating a portion of said material, means for passing gases from an independent source through said heated portion of the material, means for by-passing gases through said material and a chamber associated therewith for holding an additional supply of material. y A

4. Means for providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprising a container, a foraminous partition therein, carbonaceous `material supported at least partly thereby, means for heating said material and means for passing gases therethrough, including' passages communicating with a closed vessel.

5. Means for providing non-combustible inert` atmospheres substantially`of nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprising a container, a foraminous partition therein, carbonaceous material supported at least partly thereby, means for heating said material, means for passing gases therethrough, and means for supplying gases thereto, including passages communicating with a closed vessel, one of said passages being from the outside air to the said vessel.

6. Means for providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide com rising a container, a foraminous partition t erein, c arbonaceous material supported at least partly thereby,

v means for heating said material and means for passing gasestherethrough, including passes communicating with a closed vesse one of said passages lbeing from the outside air to the said vessel and another being wholly within the same.

7. Means for providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprising a container, a foraminous partition therein, carbonaceous material supported at least partly thereby, means for heating said material and means 4 for passing gases therethrough, including passages communicating with a closed vessel to allow both forced and thermo-siphonic circulation of` gases.

8. Means for providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide comprising a container, a foraminous partition therein, carbonaceous material supported at least partly thereby, means for heating said material and means for passing gases therethrough, including passages communicating with aclosed vessel to allow circulation through said material in a plurality of directions.

9. A method of providing non-combustible inert atmospheres substantiallyof nitrogen and carbon dioxide which comprises maintaining carbonaceous material at a temperature suiiciently high to facilitate the reaction thereof with oxygen and insuiiicient to combine with or crack hydrocarbon vapors and then passing oxygen-containing gases therethrough.

10. A method of providing non-combustible inert atmosphere substantially of nitrogen and carbon dioxide which comprises heating ashless carbon to a temperature sulficiently high to facilitate the reaction thereof with oxygen and` passing oxygen-containingL gases therethrough.

11. A method of providing non-combusti'- ble inert atmospheres substantially of nitro- -gen and carbon dioxide which comprises maintaining carbonaceous material at a temperature sufficiently high to facilitate-the reaction thereof with oxygen, passing 4and by-passing oxygen-containing gases therethrough and replenishing the supply of material.

12. The combination with a tank havin a gas space and a liquid therein, said liquid ieing capable of producing an explosive'mixture with gases contained in said space, of

means for rendering the gases in said space non-explosive comprising a container having means associated therewith for effecting a communication with said gas space, a foraminous support in said container and means in said container for heatingr a. combustible material for effecting a combination thereof with oxygen, whereby gases coming in contact with said material p aitially combine therewith and form non-combustible gas.`

13. The combination with a tank having a ga's'space and a liquid therein, saidV liquid being capable of producing an explosive mixture with gases contained in said space, of means for supplying non-explosive gas to said space comprising acontainer having means associated therewith for effecting a communication with a supply of gas and with said gas space, a formanous support in said container and means in said container for heating a combustible material whereby the gases coming in contact with said material partially combine therewith to form noncombustible gas.

14. The combination with a tank having-a gas space and a liquid therein, said liquid being capable of producing Ian explosive mixture with gases contained in said space, of means for rendering the gases in said space. non-explosive comprising a container, having means associated therewith for effecting a communication with saidgas space, a support for holding a combustible material,

`means in said' support for heating said combustible material whereby a portion of the gas supplied to said space is caused-to react with said combustible material and render the resultant gas non-explosive.

15. The combination with a tank having a gas space and a liquid therein, said liquid being capable of producing an explosive mixture with ases contained in said space, of means for displacing said explosive gas with a non-explosive gas' comprising a container having a communication with outside air and a communication with said gas space, a suport in said container for holding a combustile material, said support being adapted to permit circulation of gas therethrough and means associated with said tank for permitting displacement of gas contained in said space by non-explosive gas.

. 16. The method of maintaining an inert atmosphere in a casing containing a liquid combustible with air and an electrical appa- -ratus immersed in the liquid, which method consists Yin burning fuel and conducting the gaseous products of combustion into the ca sing to occupy the space above the liquid vtherein. b.

17. The method of maintaining an inert` atmosphere in a 'casing containing a liquid combustible with air and an electrical apparatus immersed in the fluid, which method consists in burning fuel and circulating the fuel and codueting the gaseous products of combustion into the casing to occupy the space above the liquid and to exclude air' from said space.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name this 17th day of December CHARLES A. STYER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2476909 *Aug 25, 1944Jul 19, 1949Westinghouse Electric CorpCasing for electrical measuring devices with atmospheric conditioner
US2568381 *Mar 23, 1945Sep 18, 1951Westinghouse Electric CorpCircuit interrupter
US5195299 *Feb 28, 1992Mar 23, 1993Johnson Matthey Inc.Method of reducing moisture content of hermetic packages containing semiconductor devices
US5371178 *Dec 3, 1993Dec 6, 1994Johnson Matthey Inc.Rapidly curing adhesive and method
US5386000 *Dec 3, 1993Jan 31, 1995Johnson Matthey Inc.Low temperature flexible die attach adhesive and articles using same
US5399907 *May 27, 1993Mar 21, 1995Johnson Matthey Inc.Low temperature flexible die attach adhesive and articles using same
US5489637 *Feb 22, 1995Feb 6, 1996Johnson Matthey IncLow temperature flexible die attach adhesive and articles using same
US5524422 *May 2, 1995Jun 11, 1996Johnson Matthey Inc.Materials with low moisture outgassing properties and method of reducing moisture content of hermetic packages containing semiconductor devices
US5612403 *Oct 16, 1995Mar 18, 1997Johnson Matthey, Inc.Low temperature flexible die attach adhesive and articles using same
WO1993016921A1 *Feb 25, 1993Sep 2, 1993Johnson Matthey Inc.Method of reducing moisture content of hermetic packages containing semiconductor devices
Classifications
U.S. Classification174/14.00R, 218/99, 445/55, 55/516, 220/371, 220/88.3, 218/97, 252/181.1, 336/94, 174/17.00R
International ClassificationH01F27/10, H01F27/14
Cooperative ClassificationH01F27/14
European ClassificationH01F27/14