US 1745134 A
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Patented Jan. 28, 1930 lTE STATES OFFHC CLARENCE B. WHITE, 01 MONTCLAIR, AND EUGENE SCHAEFER, OF ENGLEWOOD, NEW
JERSEY, ASSIGNORS TO VIVATEX PROCESSES, INC., OF LODI, NEW JERSEY, A COR- PORATION OF NEW JERSEY mrmrme BACTERIA-RESISTANT, PROPERTIES 'ro mime mrERms No Drawing.
This invention relates primarily to the sizin filling and coating of textiles and other fa rics composed at least in part-of cellulose, including not only the fabric itself, whether woven, knitted, netted or felted, but also fibres, yarns, threads and the various associations thereof. Its chief object is to pro-- vide, in the sizing, filling or coating treatment, a substantial degree of immunity, and in many cases virtually complete immunity, from damage by the attack of micro-organisms especially bacteria (or more correctly sohizomycetes) of the mildew group of which aspergillus and penecelium are prominent examples. The invention further relates to sizing, filling or coating compositions; compositions containing gelatin, albumin, or casein; cellulose solutions, as for example viscose, nitro-cellulose, and cellulose acetate in hydrocarbon and other solvents: rubber solutions; solutions of so-called synthetic rubber, and also rubber substitutes, such as the var nish-gum solutions used for coating fabrics; and solutions of other gums such as tragacanth, tragasol, and arab-ic. Another object is to provide sizing, filling and coating com ositions, and other compositions of the classes mentioned, which shall not only themselves be immune or resistant to attack but will impart a substantial de ree of resistance or immunity to cellulosematerial when applied thereto. To these and other ends the invention comprises the novel features hereinafter described.
For sizing or filling cellulose textile materials (including in this term not only fabrics but also fibres, threads, yarns, etc.) the compositions most commonly employed are composed largely of farinaceous materials or starches, such as wheat, corn, rice and potato starch, sago,tapioca, and the like. These are themselves susceptible to attack by microorganisms. and hence are apt to, and in many cases do, greatly increase the hazard of the textile material in which they are incorporated. Efi'ortshave been made to prevent this increase of hazard, and also to attain complete immunity not only of the sizing composition but also, through it. of the textile material itself, by including in the sizing Application filed October 23; 1926. Serial No. 143,788.
composition sterilizing or antiseptic substances, but such efforts have never, so far as We are aware, been completely successful. For example, there are many promising coal tar derivatives and the like, such as phenols, cresols, thymols, benzoates, and salicylates, which, while efiective for a time, soon lose their efliciency through gradual volatilize,- tion, polymerization into innocuous compounds, or actual chemical changes which de-.
stroy their distinctive character. A familiar case is that of sodium salicylate, a strong antiseptic which in the presence of alkali quickly loses its anti-bacterial effectiveness. Such chemical agents as salts of copper, zinc and magnesium, the most promising of which are zinc salts, have been tried with varying but never complete success. A typical case is that of zinc chlorid, which to be effective must be used in large amount, rising to as much as ten per cent of the material treated. The zinc salt being comparatively cheap the cost is not prohibitive; but its hygroscopic properties, by attracting moisture, tend to increase the susceptibility of the textile material itself to the attack of micro-organisms. The use of conner compounds is restricted by their poisonous character (the same applies of course of arsenic compounds) and by their pronounced color and ready reaction with certain dyestuffs. Magnesium salts are relatively inert and hence must be used in large amount. All of these agents have the disadvantage of setting free acidic ions under certain conditions of temperature and moisture, resulting in pronounced tendering and in some cases actual destruction of the fabric.
We have found that when compounds of the metals of the rare earth groups, and of the equivalent elements thorium, zirconium, and uranium, are added to the composition emploved for sizing, filling or coating textile materials and for other purposes, the resistance ofthe composition is of a degree that in some cases amounts to virtual immunity from bacterial invasion. The efiect of relatively small proportions of the salts referred to is manifested in marked retardation of the rate of bacterial growth, the acthat approaches immunization. At the same time the addition of minute quantities of thorium compounds along with compounds of zirconium and uranium and the rare earth metals markedly increases the already great resistance to the attack of micro-organisms which these compounds impart to sizing and other compositions. the compounds referred to are entirely nonhygroscopic, and with the exception of uranium compounds they are non-poisonous; and the uranium compounds are not dangerously' or even obj ectionably poisonous. More'- over, they are, as a general rule, difficultly soluble, and hence are lost but slowly if at all in the normal operations of laundering, thus makin the protection more lasting in the case of abrics that are Washed freq uently. Nor are they subject to polymerizatlon or volatilization, or to destruction of their antiseptic qualities through a change of linkage or chemical decomposition into com-' pounds which are innocuous or less repellant to micro-organisms.
The well known compounds of these metals with phenols, cresols, thymols, naphthaline compounds, and salicylic and benzoic acids,
are stable and diflicultly soluble, thus adding an element of permanency to the antiseptic qualities of these organic compounds, as well as reinforcing or increasing their antiseptic power or ability to inhibit or restrain the growth of moulds, fungi, and other microorganisms. Such compounds are less volatile, more permanent,-and far more diflicultly removable than is the case with hydrocarbons and coal tar derivations uncombined with the chemical elements referred to.
.The' immunizing or resisting compound may be added to the sizing, filling, coatin or other com osition at any stage of its pro uctron, or a erwards. It has been found advantageous, however, n the case of compositions containing farinaceous or starchy ingredients, to mix the resistance-imparting compound with the ingredient mentioned.
The preferred rare earth metal and zirconium, thorium and uranium compounds are the soluble or slightly soluble compounds, as they afford greater protection than the insoluble oxids and hydroxids. Among the former compounds are sulfates, acetates, silicates, nitrates, fatty acid salts and halo en salts, and our experience indicates t atfluorids are the most advantageous.
In general, thorium compounds are preferred, and, of these from one-half to two per cent is usually ample, whereas from one to four per cent of compounds of the other.
With rare exceptions Water meitals would be required for equivalent resu ts.
With the foregoing a few specific examp These are suitable for sizing cellulose fibres, yarns, threads and fabrics.
general rules in mind In the above, th'e'thorium salt or salts can be replaced wholly or in part with other rare earth metal, zirconium and uranium salts.
- D E F G China clay 280 lbs 560 336 898 Meg. chlorld (60 Tw.) 16 30 Flour 280 280 520 460 Oocoanut oil 20 30 Sod. sulfate..- 224 336 Tallow 150 Water Sufiicient Suf. Bul. But. Cerium, lanthanum or didymium sulphate, cleats, etc 7 lbs. 7 12 14 In the above compositions the cerium, lanthanum and didymium salt or salts may be replaced entirely or partly by thorium compounds, the higher efliciency of the latter making it possible to use correspondingly smaller quantities, as indicated by the first series of examples.
It is to be understood that the invention is notlimited to the details herein described but can be carried out in other ways without departure from its spirit. In the appended claims the term rare earth ele'mentis intended to include thorium, zirconium and uranium. I
We claim-- y 1. A composition of matter for sizing, filling, coating or other purposes, containing an organic ingredient which is itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms and containing also a compouhd of a rare earth element serving to impart resistance to such attack.
2 A composition of matter for sizing, filling, coating or other purposes, containing an organic ingredient whichis itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms and containing a difliculty soluble salt of a rare earth element serving tov impart resistanceto such attack.
- 3. A composition .of matter for sizing, filling, coating orother purposes, containingan" es will be sufficient.
' tion containing 4. A- composition of matter for sizing, filling, coating or other purposes, containing an organic ingredient which is itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms and containing thorium fluorid to impart resistance to such attack.
5. A composition of matter for sizing, filling,coating or other purposes, containing a farinaceous ingredient and also containing a compound of a rare earth element acting to impart resistance to attack by micro-organisms.
6. A composition of matter for sizing, filling, coating or other purposes, containing a farinaceous ingredient and also containing a thorium compound acting to impart resistance to attack by micro-organisms.
7. A composition of matter for sizing, filling, coating or other purposes, containing a farinaceous ingredient and also containing thorium fluoride to impart resistance to attack by micro-organisms.
8. The herein described method of rendering textile materials resistant to the attack of micro-organisms, comprising sizing the textile material with a composition containing an organic ingredient which is itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms, and containing also a compound of a rare earth element.
9. The herein described method of rendering textile materials resistant to the attack of micro-organisms, comprising sizing the textile material with a composition containing an organic ingredient which is itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms, and containing also a thorium compound.
10. The herein described method of rendering textile materials resistant to the attack of micro-organisms, comprising sizing the textile material with a composition con taining an organic ingredient which is itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms, and containing also thorium fluoride.
11. le'xtile material sized with a composition containing an organic ingredient which is itself susceptible to attack by micro-organisms, and containing also a compound of a rare earth element.
12. Textile material sized with a composition containing a farinaceous ingredient and a thorium compound.
13. Textile material sized with a composia farinaceous ingredient and thorium fiuorid.
In testimony whereof we hereto aflix our signatures.
' CLARENCE B. WHITE.