US 1748360 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 25, 1930. w. H. MILLSPAUGH 1,748,360
MANUFACTURE OF REENFORCED PAPER AND THE LIKE Filed April 16. 1926 416 INVENTOR Zz/wz'am J1. B M QM HIS ATTORNEYS Patented Feb. 25, 1930 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WILLIAM H. MILLSPAUGH, OF SANDUSKY, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO THE PAPER AND TEX- TILE MACHINERY (10., OF SANDUSKY, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO MANUFACTURE OF REENFORCED PAPER AND THE LIKE Application filed April 16,
' This invention aims to provide an im'-' proved method and means for use in the manufacture of laminated products composed of paper and another material.
One practicable form of machine suitable for use in practicing a method embodying the invention is shown for illustration in the annexed drawings, by reference to which the invention will be readily understood.
In said drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of the illustrative machine, certain parts being shown in section;
Fig. 2 exemplifies a material adapted to in corporation with paper sheets in a reenforced laminated product; and
Fig. 3 illustrates another form of material adapted to similar use.
The illustrative machine is described in connection with a process of making paper having incorporated reenforcement of reticular material such as wire netting, which material is useful, among other purposes, for the manufacture of cartons or boxes or linings for the same.
Referring to the drawings, 4 and 5 respectiv'ely denote paper forming suction-rolls which may be rotated in opposite directions as indicated by the arrows. By appropriate suction-box equipment, said rolls are shown eachprovided with vacuum-chambers 6 and 7 in which uninterrupted vacua of proper degree may be maintained by communicating vacuum-pumps or other vacuum-producing apparatus (not shown).
Endless wire-cloths or making wires 8 and 9 typifying appropriate strainer mediums are shown entrained respectively upon the suction-rolls 4 and 5. In addition to providing sheet forming surfaces on the vacuum exposed areas of these rolls, said wires or mediums may serve also to convey the sheets of paper formed on said rolls, to succeeding elements of the machine.
Means represented by vats 10 are shown adjacent the rolls 4 and 5for holding liquid stock in contact with the forming surfaces of said rolls. In this instance the vats are adapted to hold and supply the stock upon the arcs of the rolls exposed to the vacuum action of 1926. Serial No. 102,548.
the chambers 6 therein. Stock of a character suitable for finished paper manufacture may be continuously supplied to and maintained at proper levels in the vats by appropriate means (not shown).
The sheet carrying runs of the wires 8 and 9 are shown converging for a reason which will hereinafter be apparent. In this instance, they are entrained against and defiected by one of a pa1r of squeeze-rolls 11, which may or may not be adjusted to exert pressure on the coacting runs of the wires and the intervening material carried thereby, according to working requirements. These coacting press or squeeze-rolls are preferably of soft rubber or rubber-coated in order to grip the wires without possible injury thereto. Adjusting means for said squeeze-rolls is indicated in Fig. 1.
The coacting runs of the wires 8 and 9 are shown adapted to travel cooperatively from the deflecting roll or rolls, to a roll 12, which in this instance and for purposes hereinafter mentioned, is a suction-roll. In some cases,
however, for example, when making heavy wall-board, this roll need not be a suctionroll. Said roll 12 may serve as a bottom guide-roll for the wire 8 while the wire 9 may travel around a lower guide-roll 13. Other guiding and tensioning rolls engaging the return runs of the wires are indicated at 14.
Means represented by a drum 15, which for convenience is shown located above the forming-rolls 4 and 5 and adapted to free rotation, is provided for supplying reenforcing material between the converging wires carrying the sheets formed on said rolls. In the illustrative machine, a reinforcing material denoted by the numeral 16, is shown supplied from the drum 15 and introduced between the paper sheets at the point where the wires 8 and 9 are brought together and deflected against one of the pair of squeeze-rolls 11. The material supplied by said drum is of reticular form, such for instance as wire netting, poultry Wire, cheese cloth, burlap or other reinforcing material either woven or unwoven. However, material of a character similar to that illustrated in either of Figs.
2 and 3, is regarded as preferable.
In the illustrative machine, the cylinders of the rolls 4 and 5 are adapted to be rotated in such directions as to move the endless wires 8 and 9 upwardly through arcs of contact.
with the liquid stock in the vats, a continuous Wet sheet or ply being formed on each of said wires by the action of vacuum in the vacuumchambers 6 of the rolls, as said wires respectively traverse the areas of the cylinders exposed to the action of the aforesaid chambers. Water from the stock from which the paper forms is drawn off through said vacuumchambers, the newly formed sheets being drained of substantial proportions of moisture by the continued action of the vacuum thereon as said sheets are carried beyond the liquid level over the extended areasof the cylinder segments exposed to the action of said vacuum-chambers.
The sheets may be formed relatively thin or thick according to the nature of the stock employed, the speed of cylinder rotation and the degree of vacuum maintained in the for1ning chambers of the respective rolls. Moreover, they may be caused to form with straight clean-cut edges by restricting or confining the liquid stock bearing upon the forming areas of the rolls between laterally adjustable plates or deckles conforming to and.
closely overlying the cylindrical surfaces;
The amount of vacuum maintained in the chambers 6 will depend upon the nature or condition of the stock and the desired thickness and character of the product. By properly adjusting the vacuum, the speed of cylinder notation and the areas of liquid contact therewith, uniform wet sheets of desired thickness may be produced at fast as well as moderate rates of speed and sheets or plies of the same ,or unequal thicknesses may be formed from the same class of stock or from different classes of stock as desired.
. In the illustrative machine, a further reduction of the moisture contents of the paper sheets or plies formed on the rolls 4 and 5,
may be effected by subjecting the sheets to the subsequent action of vacuum in the chambers 7 of said rolls, as the sheets are carried over the latter chambers by the endless mediums which convey them from their places of formation. The vacuum in the tast mentioned chambers may be adjusted so as to force quantities of air through the sheets and expel moisture therefrom suflicient to bring them to a desired low-moisture content. Such a reduction in moisture content of the sheets is especially appropriate where the sheets are to be consolidated or bonded in a plural-ply web, a low-moisture content being generally desirable for perfect bonding and it is otherwise advantageous to expel all moisture from the sheets in excess of that actually required for perfect bonding. According to require ments, depending upon the nature of the stock and the character of product in formation, the vacuum maintained in the chambers 7 may obviously be greater or less than the vacuum maintained to form the sheets.
By this method of forcing regulated quantities of air or other moisture-removing media therethrough, the sheets may be uniformly tempered to substantially the moisture content most advantageous for etl'ectual bonding. In the process of manufacturing ordinary grades of paper, whether the sheets are to be consolidated in a plural-ply or reenforced web, or are to be treated independently, the means above described for tempering the sheets would be sufficient for conditioning the same without necessity for employing additional means of'mechanical compression. Furthermore, such a temperin of the sheets may be accomplished without imitation in the speed of sheet formation or in bonding the same either with or without an incorporated reinforcing material.
After passing over the top surfaces of the rolls 4 and 5, the sheets are shown carried on the converging runs of the wires8 and 9 and brought together against one of the pair of squeeze-rolls 11 for bonding, At this point the reenforcing material 16 is shown incorporated or interposed between the sheets, which will readily bond together through the interstices or meshes of the material as it is drawn or fed continuously therebetween.
In dealing with reenforcing material such as woven-wire, a convenient way of introducing the material at the start of the operation is to attach a strip of ordinary cloth to the end of the woven-wire reenforcing material and to lead this cloth in between the paper sheets on the making-wires so that the cloth will be caught between the sheets and draw'l the woven-wire reenforcing material after it.
Beyond the deflecting squeeze-rolls, the contacting sheets with intermediately incorporated material, are in this instance carri'ed between and with pressure applied by the coacting runs of the wires 8 and 9 to the roll 12, which as hereinbefore stated, may or may not be a suction-roll.
In the present illustration, the wires 8 and 9 are shown only slightly deflected against one of the squeeze-rolls 11. In the manufacture of certain kinds of paper however, the pressure applied to the contacting sheets or plies alone by the coacting runs of the wires, as deflected by and tensioned between the rolls 11 and 12, may in some cases be insulticient for complete bonding of the sheets through the meshes of the intermediate mate-- rial. In suclncases, the other of the pair of squeeze-rolls may be quickly adjusted to exert an increased pressure on the coacting runs of the wires against the deflecting roll to aid the bonding. Such an adjustment may be made also to aid in drawing or feeding the reenforcing material between the contacting sheets. For ordinary purposes however, theapplication of increased pressure is not considered necessary.
Bonding of the sheets or plies in a consolidated web with interposed reenforcing material may thus be expediently effected with advantageous results in the quality of the product, the sheets by rapid stages being first pre-formed and then bonded together with the intervening material after the method described. I
The'roll 12 which in this instance is employed as a transfer-roll, is shown with its suction-box or chamber arranged to act on the composite or laminated web'as the latter traverses said roll and to transfer the web thereonto, or cause the web to adhere to the wire 8, thus preventing said web from followingthe roll 13. In the illustrative machine, the composite web is shown subsequently transferred from the wire 8 by a suction-roll 18, onto a press-felt 19, the latter beingshown passing through a press, which in this instance comprises a squeeze-roll 20 and coacting suction-roll 21, the vacuumchamber of the latter acting at the bite of the rolls. At its delivery end where the web is indicated passing to succeeding elements of the machine, the felt is shown trained around a'guide-roll 22, its return run being guided and tensioned by the rolls 23, while a guideroll 24 is shown to guide said felt under the transfer-roll 18. One or more press sections may be employed for smoothing purposes or for completing the bonding of the sheets where the latter have been incompletely or only partially bonded between the deflected coacting runs of the wires 8 and 9.
If desired, additional plies may be incorporated in the reinforced product and with the illustrative machine, the additional plies may be made on other forming surfaces (not shown) and then transferred onto the endless wires 8 and 9 of the forming surfaces shown, the transfer being effected above or in advanceof the point where said wires converge.
The described method of manufacturing reinforced paper sheets or webs may effectually be followed'in manufacturing a reinforced plural-ply web merely by incorporating additional elements in the illustrated structure. For example, any number of additional sheet-forming surfaces or cylinders having suction-box equipment and stock-applying means similar to those described with reference to the rolls a and 5, may be incorporated in the illustrative machine by a superstructural arrangement of parts similar to the arrangement or organization shown and described in my Patent No. 1,718,574 dated June 25, 1929, for improvements in paper making methods and machines.
In illustration of means for incorporating additional sheets or plies in the product of the illustrative machine so as to produce a plural-ply reenforced web, endless sheet-carrying mediums or making-wires 25 and 26 (which may carry paper sheets formed on other forming-surfaces than those illustrated) have been indicated entrained over lower guide-rolls 27 in position adjacent to or in contact respectively with the rolls 4 and 5 for delivering the sheets carried thereon, onto said rolls. The transfer of the conveyed sheets onto these rolls may be aided by the maintenance of suction within the suctionboxes 7 of said rolls.
The above described means for transferring additional sheets or plies onto the rolls 4 and 5 or onto the sheets continuously forming thereon, may be used in connection with other paper forming-surfaces (not shown) which may be embodied in the machine or comprise an entirely separate machine. Thus any number of additional forming-surfaces, in conjunction with the rolls 4 and 5, may be employed in simultaneously forming and tempering continuous paper sheets or piles to be brought ultimately together and bonded in a composite reenforced web withone or more laminations of rcenforcing material interposed therebetween, the endless mediums or making-wires from such additional forming-surfaces being arranged or trained to deliver the sheets formed thereon, onto one or the other of the illustrated forming-surfaces. 4
. Numerous other forms of machines may be designed or adapted for use in practicing this invention and the accompanying drawings are merely illustrative of one of the many forms of machines or means embodying the invention and adapted for use in practicing the method embodying the same in the manufacture of laminated paper products.
Agitators or other means for exciting liquid stock may be employed in the vats or means supplying stock to the paper-forming surfaces, in order to maintain the stock in a constant state of agitation effecting a crossed disposition of the pulp fibres in the process of wet sheet formation, and to prevent alinement of the fibres in the direction of cylinder rotation.
Thus in the illustrative machine, either withor without additionally incorporated forming-surfaces, the sheets may be preformed and tempered to the desired low moisture content most advantageous for effectual bonding and then brought into contact with one another, or ultimately all together in plural-ply web-forming relation intermediate the converging wires 8 and 9 and through the meshes or interstices of said material, after which the composite reenforced web is conveyed or passed to succeeding elements of the machine for treatment in drylng and finishing in the customary manner. Referring to certain details of the illustrative machine, the cylinders of suction-rolls 4 and 5 are shown driven by gears 28 from gears 29. Said rolls or cylinders are preferably mounted in anti-friction bearings of a form similar to that shown and described in my Patent No. 1,700,442 dated January 29, 1929, for improvements in suction rolls, or of a form similar to that shown and described in my Patent No. 1,532,430, dated April 7, 1925, for improvements in anti-friction journal bearings, in order to conserve power in effecting rotation thereof and also to facilitate high speed rotation. In the illustrative machine, V the endless mediums or wire-cloth members 8 and 9 are driven by their respective forming cylinders and may be guided andtensioned as indicated, while the several smaller rolls have been shown adjustably mounted in suitable bearing memberson a supporting frame 30.
The formingvacuum-chambers, tempering or moisture regulative vacuum-chambers and suction-boxes of the illustrative machine may be connected with any suitable vacuum pum s or apparatus capable of maintaining the proper vacua in each, as will be readily understood by those familiar with the suctionroll art. Y
Obviously the present invention is not limited to the specific details of construction, arrangement of parts or mode of operation herein shown and described, since various modifications or changes to meet different res quirements and conditions may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
Notice is given of my prior and now pending application Serial No. 610.539, filed J anuary 3, 1923, based upon a process and machine involving continuous vacuum-induced formation of a wet paper sheet on an area of a rotating cylinder exposed to vacuum action against liquid stock; and of my prior and now pending application Serial No. 610,538, filed January 3, 1923, basedrupon a similar process and machine involving vacuum-induced formation of the sheet on an endless wire traveling around the vacuum cylinder and also involving the simultaneous formation of sheets on oppositely revolving vacuum cylinders and bonding them to form a unitary plural-ply sheet in which prior applications I claim inventions embodied in the disclosure of this application.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A method of the class described characterized by forming paper in continuous wet sheets by vacuum-induced formation, while extracting water from the sheets by vacuum action; and uniting a plurality of such sheets by bonding of the paper material while incorporating reenforcement between such sheets.-
2. A method of the class described characterized by forming paper in continuous Wetsheets by vacuum-induced formation, while extracting water from the sheets by vacuum action; convergingly carrying such sheets while introducing therebetween a web of diffcrent' material; and pressing the sheets together to unite them with said interposed material in a single composite web.
A paper-making machine comprising in combination. rotating cylinders having vacuum areas exposed to liquid stock on which continuous wet sheets are formed; means for tempering the sheets by vacuum to a desiredmoisture condition for bonding; means supplying reenforcement material between theconditioned sheets; and means for bonding the sheets together while feeding the reenforcement material therebetween.
4. A paper-making machine comprising in combination, oppositely rotating cylinders having vacuum areas exposed to liquid stock; endless members travelling over said cylinders providing sheet forming surfaces on which continuous wet sheets of paper are formed and by which the sheets are brought together for bonding; means for extracting moisture from the sheets while on said cylinders by vacuum regulated to condition the sheets for effectual bonding; means supplying reticular reenforcement material between the sheets while bringing the latter in contact; and means for bonding the sheets and intervening material together in a composite web while continuously feeding said material therebetween.
5. A method of the class described charac ,terized by forming wet paper sheets and conditioning them for bonding by vacuum action. and uniting a plurality of such conditioned sheetssby bonding of the paper while incorporating reenforcement between the sheets. 7
- a 6. A machine of the class described having,
tween the sheets brought into contact by said wires.
7. A machine of the class described having, in combination, positely rotating sheetforming suction ro ls with associated liquid stock holding means; endless wires running around said rolls, on which wet sheets are formed; said wires having converging offbearing runs; andmeans for introducing rem enforcing material between the sheets as they are brought together by the said converging runs.
8. A machine of the class described having, in combination, oppositel -rotating suction rolls with associated liqui -stock holding means; endless wires running around said rolls, on which wet sheets are formed, said v wires having descending convergent off-bearing runs arranged to bring the sheets thereon together for bonding; and means for introducing reenforcin material between the sheets as they are brought together by said wires.
In testimon whereof I afiix m signature. WIL IAM H. MILLS AUGH.