US 1749222 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' March 4, 1.930. 5, MERRIAM 1,749,222
HEAT RESI STING CABINET Filed Feb. 19, 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 March 4, 1930. E. s. MERRIAM HEAT RE SISTI NG CABINET Filed Febfle, '1924 s Sheets-Sheet 2- [NPENTOR AJATTORNEKS.
March 4, 1.930. E. s. MERRIAM HEAT RESISTING CABINET Filed Feb. 19, 1924 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 16 21 TTORNE Y8 Patented Mar. 4, 1930 UNITED STATES PATENT] OFFICE,
EDMUND S. MERRIAM, MARIETTA, OHIO, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, '10 REMINGTON RAND INC., 01: NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE HEAT-RESISTING CABINET application filed February 19, 1924. Serial No. 698,741.
My invention relates to cabinets, light weight safes, and similar containers for papers, documents, records or other articles which it is desired to preserve from fire or 5 excessive heat, and particularly has reference to articles of the type noted which are so insulated and constructed as to afford high ;resistance against flame and heat and prevent the penetration of moisture, vapor and gases m to the interior thereof.
During the course of experimentations I have found that the rigid exclusion of all steam, vapor and other gases from the interior of a safe or cabinet gives it quite unis usual fire-resisting qualities. Therefore, important objects of my invention are to provide means by whichthe interior walls or surfaces of a safe may be hermetically sealed, and in which safe provision is made for the rigid exclusion from the interior thereof of steam, vapor, gas or other detrimental fluids, and thus to provide for a lower average temperature in the safe under all adverse conditions, avoiding the danger of explosion, and
increasing the possibility of protecting articles which might be damaged by steam or by excessive heat. I
\Vith the foregoing objects in View, my invention consists in the parts, features, elements and combinations thereof, all as hereinafter described and claimed.
In order that my invention may be clearly understood, I have provided drawings where m:
Figure 1 is a horizontal section of a safe, cabinet or similar article constructed in accordance with one form of my invention;
Figure 2 is a perspective view of a safe embodying the features of my invention shown 4 in Figure 1, the view being on a reduced scale; I
Figure 3 is a vertical section of the safe shown in Figures 1 and 2 embodying my invention;
Figure 4 is a detail, horizontal, sectional View, on an enlarged scale, showing a form of construction for sealing the door thereof; Figure 5 is a horizontal, sectional view of one form of the inner sealed lining of the safe; and
Figure 6 is a horizontal, sectional view of that portion of the safe door which cooperates with said inner lining.
Referring particularly to Figure '1 of the drawings, it will be seen that my safe con sists of three principal parts, viz, an outer casing, an insulating lining, and an inner casing. The door of the safe, or sealing member, consists of three similar parts having the same functions, as will be explained. .In the figures of the drawing, particularly Figures 1 and 3, the numeral 1 indicates generally a sheet-metal outer casing, including side, to and bottom walls which, inside, are painte coated or lined in any suitable cooperative way with waterproof or moisture-resisting material 2. The said walls thus treated are secured together in any convenient, suitable or approved manner so as to render the structure thereof rigid and strong, and at the points of juncture said walls are sealed in usual'manner against fire, heat and fluids of all kinds. The said walls, including the inner coating of whatever nature, are provided with apertures 3, the same being as numerous as may be desired. For purposes of illustration, the apertures may be provided substantially as shown in the figures of the drawings, and particularly Figure 2.
The safe or cabinet is provided with an insulating lining 4 of plastic, cementitious material, or any similar mixture containing water to a degree such that it may be sufliciently limpid to bepoured or sufiiciently soft to be molded to the desired form. Stress is laid upon this insulating lining from the fact that when it is set it must be heat-resisting, homogeneous or monolithic in character, comparatively light, strong and durable and, yet, be capable of allowing the contained or. in- 90 herent moisture, regardless of 'its assumed form in the presence of heat, to pass out of the mass or be emitted or exuded therefrom order to remove therefrom so much of the the lining for a safe casing, or (3) may also water as may be desired. Or, the mixture may be poured into the space between the outer and inner casings, when both are embodied in the safe structure, the said casing being thus used as a mold. If the cast is produced as first stated, viz, in a mold independently of the casing, it may constitute (1) the body of a safe, or (2) said cast may form have combined therewith an inner casing, or (4) may have combined therewith an inner casing only. In'the drawings these different forms will be readily understood. Essentials of this form of my invention are that the casting is a one-piece structure, is formed of plastic material, and is molded to form a hollow, jointless, composite block ready for use as a safe or as a lining for a safe. And, regardless of how the inner surfaces of the .structure are rendered fluid-proof and heatresisting, I intend the term inner casing to be comprehensive of all forms or means for the purpose.
The msulating material 4 has applied to its inner surfaces a casing or coating of material impervious to fluid, the casing shown being of metal or other heat-resisting material, and which is more or less impervious to moisture. To makethis casing, of whatever character or material it may be, impervious to fluids, I paint or coat or otherwise apply to the outer surfaces thereof, or otherwise combine therewith, waterproof or moistureresisting material 6. The inner casing may be made in any suitable manner, and, regardless of the manner in which it is made, it is an important feature of my invention that the angles or corners 7 thereof shall be hermetically sealed, so as to prevent in ress of moisture, vapor, gas or any other'fluid which may be generated by either the chemical'constituents of the safe or by the presence of moisture, heat or both. Instead of having an inner casing, such as shown in the figures of drawings, the monolithic insulating lining 4 may be coated, painted, saturated, or otherwise provided, on its inner surfaces, with.
some suitable heat-resisting and fluid-proof substance or material. This reduces considerably the total weight of the safe; and such weight may be further reduced by omitting the outer casing, thus leaving the body of the safe to consist of the monolithic heat-insulating material rendered fluid-proof on its inner surfaces by suitable means as described.
As an instance of treatment of the inner surfaces of the monolithic material or structure, in order to render it heat-resisting and fluid-proof, I may forcibly project upon said inner surfaces a cementitious'coating, of suitable or ample thickness, composed of sand, cement and water in proper proportions. By forcibly projecting the cementitious substance against the inner surfaces of the monolithic structure, or the insulatin linmg, the surfaces are penetrated and the interstices are filled and the surfaces become lazed and hard, thus making a dense and u1d-proof coating or surface. The coating thus applied in great measure becomes homogeneous with the materials of the inner surfaces of the monolith, and gives to the latter and the surfaces thus treated a strong and durable surface which is heat-resisting and impenetrableto fluids.
Regardless of how the parts of my safe are combined or put together or the materials of which they are constructed, the important features of my invention are that the outer shell or casing, where one is employed, shall be to a certain degree heat-resisting, and that it shall be p'rovi ed with passages or apertures throu h which moisture and gases, which may e generated within the same, or in the insulating lining or monolithic structure, under any condition of use or in the presence of excessive heat, such as a fire, may pass outwardly or be exuded; an inner casing of fire, heat .and fluid-resisting material, which at all angles or points of connection are hermetically sealed; and an insulating lining of suitable material, which, when final 1y prepared, will be monolithic in character. The characteristics of the insulating lining are such that moisture, gas or other fluids can be normally emitted or exuded, or will pass out or off therefrom without providing passages or apertures for the purpose. The treatment of the inner surfaces of the monolithic structure or insulating lining prevents the fluids from passing to the interior of the .safe; the fluids must pass to the outside of the structure and through the apertures of the outer casing if one is used.
Figure 5 shows the inner metal casing with its fluid-proof outer coverin and the corners or angles 7 thereof are s own in-a manner such as to indicate the fact that they are hermetically sealed, regardless of how the condition is brought about. For the purpose of applying a closure, door or seal to the opening of the safe, cabinet or container, the
front wall structure thereof is provided with angular flanges 8 and .9, which may be of any contour found desirable for the purpose. The door or seal is composed of one or more members 10, as the case may be, treated in the same manner as the inner casing 5 and having its ends flanged at 11 and 12 correspondingly, and for cooperative interaction with the flanges 8 and 9, respectively, of the said inner casing. The said seal or door or closure also has a front sheet 13 treated in a manner identical with that of the outer casing 1 and provided with perforations 14 for the same purposes. The door or seal or closure is hinged in any suitable manner, as at 15, to one or the other of the flahges 8 or 9 of the inner casing and the structure produced, as just noted, is insulated, as at 16, in the same manner and with the same materials as suggested with reference to the monolithic. structure 4. Any suitable form of lock generally indicated at 17 is provided on the door or closure to lock the same in any approved manner, the one desideratum in connection with this look being that the aperture through which the bolt or shaft 18 passes shall be sealed against the admission of fluids and heat by a suitable character of shield, such as indicated at 19, Figure 1. In order to seal the juncture between the safe or'cabinet structure and the door or closure, gaskets 20 of any suitable material may be applied in the recesses, grooves, corrugations or other conformations at the said junctures. The material of these gaskets may be more or less compressible, flexible or elastic, and heatand moisture-resisting, in order to provide the proper seal at the junctures when the door is closed, as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 4.
From the foregoing it will be understood that my safe, cabinet or container, as shown in the drawings, is composed of an inner fluidproof and fireproof or heat-proof casing, which is surrounded by an insulating lining of monolithic character, which in turn is enclosed or encased by an outer casing provided with a plurality of apertures, and which is to a certain degree heatresisting. The essential characteristic of this combination of elements is that the inner casing cannot be penetrated by fluids such as steam or other gases; and that any fluids which may be generated in the insulating lining in the presence of excessive heat, or as the result of chemical action, shall be prevented from entering the inner chamber of the safe or cabinet through the inner casing, but will be repelled therefrom and forced to findescape through the apertures of the outer casing, or, in the absence of the latter, shall be exuded from and pass out of the insulating material.
From another aspect, my invention, broadly, contemplates the production of a monolithic structure adapted to be used as a safe or cabinet, and which may be cast, molded or otherwise produced and subsequently treated in order to render it effective as a safe, cabinet or container, and which latter is rendered, on its entire interior surface, impervious to moisture or gases in any manner whatsoever, as, for example, by the combination therewith of an inner fluid-resisting casing, or by the production thereon of an inner surface, which is impenetrable or impervious to fluids, applied thereto as a coating or lining in a manner such as to render it more or less homogeneous therewith.
Some of the essential'structural features of the invention as above described may be briefly stated as follows: (1) An outer casing is produced of any suitable metal or material, and said outer casing is provided on its inner surface with a coating of fluid-proof material, and said outer casing is provided with apertures or passages through which fluids of any char-- acter may pass.
(2) A lining for the outer casing, monolithic in character, is produced in any suitable way and by any approved method and applied to the outer casing as an insulation therefor. Said monolithic lining may be produced in a mold of the size of the outer casing, or it may be formed or molded between the outer and inner casings, or in the outer casing with help of an inner frame or mold, the latter to-be removed when the plastic insulatin material has become properly set.
(3) in inner casing is produced composed of sheet metal or other suitable material, the angles or corners of which are hermetically sealed, and this inner casing, on its outer surface, or surface next to the monolith, may be treated in'any suitable manner to protect it from corrosion.
(4) A seal, door. or closure, made similarly to the safe itself, is then provided to close the one opening in the safe or cabinet, and such seal or door and the cooperative parts of the inner casing, to which it is hinged, are suitably treated and provided with gaskets in order to properly seal or close what would otherwise be cracks or vents or openings between the inner casing and the door or closure.
(5) And the mechanism of the lock passing through the closure or door is sealed into the latter by a proper form of heat-resisting fluid-excluding shield or device applied in any suitable manner to the outside or inside of the door.
(6) Or, alternatively, the outer casing may be omitted, leaving the outer surface of the monolithic structure exposed as the outside of the safe or cabinet, but without treatment to render it fluid-proof on its outer surface, since it is a characteristic of this monolithic structure that whatever of moisture may remain therein or be an inherent characteristic thereof shall be capable, when chemically changed in the presence of heat, of being emitted, exuded or passed out and off of the outer surface thereof.
(7)' Or, instead of a metal inner casing, treated as hereinbefore described, being used, in combination with the monolithic structure, the inner surface of the latter, with or without an outer casing, may be treated so as to render it fluid-proof and heat-resisting; and,
- by thus treating the inner surface of the monolithic structure, the gases, vapors or other fluids generated in the presence of heat the chic characteristics of the article produced is thatit cannot produce or develo high heat conduction to the interior thereo And the safe as a whole is not affected by temperature and moisture, and the contents thereof cannot, therefore, be affected in any detrimental manner.-
In the claims following I employ the word fluid in its broad sense meaning any form of gas such as steam or vapor which may be generated in the pressure of heat from th insulation or otherwise.
.Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is: I
1. A safe, comprising a solid monolithic body having an opening at one side to a compartment formed therein, an inner lmperforate sheet metal casing fitted insaid c ompartment in the body, said casing having an outwardly flared marginal flange at the open end fitting said body around said open end, a perforate sheet metal outer casmg on said body, and a closure for the open end of said compartment, said closure having a monolithic panel provided on its inner face with a sheet metal plate having a marginal -flange formed for hermetic sealing cooperation with the marginal flange on said inner casing in closed position, and a perforate outer metal plate on said panel, said inner casing providing a moisture-proof container in sealed relation, said monolithic body providing a fire resistant and protective enclosure for said inner casing, and said outer caslng providing a protective covering for said monolithic body and releasing moisture exuding therefrom.
2. A safe, comprising a solid :monolithic body having an opening at one side to a compartment formed therein,'an inner imperforate sheet metal casing fitted in said compartment in the body, said casing having an outwardly flared marginal flange at the open end fitting said body around said open end, a perforate sheet metal outer casing on said body, a closure for the open end of said compartment, said closure including a monolithic panel provided on its inner face with a sheet metal plate having a marginal flange for hermetic sealing cooperation with the body having an opening at one side to a compartment formed therein, an inner imperforate sheet metal casing fitted in said compartment in the body, said casing having an outwardly flared marginal flange at the open end fitting said body around the open end thereof, and a closure for said compartment including a monolithic panel and a sheet metal plate applied to the inner face of said panel aving a 'marginal flange embracing the edges of said panel and formed for hermetic sealing cooperation with the'flange on said inner casing in closed position, said inner casing providing a moisture-proof container for its contents, and said monolithic body and panel providing a fire resistant and protective support for said inner casing.
' 4. A safe, comprising a solid monolithic body having anopening at one side to a compartment formed therein, an imperforate liner on said body. in said compartment having a marginal portion around the opening in the body engaged with the end of said body adjacent said opening, and a closure for the .said monolithic body and panel with the liners associated therewith provide a hermetically sealed compartment having the fire resistant protection of said monolithic body and panel.
5. A liner for monolithic safe bodies adapted to provide a hermetically sealed compartment in said body, comprising an imiperforate sheet metal casing open at one si e, an outwardly flaring flange on the edges of said casing at the open side thereof, and a closure liner having an imperforatevsheet metal plate formed to fit the open side of said casing and having a marginal flange formed to engage the flange on said casing, said flanges being formed with complementary interfitting channels and ribs having sealin cooperation to hermetically seal the joint etween said flanges in the engaged relation thereof.
6. A liner for monolithic safe bodies adapted to provide a hermetically sealed compartment in said body, comprising an imperforate sheet-metal casing of substantially rectangular form in cross section having one open side, and a marginal flange integral with said casing at the 0 11 side and extending laterally and outwar ly fromthe open side of said casing, said flange being formed with a plurality of progressivel ofi'set portions rovidin alternate channe s m and ribs extending long1tudinally thereof.
Signed by me at Monroe, La., this 12th day of February, 1924.
EDMUND S. MERRIAM.