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Publication numberUS1750505 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 11, 1930
Filing dateJul 1, 1922
Priority dateJul 1, 1922
Publication numberUS 1750505 A, US 1750505A, US-A-1750505, US1750505 A, US1750505A
InventorsMichael N Bulka
Original AssigneeMichael N Bulka
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Astronomical clock
US 1750505 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 11, 1930. M BULKA ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK Original Filed July 1. 1922 3 Sheets-Sheet l March 11, 1930. M. N. BULKA ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK Original Filed July 1. 1922 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Z'6M%ZJ/%w INVENTOR.


March 11, 1 50. L A 5,750,505

ASTRONOMI CAL CLOCK Original Filed July 1. 1922 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.


Patented Mar. 11, 1932' MECHAEL N. BULKA, 3?! GEIGAGG, ILLINUIS ASTEONGHIGA'L CLOCK Application filed July 1, 1922, Serial Nb. 572,192. Renewed Hay 10, 19%.

This invention relates to clocks and more particularly to astronomical clocks, and an object of the invention is to provide an improved form of clock for exemplifying and illustrating the movements of the earth and moon about the sun, the movement of the moon in its orbit about the earth and the rotation of the earth upon its axis, and to illustrate these movements synchronously with the actual happenings for simulating or illustrating the four seasons of a year.

Another object of this invention is to pro vide an astronomical clock as specified which is particularly adapted for use in class rooms, and which is normally operated by a clock mechanism of approved construction, an also to embody means for disconnecting the earth and moon operating mechanism from the clock mechanism to permit operation of said mechanisms by a motor, thereby permitting operation of the season indicating structures and the earth and moon structures in a much greater rate of speed than they are operated by the clock mechanism for the purpose of illustration in a class room.

The astronomical clock hereinafter described is an improvement over a similar structure disclosed in my Patent No. 1,416,005 issued May 16, 1922.

Other objects of the invention will appear in the following detailed description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:

Fig. 1 is a front elevation or the improved clock structure.

Fig. 2 is an enlarged view ofthe season and 24 hour clock structure dial showing the year hand in proper relation thereto.

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical section illustrating the driving mechanisms for operating the earth and moon simulating spheres.

' Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical section through the device showing the year and 24: hour clock mechanism together with parts of the mechanism for driving the moon and earth simulating spheres.

Fig. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary rear elevation illustrating the structure for disconnecting the earth and moon driving mechanisms from the year clock structure and permitting them to be driven from the auxiliary motor.

Fig. 6 is a detail section through a part c the clock mechanism.

Fig. 7 is a detail section illustrating the clutch mechanism. Referring more particularly to the draw lngs, the improved astronomical cloclr comprises a casing or body 1 which may be constructed in any artistic design, to add to the appearance of the clock, and add to its attractiveness. The casing l, illustrated in Fig. 1 of the drawings is only one type which may be provided, it being understood that the configuration, and appearance of the casing forms no part of the present invention. The casing 1, has a front panel 2 beneath which is mounted a lower clock dial 3 and an upper calendar dial structure l. The clock dial 3 is of the usual construction, and minute and hour hands 5 and 6 respectively cooperate therewith, which hands are adapted to be operated by any approved type of clock mechanism. The clock mechanism is also adapted to operate the 2 1 hour hand 7 and the day hand 8 of the calendar dial structure 1. The 24 hour hand 7 is adapted to cooperate with the inner stationary ring 9' which is graduated into 24 equal parts which are indicated or designated by two sets of numerals from '1 to 12 consecutively indicating the 2&- hours of a day. The dial 9 has its outer surface dividedinto two equal parts one of which is darkened as shown at 10, which simulates the periods of darkness of a day, while the other part or" the dial is white or light as shown at 11 to simulate the hours of daylight of each day. The 24 hour hand 7 is mounted upon a shaft 12, which is rotatably supported by a suitable bracket 13 and has a relatively large gear 14 mounted thereon which meshes with a pinion 15. The pinion 15 is in turn carried by a shaft 16. A gear 17 is mounted upon the shaft 16 and meshes with the gear 18 of the train of gears 19 which comprises alternate gears/and. pinions, as clearly shown inFi 4: of the drawings. The train of ears 19 15 connected to the minute hand 5 o the clock mechanism through the medium of its carryoperating the 24 hour hand 7 by operation of the clock mechanism and the gears and pinions are provided in proper ratio to rotate the hand 7 about its axis, one complete revolution in each 24 hour period.

The day hand 8 is carried by a sleeve 22 rotatably mounted upon the shaft 12and connected to the shaft 12 for rotation thereby, by

means of a gear 23, pinion 24, carried by a shaft 25 and a train of gears as indicated at 26 in Fig. 4 of the drawings. The various ratios of the pinions and gears of the train of gears 26, and the gear 23 and pinion 24 are such as to rotate the hand 8 about its axis one complete revolution upon the elapsing of each 365 days or one revolution during each calendar year. I a

A supporting rod 30 rises from the center of the casing 1 through its top and it carries a sphere 31 which is adapted to simulate the sun and which, it is understood, may contain an, electric incandescent lamp bulb as shown in Fig. 6 of the drawings. The electric or ex-' citing current to the lamp bulb passes to the lamp socket 32 through the flexible brushes 33 which contact with the spaced contact rings 34 which are connected in any suitable manner to a suitable electric supply source. The socket 32, brushes 33 and rings 34 are incased in a suitable artistic guard 35.

Spheres or globes 36 and 37 are provided if which simulate respectively the moon and the earth. The globe 37 may have map indications printed thereon, as clearly shownin the drawings, and it is rotatably mounted upon trunnions 38, in an annulus 39 so as to permit rotation of the globe or sphere 37 about its axis to simulate the rotation of the earth upon its axis. The rotation of the sphere 37 upon its axis is provided through the medium of gears 40, 41 and pinion 42. The gear 41 is mounted upon a suitable shaft 43 upon which a bevel gear 44 is mounted. The bevel gear 44 meshes with the bevel gear 45 upon a hol low shaft 46 which hollow shaft is rotated through the medium of the miter gears 47 from the vertical hollow shaft 48. The vertical hollow shaft 48 is connected by miter gears 49, Fig. 4, with the shaft 12 and the ratio of the respective miter gears, bevel gears, gears and pinions is such that the sphere 37 will rotate one complete revolution upon its axis upon each complete revolution of the 24-hour hand 7 about its axis. The moon simulating sphere 36 is supported by an arm 50 which is rigidly a tached to a sleeve 51 which is rotatably mounted upon the hollow shaft 43.. The sleeve 51 is rotated from the bevel gear 44, through the medium of the straight gear teeth 53 thereon, the gear driving rotation of the moon and the earth is such that the moon and the earth will revolve according to their correct astronomical revolutions.

A rod 57 extends axially through the hollow shaft 43 and through a suitable spacing collar 58 which is supported by bracket 59 which is carried by the enclosing sleeve 60. The earth and moon are rotated about the sun simulating sphere 31 with the supporting rod 30 as an axis, by rotation of the day hand 8. so that the earth simulating sphere 37 will make one complete revolution about the sphere 31 upon one complete revolution of the day hand 8 or upon the elapsing of one calendar year. The rotation of the sphere 37 about the sphere 31 is caused by the miter gears 61, which connect the sleeve 22 to the sleeve or hollow shaft 62 which is in turn connected to the shaft 63 for rotating it by the miter gears 64, one of which is stationary upon the rod 30 so that as the sleeve 62 is rotated about the rod, the shaft 63 will be rotated. The rotation of the shaft 63 will rotate the shaft 57 through the medium of the miter gears 65 for rotating the annulus 39 and the sphere carried thereby about the rod 57 as an axis during the rotation of the sphere 37 about the sphere 31. .The rotation of the annulus 39 by the shaft 57 maintains the axis 38 of the globe 37 always in the same direction relative to the sun simulating sphere 31 which causes the rays from the lamp bulb within the sunsimulating sphere 31 to strike the globe 37 at the proper angle and position for indicating the our seascns of the year. The lengths of the time at which any respective part of the earth simulating globe 37 is in a direct line of the light rays from the sphere 31 can thus be readily determined for determining the relative hours of daylight and darknesspf any particular part of the earth at any particular season of the year.

The slight movement of the annulus 39, which is 1/365th of a complete revolution each 24 hours operated, would cause the relative positions of the earth simulating globe 37 and the sun simulating globe 31 to be slightly altered, causing movable positioning of the relative parts of the earth globe and the sun simulating globe 31. To overcome this lagging behind of the globe 37, the 24 hour hand 7 makes 1 and 1/365th revolutions each 24 hours operated which compensates for the movement of the annulus 39. The dial 9 being carried by the sleeve 22 which rotates the year hand 8 will move in unison with the year hand or will move 1/365th of a revolution at the expiration of each 24 hours operated which will bring the 24 hour hand 7 at the proper time or hour indicating graduation on the dial at the proper time interval on successive days. It is to be understood that the movement of the annulus 39 is necessary to cause proper positioning of the earth simulati'ng glo e 37 relative to the sun simulating globe 31 for indicating or showing the various seasons of the year.

By connecting all of the foregoing mechanisms with the clock mechanism it will be understood that the movements of the spheres 36 and 37 and of the hands 7 and 8 will be controlled by operation of the clock mechanism and that they will move in accordance with the passage of actual time. However, for purposes of illustration, in such places, as a class room or the like it is often necessary to operate the mechanism at a faster rate of speed than that at which it is operated by the clock mechanism, so as to enable students or observers of the clock to readily ascertain the action of the earth and moon relative to the sun and relative to each other, and to permit this increased speed of operation, a motor structure of any approved type as indicated at is provided and it is connected to a shaft 71, which shaft is in turn connected by means of a bevel pinion 72 and a bevel gear 73 to the shaft 12 for rotating the shaft 12 by operation of the motor. A clutch mechanism 74 of any approved construction is provided for controlling operation of the pinion 15, and the gears between this pinion and theshaft 12, by operation of the clock mechanism. The bevel pinion 72 is slidably mounted upon the shaft 71 and is connected thereto for rotation with the shaft by a slot and pin connection as shown at 75. Collars 76 are carried by the hub 77 of the pinion 72 and they are engaged by an operating arm 78 which arm is pivoted as shown at 79 to the supporting frame 80. The free end of the arm 78 is connected by a slot and pin connection 81 to an arm 82 carried by a shaft 83 so that when the shaft 83 is rotated, the pinion 72 will be moved into or out of meshing engagement with the gear 73, and a suitable cam 84 is carried by the shaft 83 for operating the clutch member 7 4 synchronously with movement of the arm 78 so that when the pinion 72 is moved into mesh with the bevel gears 73, the

connection between the shaft 12 and the shaft for connecting the shafts 12 and 20. The shaft 83 projects but of the casing 1 and has a knurled thumb knob 86 mounted thereon to facilitate its manual rotation. The dial 9 is driven or rotated synchronously with rotation of the sleeve 22, the said dial being mounted upon the sleeve, as clearly shown in Fig. 4 of the drawings.

It is, of course, to be understood that the invention may be constructed in other manners and the parts associated in different relations and, therefore, I do not desire to be limited in any manner except as set forth in the claim hereunto appended.

Having thus described my invention what I claim is:

In an astronomical clock, a dial structure including an inner dial member having characters on the face thereof indicating the hours of the day, an outer dial member disposed around said inner dial member and having characters thereon representing the calendar months and the days thereof, hands adapted for cooperation with said dial structures, means for driving said bands including a shaft supporting one of said hands and adapted for a revolution once in twenty-four hours, a rotatable sleeve disposed around said shaft and adapted to carry the other of said hands,

said sleeve being operatively connected to.

said shaft for rotation therewith in the ratio of 366 to 1, said inner dial being mounted on said sleeve for rotation therewith, said first mentioned hand cooperating with said inner dial whereby to indicate the hour of the day, and said second mentioned hand cooperating with said outer dial whereby to indicate the .day of the month. 9

In testimony whereof I afix my signature.


20 of the clock mechanism will be cut off permitting the shaft 12 to be rotated by rotation of the shaft 71 and operation of the motor.

It will be apparent that any approved type of clutch mechanism may be used for vconnecting and disconnecting the shafts 12 and 20, but for the purpose of clearness I have illustrated in Fig. 7 the shaft 16 as provided with a keyway 16' whereby the pinion 15 and gear 17 may be keyed to the shaft for sliding movement- In order to impart a sliding movement to the pinion 15 and gear 17 to connect or. disconnect them with respect to.

the gears 14 and 18, a collar 17' is mounted upon the end of the shaft 16 and connected to the inion 15, said collar having engaged therewith the yoke a on the arm b which is operated b the cam c on the shaft 83.

It will apparent when the shaft 83 is rotated to move the bevel pinion 72 of mesh with the bevel gear 73 that the clutch mechanism 74 will be thrown into 0 ree see

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2603940 *Jun 20, 1947Jul 22, 1952Packard John CHorological apparatus
US3091915 *Apr 13, 1960Jun 4, 1963Pawl Walter SUniversal timepiece
US4334297 *Jun 23, 1980Jun 8, 1982Oros Gerald DGlobe clock device and methods of making and using the same
US4583864 *May 10, 1985Apr 22, 1986Graves Joseph RSolar system clock
US4671669 *Nov 12, 1986Jun 9, 1987Graves Joseph RSolar system clock
US4747780 *Oct 14, 1986May 31, 1988Tzeng Shui TanMulti-function globe with its related planets
US4887250 *Apr 22, 1988Dec 12, 1989Bernard VuarnessonApparatus for reproducing the appearance of heavenly bodies
US6222796Aug 14, 1998Apr 24, 2001Lauren RosenAstrological watch
US7376051Mar 10, 2006May 20, 2008Trivicor International LlcClock with selected audio messages
US20040184355 *Mar 21, 2003Sep 23, 2004Simonson Peter M.Timepiece
US20070211575 *Mar 10, 2006Sep 13, 2007Lauren RosenClock with selected audio messages
US20120294125 *Nov 29, 2010Nov 22, 2012Luc LarameeAstronomical clock
US20140247699 *Mar 1, 2013Sep 4, 2014Timex Group Usa, Inc.Wearable Device with Moon Phase Display
WO2004086152A2 *Mar 22, 2004Oct 7, 2004Simonson Peter MTimepiece
WO2004086152A3 *Mar 22, 2004Dec 23, 2004Peter M SimonsonTimepiece
U.S. Classification368/16, 362/809, 362/132, 368/37, 434/293
International ClassificationG09B27/02
Cooperative ClassificationY10S362/809, G09B27/02
European ClassificationG09B27/02