|Publication number||US1750953 A|
|Publication date||Mar 18, 1930|
|Filing date||Apr 17, 1925|
|Priority date||Apr 17, 1925|
|Publication number||US 1750953 A, US 1750953A, US-A-1750953, US1750953 A, US1750953A|
|Original Assignee||Alexander Boynton|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
A. BOYNTON ROTARY REAMER March 18, 1930.
Filed April 1'74 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet l W INVENTOR vilexa/wzderfi @Oyvzfi in WITNESSES :iw 654/ am Q4,
ATTORNEYS March 18, 1930. 4 BOYNTON 4 1,750,953
ROTARY REAMER Filed April 17, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Iii/O. 6.
WITNESSES 1 On "if/L7 9 Jlaxcuuefi Bop m7? ATTORNEYS Patented Mar. 18, 1930 ALEXANDER BOYNTON, OF SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS ROTARY REAMEB Application filed April 17, 1925. Serial No. 23,879.
This invention relates to a method of reaming oil wells or the like and also to an improved rotary reamer adapted for use in carrying out the method. The improved rotary reamer is of the type forming the subjectmatter of my co-pending application, filed Oct. 23, 1924, Serial No. 745,456.
The object of the invention resides in the provision of a novel method of reaming oil wells which has many of the.adv antages of an ordinary downwardly progressing reaming operation while avoiding the disadvantages and objectionable features thereof.
Another object of the invention resides in the provision of a rotary reamer which has at least twice the efiiciency of the ordinary reamer in that the reamer blade with which the reamer is equipped has two cutting edges both of which are used in the reaming operation so that it is not necessary to withdraw the reamer from the well and replace the same in the well after renewing or sharpening the reamer blades with but half the frequency required with a single edged blade.
A further object resides in the provision of a novel means for draining from the drill stem the fluid or fluid used to control the v reamer blade.
A still further object resides in the provision of a novel fluid pressure actuated means for controlling the action of the reamer blade. Another object resides in the provision of novel means for washing out the cuttings, said means being of such a character as to incidentally serve to keep the operator advised of the character and progress of the reaming action.
Other objects and advantages reside in certain novel features of the construction, arrangement and combination of parts which will be hereinafter more fully described and particularly pointed out in the appended claims, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, and in which:
Figure 1 isa view in central longitudinal vertical section showing a rotary reamer constructed in accordance with the present invention, the reamer blade being shown in elevation;
Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure 1 but showing the reamer blade in a substantially horizontal position; I
Figure 3 is a view in horizontal section on the line 33 of Figure 1;
Figure 4 isa diagrammatic view illustrating the method of reaming out a well;
Figure 5 is a detail perspective view of the reamer blade;
Figure 6 is a similar view of a similar form of blade for use in cutting through and milling away casing;
Figure 7 is a perspective view of the pivot pin employed for mounting the blades of Figures 5 and 6 on the reamer casing;
Figure 8 is a detail view in elevation of the piston and the rack employed for controlling the movement of the reamer or cutting blade, the sleeves of the piston being removed;
Figure 9 is a detail view partly in elevation and partly in section and showing a modified form of reamer blade rock reamer especially adapted for use in reaming rock or hard formations, and 1 Figure 10 is a view in elevation of the rock reamer shown in Figure 9, and
Figurell is a View showing the shank of the blade of Figs. 9 and 10 in elevation, the rollers and felt washers being removed and showing the head in section.
Referring to the drawings, 1 designates the lower end of a hollow rotary drill stem which is of conventional construction. It is to be understood that this invention is intended for use in conjunction with the usual equipment or machinery employed in the rotary drilling of oil, gas, or water wells, the usual rotary being employed for rotating the drill stem and the standard equipment 7 ordinarily employed being utilized for raising and lowering the drill stem. The usual pumps employed on rotary rigs are also utilized for the purpose of supplying water or other liquid or fluid under pressure down through the hollow rotary drill stem to the reamer constituting the present invention. These 'instrumentalities are so widely employed and so well known 'in the art of drilling as to need no illustration here.
To the lower end of the hollow rotary drill stem 1 a reamer assembly constituting the present invention, and designated generally by 2, is connected, a sub 3 being employed for connecting the reamer assembly to the drilling stem 1.
The reamer assembly 2 comprises a cylindrical casing 4 which is internally machined to provide a cylinder. The lower end of the casing 4 is provided with a transverse slot or 0pening5 which extends out through one side of the casing and which also extends down through the lower end thereof. The slot 5 is formed between internal enlarge ments of the casing and the upper ends of these enlargements present a shoulder 5. A reamer blade, designated generally at 6, is provided and has a head 7 disposed in the opening 5 and pivotally connected to the lower end of the casing by a pivot pin 8. The reamer blade 6 has a shank 9 provided with two cutting edges, one being designated at 10 and the other being designated at 11. The reamer blade 6 normally hangs in the position shown in Fig. 1 and its approach toward one portion of the casing 4 is limited by means'of a stud-bolt 12 threaded into the blade and engageable with the casing 4, the
bolt 12 providing an adjustable abutment or stop. ,With the arrangement shown the blade 6 is pivoted for swinging movement about an axis extending transversely of the reamer casing and may hang vertically downwardly from and in alignment with the casingor.
may be moved to a horizontal position at right angles to the casing, as shown in Figure 2.
Fluid pressure operated means is provided for swinging the reamerblade 6 from the position shown in Fig. 1 to the position shown in Figure 2 and this means includes a piston,,designated generally at 13 operating in the cylinder of the casing 4 and having a pair of heads 14 and 15 connected by a neck portion 16. The fluid under pressure is supplied from the ordinary pump down through the hollow drill stem to the cylinder in the casing 4 and is usually the ordinary washing fluid. The head 15 has an integral extension 17 provided with teeth 18 on'its straight portion and teeth 18* on its curved portion, the extension 17 and its teeth 18 and 18 constituting a rack. The teeth 18 and 18 mesh with the teeth 19 formed on the head 7 of the blade 6. When the piston 13 has been moved down the cylinder provided in the casing 4 as far as it may be, it abuts the shoulder 5., the teeth 18* as well as certain of the-teeth 18 are meshed with the teeth 19, the'portion 15 of the head 15 of the piston is engaged with the portion 6 of the head 6 of the reamer blade, and the head 6 of the reamer blade also engages an abutment 20 provided by the portion of the casing 4 which lies at the upper end of the slot or opening 5, whereby the reamer blade is firmly supported in a horizontal position.
sleeve has three such grooves therein, the
grooves of each sleeve being spaced equidistant from each other. These grooves tend to prevent sticking and burring of the piston against the cylinder. In the event the piston should stick or freeze in the cylinder the continuity of the stuck or frozen section would be broken by the grooves. Particles of the piston which might stick or freeze to the wall would be scraped from the wall by the movement of the piston, and the grooves would afford a convenient pocket or receptacle in which such particles would collect, thereby removing them as wedges between piston and wall. I
The head 14 is provided with a plurality of lengthwise openings 25. These'openings 25 permit the fluid or liquid'under pressure to pass into the space between the pistons at all times and when the piston 13 is elevated in the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 1, a certain amount of this fluid or liquid may escape through a small exhaust port 26. When the piston 13 has been forced down in the cylinder to the position shown in Fig. 2, the fluid or liquid under pressure forcibly discharges through a relatively large exhaust port 27 also provided in the cylinder casing 4.
In reaming a well with the reamer described and in accordance with the novel method proposed by this invention, the reamer is lowered down into the well to the bottom of the formation to be reamed-out. During the lowering operation, the blade 6 occupies the position shown in Fig. 1. With the reamer at the bottom of the formation to be reamed out it is rotated and fluid pressure is supplied to the top of the piston 13 so as to force the piston 13 down in the cylinder in the casing 4 and swing the reamer blade 6 outwardly and upwardly as the entire assembly rotates. During this operation the cutting edge 11 is active and by virtue of this operation the cavity shown at A in Fig. 4 is formed. The cavity A is not completely formed until the reamer blade 6 has been forced up to a substantially horizontal position by the action of the fluid pressure. During the time that the reamer blade is moving from a vertical to a horizontal position a certain amount of washing fluid is being supplied through the port 26. When the reamer blade approaches a horizontal position the port 26 begins to be closed by the piston head 14 while the piston head 13 begins to uncover the ort 27. When the reamer blade 6 has final y reached a substanmoves downward,
tially horizontal position, as shown in Fig. 2, the port 26 is closed and the port 27 is 0 en and the maximum amount of washing flui or liquid is supplied for carrying away the cuttings.
An important feature of the invention resides in the fact that the pump signals to the operatorthe exact position of the blade. Port 26 is open when the reaming operation begins. Port 26 is a small port. As piston just as port 27 begins to open. Port 27 being about twice as large as port 26, the pump begins to exhaust faster and continues to run faster until port 27 is wide open. Port 27 is wide open just before piston .and blade engage, with blade in horizontal position.
on the reaming blade reaches the horizontal position, the rotary begins to spin, that is, runs much faster because the reaming arm can go no higher and therefore ceases to out. There is, therefore, at this point a double signal given to the operator. First, the pump is wide open, and second, the rotary spins. Then in reaming downward until the cavity below is reached, the pump continues to remain wide open but the rotary labors until the lower cavity is reached, when the rotary begins again to spin. Therefore,
by observing the action of the pump and the action of the rotary, the tool practically talks to the operator, telling him in unmistakable terms the exact position of the blade at all times.
After the cavity A has been formed the drill stem is elevated to bring the reamer assembly about three or four feet above the cavity A and the process just described is repeated to form a cavity B. When the cavity B has been formed the reamer blade 6 is held in a horizontal position and while so held the drill stem is lowered while being rotated so as to cut away the material between the cavities 1A and B by a downwardly progressing reaming action. This downwardly progressing reaming action brings the cutting edge 10 of the reamer blade into .play and does not utilize the cutting edge 11.- The downwardly progressing reeaming action just described is had without the serious disadvantadge of the drill stem wabbling and flopping around because the drill stem has a fairly ood bearing in a nearly adjacent unreamed hole, and does not extend for a substantial portion of its length unsupported through a reamed hole. Moreover, the casing 4 has a forward extension 4* which extends in advance of the tool at one side of the same and which has its outer surface slightly beveled, as shown to advantage in Figs. 1 and 2. This forward extension gives the tool a bearing in advance of the portion of the well that is being reamed out during the downwardly progressing reaming action. The beveled or rounded off external formation of the forport 26 begins to close ward extension precludes the possibility of the bearing surface provide by the extension being worn oil b the rotation of the tool. After the cavity has been formed the drill stem is raised to bring the reamer assembly three or four feet above the cavity B and the operation just described is repeated and may be repeated thereafter as often as is necessary to ream out the formation.
It is to be understood here that the invenwell or the like which consists in forming a cavity at the bottom of the formation to be reamed by an outwardly and upwardly proessive reaming action. More particularly his step of the method consists in forming this cavity by swinging a reamer blade outwardly and upwardly to a substantially horizontal position. A second step in the method consists in similarly forming a second cavity a short .distance above the first cavity, the second step being accomplished by raising the reamer and repeating the action described in connection with the formation of the first cavity. After the second cavity has been formed the final step consists in removing the material between the cavities by a downwardly progressing reaming action. Specifically the downwardly progressing reaming action consists in holding the reamer blade in a substantially horizontal position after the second cavity has been reamed and in utilizing the reamer blade while so held to remove the material between the cavities by rotating the drill stem on which the reamer blade is carried and feeding the drill stem downwardly.
The reamer-blade 6 hereinbefore described is especially adapted for use with soft formations. When hard rock formations are encountered the reamer blade shown in Figs. 9, 10 and 11 of the drawings, and designated generally at 50, is preferably employed. The reamer blade includes a head 51 having teeth 52 adapted to mesh with the teeth 18 of the rack of the piston. The reamer blade 50 also includes a shank 53 which has an externally reduced extension 54 of tapered form, the reduced extension being threaded into a correspondingly formed socket 55 provided in the head 51. Set screws 56 are threaded into the head 51 and engage the threaded extension 54 to hold the shank against accidental displacement from its head. The shank 53, is of stepped formation and is machined to provide bearing surfaces 58,59 and 60 for roller cutters 61, 62 and 63, respectively. The roller cutter 61 abuts the head 51. the roller cutter 62 is positioned between shoulders 64 and 65 formed on the shank 53 by the steps thereof and the roller cutter 63 is positioned between the shoulder 65 and an annular fastening nut 66 engaged with the shank accommodated in a recess in the roller cutter and held in position by set tion involves a novel method of reaming a 'verse oil passages screws 67. A felt washer 68 is interposed washer 70 of similar form in cross section extends around the shoulder 65 and is interposed between the roller cutters 62 and 63. A flat washer 71 is interposed between the nut 66 and the inner wall of the recess in the roller cutter 63 in which the nut 66 is accommodated. These felt washers prevent the ingress of mud, dirt, grit and the .like, and they control the feed and distribution of the lubricant which is supplied to the bearing surfaces 58. 59 and 60 and to the parts of the blade which move relative to each other. In order to provide for the lubrication referred to the shank 53 is formed with a lengthwise axial opening 72 which extends from its outer end to a point adjacent the reduced extension 54 and which constitutes an oil reservoir.
plug 73 closes the outer end of the opening 72. Transverse oil passages 74 extend from the axial opening or oil reservoir 72 to the bearing surfaces 58, 59 and 60. These trans- 74 communicate at their outer ends with spiral oil grooves 75 formed on the bearing surfaces. The blade 50 is used in exactly the same manner as the blade 6 except that it the fluid pressure is not capable of holding the blade in horizontal position in extremely hard rock formations, the action of the fluid pressure may be supplemented by lowering a string of tubing rods or the like down onto the piston head 14, p
so as to positively force the piston downwardly and consequently positively hold the blade 50 in horizontal position.
The reamer constituting the present invention may be readily converted into a tool for cutting through and milling away a section of the well casing by merely substituting the blade 7 6 shown in Fig. 6 for the blade 6. The
blade 76 is of similar construction to the blade 6 but is shorter, as shown in the drawings. When the casing is set in the bottom of the well and cemented from the bottom so that all production will be shut off both above and below the pay formation, the pay formation alone may be opened to the casing by reaming out the section of the casing that lies within the confines of the pay formation. This can be done by using the short blades 76 to cut through and mill away the casing within the confines of the pay formation. This cutting away and milling is accomplished by rotating the tool in one position until the blade opens and then by slowly reaming or milling down, the casing will be cut away by the bottom cut-' ting edge of the short blade until the desired length of easing has been removed. The long reaming blade 6 will then be applied and the balance of the reaming carried out as hereinabove described or if the formation is too hard the blade 50 may be employed.
A tool constituting the present invention may be advantageously used for mining oil. The oil industry in this country is beginning to appreciate the advantages of mining oil. Old oil fields in France and Germany have been made to produce four or five times as much as they produced from wells by sinking shafts and driving tunnels through the oil producing formations. One mode of oil mining has been very well described in an article appearing in a ournal or publication.
known as Oil Trade, the article appearing on page 26 of the issue of February, 1925, Vol. 16. No. 2. A shaft for oil mining may be produced as follows: In-practical operation the ordinary 6 with the usual 4 drill stem can be reamed out to a diameter of three or four feet. Then by going into the well with an 8" or 10" drill stem and using a reaming tool of suitable diameter with a blade 3 or 4 feet long a shaft six or eight feet in diameter can be made. Of course, the blade 6 could be used in soft formations and the blade 50 in very hard'formations.
1.' A reamer blade comprising a head, a shank extending from the head having a plurality of bearing surfaces of varying diam- 1 eters defining shoulders, a plurality of roller diameter well drilled cutters mounted upon the bearing surfaces 7.
of the shank, said cutters having annular re cesses confronting each other at the shoulders. acking means situated in said recesses and abutting the shoulders, and means for holding the roller cutters in place upon the shank.
2. A reamer blade comprising a head, a shank extending therefrom having a plurality of bearing surfaces of various diameters providing shoulders, a plurality of roller cutters mounted upon the bearing surfaces. one of said roller cutters abutting the head. said cutters having recesses confronting each other at the shoulders. said one of the cutters having a recess adjoining the head, packing means situated in the various recesses abutting means for holding the cutters in place upon the shank.
3. A reamer blade comprising a head, a shank extending therefrom being formed to provide a plurality of bearing surfaces of progressively varying diameter, thus defining shoulders, a plurality of roller cutters mounted upon the bearing surfaces and having recesses confronting each other at the shoulders, washers fitted in the recesses and being formed to engage both adjacent bearing surfaces and the shoulders, and means associated with the extremity of the shank and with the end cutter locking the cutters in free-turning position upon the shank.
4. In a rotary reamer -for wells, a hollow the shoulders and head respectively,and
rotary drill stem, a rotary reamer assembly carried by the lower end of said stem and including a casing having a cylinder therein, a reamer blade pivoted to the cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, motion transmission means between the piston and the blade for swinging the same outwardly and upwardly, said piston having a pair of heads and a neck connecting the heads, the upper head having a port affording communication between the hollow drill stem and the space between the piston heads, said casing having a small escape port controlled by the upper head of the piston and a large escape port controlled by the lower head of the piston, the small escape port being adapted to permit draining of the drill stem and being adapted to supply a certain amount of washing fluid to the reamer blade and the large escape port being adapted to supply a full amount of washing fluid to the reamer blade.
5. In a reamer blade, a shank of stepped formation, separate roller cutters individually revoluble on the steps of the shank, and means attached to the shank for immediately holding one of the cutters in place and so preventing axial displacement of all of the roller cutters at the end of the shank.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2847189 *||Jan 8, 1953||Aug 12, 1958||Texas Co||Apparatus for reaming holes drilled in the earth|
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|U.S. Classification||175/267, 175/227, 175/367, 175/286, 175/366|
|International Classification||E21B47/09, E21B10/32, E21B10/26, E21B47/00|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B10/322, E21B47/091|
|European Classification||E21B47/09D, E21B10/32B|