US 1751537 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 25, 1930. ,E. VIANELLO APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSING AIR, GASES, OR VAPORS Filed July 9, 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet l I II IIJI Llllll Ill 4 1 4 N vengfor E. VIANELLO arch 25, 1930.
APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSING AIR, GASES, OR VAPORS Filed July 9. 1926 5 sheets-sheet 2 E Wand/d lm eni'or March 25,1930. E. VIANELLO 5 APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSING AIR, GASES, OR VAPORS 4 Filed July 9, 1926 '5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Z Wand/0 Went E. VIANELLO March 25, 1930.
APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSING AIR, GASES, OR VAPORS Filed July 9, 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 E. VIANELLO March 25, 1930.
APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSING AIR, GASES, OR VAPORS Filed July' 9,. 1926 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 "Patented Mar. 25,1930- ,nmro vraunnro;
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' Application filed 111 119, 1926, Serial No. 121,55, and 1a Italylebruary 25, 19 21.
" The present applicationis a continuation in part of my former'application 596,487.
.The invention relates to a multistageturbine-compressor for' air,-'gas or vapors. '5 ,The objectof this'invention is to provide afturbo-compressor capable of producing a very high rate of compression with a large efliciency. i 1
A further object is to secure a simultaneli uidvconditlon. o the end ofincreasingthe rate of" compression and the efliciency ofthe turbo-comressor,devices have already been proposed required in centrifugal compressors destlned ance, orwhich allow'a'very extended reduce p tion of the passageways through the impellers and in the-sametime toke'ep very high-the centrifugal force.
-, veryhigh angular speed, each rotating wheel being a ressurestage of the turbo-compressor and bemg formed of a disk having a rim which rejects towards the suction side or 1 the tur o-compressor, this rim being provided' with one or more'ports or narrow pas-- sagewa s, the direction ofwhich is radial at. the on t side and makes an angle of 50 deeesIto- 60. degrees with the radius at thenlet iiiside The" rea of the cross section that these pas sageways resent between the entrance and the exit 0 'each passageway, is calculated'in such a way as to ensure that the volume and pressure of every kilo arn or fluid through them durin'gt the turbo-compressor, remain between the limits established by the laws of the adiabatic or isothermal-com ression of air, gas or vapors. Owin to t e great reduction in volwho require fora very extensive rate or compression, the reduction of the total area of the ifgiross-section of the passageways oushigh compression of-fluid in aeriform and ut none of the proposed types is adapted to work with eificiency at the very high speed My impr oved turbo-compressor comprises i a, number of rotating wheels adapted for a' "means being. provided to move the pac assing e normal -wor o throughthe rims of the rotating wheels is 'ensured,fby .decreasing from wheel to wheel the axial extent of-the rims and also the ratio of the circumferential total extent of the passageways to the whole circumference of .xthe wheel. .In this way itis possible to keep 7 'veryhigh thec'entrifugal effect, also in case the capacityby. volumeof the ports must be very reduced,
In. the rotating wheels, the passage way, through the'ports must be extremely-reducedlfor the necessity of conform in with thesaidflaws, Further, it must "be note that the said high 'efl'ectmay be also ensured' in cases in which the turbo-compressor'must-be adaptedfor a small capacity of fluid to be delivered per minute.
ln'order to ensure perfect tightness of the rotating ports, there are stationary diaphragms fixed at the inner side. of the casmg of the turbo- ':ompressor which are extended inwardly as far as the inner edge of the rotating rims which carry the ports. These; diaphragms are provided 'on their high-pressure. side with packing rings screwed in thebody' of the diaphragms, ing rings towards-and" away from'the rim of the corres onding rotating wheel, from the out- ;side 0 the casingso as to'form a tight wall at the low pressure side of the ports crossing the rim' ofeachrotating wheel. .The'stationary diaphragms on their low pressure" side are provided with'deflectorswhich direct the fluid alongaline which makes an angle of .50 to 60 degrees with the radius at the? outer periphery and run alongthe radius at the inner periphery-of the deflectors= v There are also. provided mechanical atomizers by means of which water is injected in proximity to. the suction and of the turbocompressor, the arrangement being such as to form a mixture ofrsteam and water containing at least sixty per cent by weight of water. in case adiabatic compression of,
saturated steam is to be accomplished, so
that a gradual condensation of the steam inthe turbo-compressor will take place. .It is known in fact,'-that in any adiabatic com- 10 the total area of 60 pression of saturated steam a condensation of the steam is produced when the fraction of steam weight in the mixture at the beginnin of the compression is about 0.4 or less an that there will be an evaporation of the water contained in the mixture in case the fraction of steam weight in the mixture is more than about 0.4. In case of an isothermal compresof Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view on line 4-4 or 44 of Figures 1 and 2. Figures 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are artial views of the second, third, fourth, fi th and sixth (low pressure to high pressure side) rotating wheels of the turbo-compressor.
Fi 10 is a artial view of a stationary dia ragm of t e turbo-compressor.
ig. 11 is an axial sectional view of a stationary diaphragm in which a regulating gear is provided.
Fig. 12 is a artial cross sectional view on line 12-12 of ig. 11.
Fig. 13 is a artial axial sectional view of a stationary iaphragm.
Fig. 14 is an enlarged side view of a detail.
Fig. 15 is a sectional view of the same.
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary sectional. view of the casin of the turbo-compressor showing a nest o coolingtubes.
Fi 17 is an enlar ed fragmentary sectiona view of one of 516 packing glands of the turbo-compressor.
Fig. 18 is an enlarged view of an atomizer relating to Fig. 2.
The complete apparatus as represented in Fig. 1 includes the following parts The turbo-compressor 1, the steam turbine 2, the receiver 3 andthe atomizers 8, 8.
The working of the apparatus proceeds as follows:
The centrifugal multistage compressor 1 driven by the steam turbine 2 aspires the aeriform fluid by means of the suction pipe 4 and delivers the compressed fluid to the receiver 3 by means of the pipes 5 and 5 and through an internal tubular extension, which directs the fluid towards the bottom of the receiver. During the compression the temperature of the fluid is kept within the established limits by means of an injection of water very finel atomized through the atomizers 8, 8 w ich are arranged on the casing.
A section of an atomizer 8 is shown in Fig. 2 and Fig. 18.
In case an adiabatic compression with saturate vapor is to be effected, the atomizers 8, 8 are used in order to form at the suction side of the turbo-compressor, a mixture of vapor and liquid having the initial required quality.
In case of an isothermal compression with air or ermanent gases the atomizers are controlle in such a way as to keep the temperature nearly constant; but of course in case of an adiabatic compression of permanent gasgs the mechanical atomizers are not to be use The atomized liquid is intimately mixed with the aeriform fluid owing to the whirling efl'ect exerted on the fluid by the rotating wheels, the angular speed of which is kept very high:
In case of an isothermal com ression of air the liquid which dro s to the ottom of the receiver 3 is impelled y the differential pressure or by means of a pump through the pipe 6 to a cooler in which its temperature is decreased or is rejected in the surroundings and lost. From the cooler or the surroundings the water returns to the atomizers through the pi e 6' and valves 7, 7, 7. At the same time t e compressed aeriform fluid, by means of the pipe 9 placed at the upper art of the receiver, passes to the apparatus or the intended utilization.
The shaft 29 of the compressor (see Fig. 2) is hollow and has such a size as to withstand with safety the exceptional stress to which it is subjected owing to the high number of revolutions per minute. The rotating wheels 12 are each made in one iece and pressed and keyed on the shaft. hey are arranged in two equal sets, each set comprising seven wheels symmetricall dis osed with respect to'the line 3-3 so t at t e axial thrusts on the shaft are counterbalanced and the fluid is compelled to flow from the middle section 3-3 towards the sections 4-4 and P -4.
Figures 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 show the ports or assageways 13, 13 crossing the rim 14 of t e rotating wheels 12. These figures and Figpre 2 show that the ports are directed as efore described with respect to the radius and that the cross sections of the ports in their entirety on each rim, decrease from wheel to wheelowing to the reduction in the axial length of the o'rts or passage-ways Fig. 2) and also own to the reduction of t e ratio of the sum 0 the circumferential extent of the passageways in each rotating wheel to the whole circumference of the wheel.
The stationary diaphragms 15, 15 prevent the fluid from returnin to the low pressure side. They are made 0 cast iron orbronze of two or more segments fixed on the casing.
Owing to the presence of such diaphragms between; each wheel and the next, a tight stationary'large' passage is created, limited by the diaphragms, the 'casingand the'back of each rotating wheel.
In order to secure tlghtnessvof the rotating ports 13, the stationaryvdiaphragms are provided with packing rings.16,'-16 screwed 11, 12 and '13).
in the body of the di'aphragm's (see Figures By means. of 'the arm 17 fixed to the ring, a connectingQrod 18 and the threaded rod 19 it is possible from the outside of the casing of the" -turbo-compres-' sor to rotate the ring. 16 and consequently to move it more or 'les'stoward the rim .of the rotating wheel withwhich it cooperates.
vA universal joint 19, shown in detail in Figures 14 and15, is provided between parts 18 and 19- to permit this. The clearance space 18 allows the packing ring 16 to move axially two or three millimeters. All the diaphragms being provided with such a device, it will be possible to regulate exactly and separately for each diaphragm the clearance between the packing rings and the rims of the rotating wheels and, so to correct any turbo-compressor.
defect of construction and compensate the variation in the relative position of the moving and stationary parts depending 'on the thermal effects during-the working of the Any excessive approaching of the rings 16, 16 towards the rim of the rotating wheels will be indicated by the indications of thermometers 16 arranged as shown in Fig. 13.
Each ring is for practical convenience divided into a number of sectors (two or more)- equal to the number into which each dia-- phragm is divided. a
The diaphragms 15, 15' on-their low pressure sides are provided with deflectors 20, 20 (Figures 2and 10) situ'atedin an annular circumferential zone, which zone corresponds as regards the internal-and external diameters with the zone of the-corresponding ro-J- t'ating ports. These deflectors direct the fluid from the free space into. which every' rotating wheel discharges, towards the center of the next rotating wheel. They make'an angle of about degrees with the radius at the outer periphery and run towards the cen-Vv ter at the inner periphery, as. shown in Fig. 10.
The auxiliary steam turbine 2 that drives the turbo-compressor is of the ordinary type. It has no peculiarity of any importance. It must be adapted to rotate the-turbo-compres-' 'sor'at a very high speed.-
' The receiver 3 is provided with a man} hole, pressure gauge'anda thermometer (not shown). In the lower part-it may be provided; if necessary, with a nest of tubes 22 destined to be subjected to the circulation of 26 pip a box 28, pipe 27 "ing in number and size from wheel to passage varying in the same rim the velocityand the change of -the specific volume of the fluid dependent on ,diaphragmspreceding each rotating wheel cold water to refrigerate "the compressed fluid coming from the pipe 5,, 5.-- The final pressure which' may with'the compressor eter andnumber of rims revolutions-per minute. A I
If he compressor discharges 'to theatmoshere, there maybe effected-a very large rareaction in an air-tight space from-which it draws and in this case the compressor will act as a vacuum pump. p
In case of an lsothermal compression of. air 'or; a permanent gas the subtractlon of.
heat necessary for keeping constant the tem-' perature may be effected by means of nests of cooling tubes 23 (Fig. 16 arranged .at the inside of the casing of t e turbo-compressor, in correspondence to each impeller wheel or shown surrounding the casing of the turbocompressor.
As shown 1n Fig.-."16, the cooling water beyreache d' depends/on the iami and 'the'number of I by means of a cooling jacket, not
enters each nest of tubes by means of a header and header 26.
The packing glands nary type. In the form of'construction disclosed, they are constituted by labyrinth elements 21 of the type shownin :Fig. 17, fixed alternatively on the shaft 29 and on the packingbox 21. As may be seen, the described centrifugal multistage compressor, when destined to compress saturated steam, is but an inverted cycle steam turbine. It'is however to be observed that with an ordinary steam turbine rotating in the inverted direction it is not possible to obtain the same result as with the described turbo-compressor; because it is not constructed to compel the fluid to flow towards spaces in which the pressure is gradually increased e 27.and box 28, and discharges through p i may beof the ordiof ports chang-' the .radiusat the inner'periphery of-the-rim and radial at the outer "periphery thereof said ports presenting successive sectlons o the change of the isothermal compression,"
and provided on the side towards the ports ofsaidwheel-with rings 1 axially of the casing and provided on the opposite. side wlth a crown of deflectors each at an angle of 50-60 degrees at-the outer periphery of accordingto displaceable. ,frjom theoutside to eflect tig'liftidss of said the crown and radial at the inner periphery means for maintaining the temperature of the fluid undergoing compression at a made termined value and means for securing tightness between the shaft and the ends of the CfiSln 2. centrifugal corn ressor for air, gases vapors and the like inc uding a plurality 0 rotatin wheels each having an integral rim projecting towards the suction side of the compressor and a plurality of ports changing in number and size from wheel to wheel and disposed at an angle of 50-60 degrees to the radius at the inner periphery of the rim and radial at the outer periphery thereof said ports presenting successive sections 0% passage varying in the same rim according to the change of the velocity and the change of the specific volume of the fluid dependent on the isothermal compression, diaphragms preceding each rotating wheel and rovided on the side towards the ports of said wheel with rings axially displaceable from the outside of the casing to eflecttightness of said ports and provided on the opposite side with a crown of deflectors each disposed at an angle of 50-60 degrees at the outer periphery of the crown and radial at the inner peri hery, a series of atomizers' adapted to in ect li uid in the space preceding certain of the 1 w eels to maintain the temperature of the fluidundergoing compression at a predetermined value.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification.
' Emit) VKANELLO.