US 1754945 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April l5, 1930. R. M. HASKELL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FLOWING 0R PUMPING WEL Filed Aug. 5. 1927 4 SheetsSheet Arm/mfr IIIIIIIII lll lll llllillllrfllll Il., ,.illlllv ndlil;
April 15, 1930.
R. M. HAsKx-:LL
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FLOWING 0R PUHPING WELLS Filed Aug. 5, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 a zo 9 April l5, 1930.
R. M. HASKELL METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FLOWING OR PUMPING WELLS Filed Aug. 5, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 ATTORNEY pril l5, 1930. R. M. HAsKELl.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR FLOWING 0R PUMPING WEL Filed Aug. 5, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet ATTORNEY the escape of the gas cessation or decrease in outiiow of gas,
bleeding into the well vthe operatingor the same way as 4 road aspect, therefore, the aeriform pressure to the sand and enterin the same manner, or com ressed 5 novelty will now be described.
Patented Apr. 15, 1930 RIC'HARD IMI. HASKELL, Ol' BRADFORD,
FOURTHS T0 TIDE WATER RATION 0F NEW JERSEY EETHOD Application tiled August 5,
The invention relates to automatic welliowing systems, and the object is to provide a sim le and effective plan, which is susceptible o numerous embodiments and modes of 5 execution. The invention makes it possible to Autilize in a novel manner the flow of natural gas which ordinarily accompanies or urges the How of petroleum to the shot-hole of an oil well. According to the invention vfrom the well, regulated by the heading up of the oil in the well, is employed to control an aeriform flowing medium, which from time to time flows the accumulated liquid out of the well` Thus, a or the drop in pressure consequent thereto, resulting from the rise'o liquid to a height which closes an exit, causes the turning on of' the fiowing medium. The path of escape of the 2 gas or operating medium remains closed during the flowing period, and is thereafter automatically reo ened.
The invention is also applicable to wells deficient in gas pressure or having no gas, by some of the iowing medium to serve as an operating medium in the same general manner. Similarly, compressed air or gas from any -source may be released Into the well from above to act as control' medium.
The operatin medium may also be compressed air or ot er gas'applied to an area of an oil field through certain wells-therein, for driving or inducingthe flow of liquid to 35 other wells known as yenting wells, such air entering the venting wells with the liquid in naturalgas occurring wit petroleum in a field in which the natural ressure has not Abeen exhausted. ,.In the` operating medium employed maybe natural gas enterin the shot-hole from the oil-bearing sand, `rair or`gas artificially applied underl the well in air or .gas bled into the well from t e surface of the' Various forms of theinvention, involvin dierent -features of generic and spec' c OIL COMPANY, OF BAYONNE, NEW JERSEY,
surrounding h 14 adapted to be acted upon by liquid PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOB Ol' A CORPO- AND APPARATUS FOB FLO'WING 0B YUMIING WELLS 1927. Serial Nog, $10,799.
THREE- s In the accompanying drawings forming part hereof: 1
Figs. 1 to 4 illustrate schematically four forms or modes of execution of the invention, the views being partly in section and partly in elevation, intermediate -portions of the wells of indefinite extent being broken out.
Figure 1 The numeral 2 designates the well casing extending down to the shot-hole 3 in the oilbearing sand. The to 4 of the casing is closed. A discharge tu e 5 extends throu h the closed top of the casing, where a tig t joint is made, downward through the center of the casing to the lower part of the shothole.` A discharge branch 6 is joined to the vertical portion of the discharge tube above the casing, and contains a check-valve 7 below an upwardly extending leg 8, in order to su port and maintain a column of liquid in this part of the discharge conduit, for a purpose which will later appear.
The vertical portion of the discharge tube 5 is preferably extended above the discharge branch 6, an is closed at the top. In this portion of the tube there is a valve seat 9 a port which is adapted to be closed by a-valve 10. A pipe 11 is connected with the upper portion of the tube 5 above the valve seat 9, and contains a checir-v'alve 12 iwhich opens away from the discharge tube and closes toward it.
The valve 10 is on a rod 13, ap ropriately guided -and extending downwar for some distance in the tube 5, this rod bearin vanes owing up the tube so as to hold the valve 10 closed against the seat 9. At the end of the flow, when the expelling air reaches the vanes 14, the smaller momentum of the air does not sustain the-rod 13 with the raised position, and the valve consequently drops away from the valve seat 9: Other means may be emplcved having a like eect. o
the valvea'nd vanes in closing the air conduit. The line enters the upper part of the well casing, and when the valve 17 is opened the air pressure is admitted to the well and acts upon the surface of the liquid present, so as to drive it up the discharge tube 5. In addition, this tube is provided with suitable openings 18, at different heights, and the air entering these openings assists to raise the liquid either by lightening the column or by breaking it up into slugs, or in any other known manner. Thepwell vis thus pumped or fiowed by the u conjoint action of air displacement and some hole, where its the constriction 21,
`and out by way-ofthe p cause of the fact .that the 'Vcheckfvalve 1,7 u is charge tube form of air lift in whichair is introduced into the column of liquid. However, the invention is not necessarily limited in this respect, and the liquid may be flowed by displacement alone or by some form of air lift without displacement.
A regulator pipe 19 extends through the top 4 and downward within the casing 2 to a point near, or somewhat above, the shotopen lower end is'commanded by a suitable float valve 20, which is adapted to be closed by a predetermined rise in the liquid level, and to be held closed by the pressure of the flowing medium when the latter is admitted to the Well. This pipe or conduit at a point outside'the well is constricted to a small aperture,' as by means of a needle valve 21. At a point between this constriction and the well,`a branch 22 is taken ofi" from the regulator pipeand connected with a diaphragm or piston chamber 23 the diaphragm or piston 24 in this chamber being connected with the stem 25 of thevalve 17 A weight 26 or a spring acts 'upon the valve 17 to open it. i
' The pipe ,11 heretofore referred to is connected with the branch 22. l
While the liquid is heading up in the well, the natural gas, which also enters the shothole from the oil-bearing' strata, finds an escape thnough vthe regulator pipe 19vand past which maintains a suitable back-pressurev in the regulatorvv pipe. This back-pressure' is communicated :through the branch 22 to the diaphragm chamber 23,
` where it acts upon the diaphragm so as to hold the air valve.17 closed. The gas passing the needle valve 21 might be discharged to atmosphere, though for-economy the outer portion ofthe regulator pipe is preferably either connected with the outer 'portion of the discharge branch 6 or withapparatu's for treating or utilizing the gas. The gas can not escape-fromthe well through the openings 18 Vli'sc'hargel tube l:beheld 'closed withsufcient 'force'fkby'the superincu'mbentcolumn o'fliquidf Thepipe 11'is provided'with anl automatic determine pressure .actingV from vthe/dis- 5 toward 'the tlOIL main air valve 17 is now an o'il well lacking or' lTo"me'etsuch a ''shownlconnected with valve12 ca able of opening to a sufiicient pre- PPe 223 but. clvsing against flow or pressure in the opposite direc- This check-valve is normally held closed by a spring or weight 33, adjusted to a sufficient value so that after the Boat valve 2O is closed by the rise of liquid in the well, any rise in pressure in the interior of the tube 5 that may take place before the flow of the liquid reaches the vanes 14 and closes the valve 10 cannot open the valve 12 and act on the diaphragm 24 to bring aboutprema ture closing of the main valve 17.
When the liquid rises in the well to a point at or somewhat below its natural level, or to such point as it may be most economical and advantageous to allow the liquid to head up before flowing it out of the well, the fioat valve 20 is automatically closed against its seat at the lower end of the regulator pipe 19, thereby cutting olf.. further outflow of gas through this pipe and causing the pressure in the pipes 19 and 22 and in the diaphragm chamber 23 to fall as the gas inthe pipe continues to leak past the constriction 21. The automatically opened and the compressed air or other gaseous or aeriform medium is turned on into the closed well through the pipe 15, so as to flow the accumulated liquid out throu the pipe 5. This pressure holds the va ve 20 closed. While the liquid is fiowing through this discharge pipe, its momentum acts upon the vanes 14 so as to close the valve 10 and hold it closed. When the air following the liquid reaches the upper part of the tube 5, its
`momentum is insufcient to hold the valve 10 accordingly dropsopen,
closed, and this valve the rod 13 and vanes 14 being heavyA enough to insure this, permitting the pressure of the fiowing medium to act through the pipe 11 and past the check-valve 12. This pressure acts upon the diaphragm 24 so as to close the air valve 17, and also acts downwardly inthe `is drilled will not have enough pressure either of natural l gasv or of.' air or other gas artificially v iin/posed upon vthe strata, to serve as the operating', medium. :Such would be4 the'case, for eXainple,`--in".a water deficient pressure. condition 'aP`v by-pass :27l 'is Y the 'Howling-medium I pipe-15 around the valve'17,N this by-pass'con- .v taininga needle valve regulator pipe 19 s'o as tounseat'the fioat valve v 28 whichcanbe setto. I tallow of a'constantleakage of fowing medium into the well. This leakage of flowing medium into the well either supplements the deficient pressure entering the shot-hole or takes the plate of such ressure. Such ortion ofthe flowing me ium introduced into the well serves as an operating medium, passing through the regulator pipe 19 as long as the float valve 20 remains open, and causin the flowing medium valve 17 to stay close until the path of escape through the regulaclosed by the rise of the liquid, whereupon in condition in the regulator pipe is utilized to cause the opening of the valve 17.
It will be understood that-the flowing medium may be air or gas, or a mixture of air and gas. It may be termed, generally, an aeriform fluid or medium.
Fz'gm'e 2 In the method and apparatus here illustrated the discharge pipe or tube 5 is of larger diameter and has an enlarged lower portion 29. The regulator pipe 19 extends downward within the tube 5" and has a float valve 20* at its lower end within the upper portion of the enlargement 29. This valve is adapted to be held closed by the action of liquid flowing past it through the discharge tube 5, but to drop open when the air or other flowing medium following the liquid reaches it, the momentum of the flowing medium being insufficient to hold the valve closed. The upper portion of the regulator pipe 19a is shown connected with the inlet opening of a piston chamber 23, the outer portion of the regulator ipe extending from the outletof this cham er and bein provided with a needle valve or constricte aperture 2l.
While the liquid is heading u the gas or other operating medi through the regulator pipe 19, its pressure is sufficiently chamber 23, the flowing medium valve 17 connected with the piston 24:a remains closed. lVhen the rise of the liquid in the shot-hole and in the lower portion 29 of the discharge tube closes the float valve 20, the drop in flow or pressure throu h the regulator pipe and through the cham er 23 causes or permits the valve 17 to o en and the owin medium flows the liqui out of the well. spring 26* is shown for opening the valve 17.
When the flowing medium has displaced the liquid and reaches the float valve 20?, this valve is caused to open and the pressure -of the flowing medium, acting through the regulator pipe 19, causes the valve 17 to close. The remaining excess of flowing pressure in the well leaks out through the openings 18 and through the regulator pipe, and the liquid and operating medium again enter the shot-hole.
As in the other form, a by-pass .27 and in the well um escapes and as long as the valve 1 38 being connected maintained in the y constant leakage valve or aperture 2 8 may be provided to supply operating medium to the well from the ressure in the flowing medium line 15 at t e compressor side of the valve 17.
Figure 3 A regulator pipe 19b is adapted to be closed at its lower end by a float valve 20, which, however, might be omitted. In the upper part of the regulator pipe there is one of the low-pressure highressure valves 31. The valve member 34 oi) this valve is acted upon by a spring 35 to hold it away from its s eat 36 against low or moderate pressure acting from the pipe 19b toward the chamber 23, but to be closed by comparatively high pressure acting in this direction. From this valve the regulator pipe proceeds to the inlet of a piston chamber 23, the outlet from this chamber being constricted at 21 so as to hol a desired back-pressure of operating medium. The flowin medium line 15, at a point beyond is branched, one branch 37 opening into the well casing 2 and the other branch with the yregulator pipe 19b at a point above or beyond a check-valve In other words the branch 38 `connects with the regulator pipe at a point between this 'check-valveand the lowpressure high-pressure valve 31. The checkvalve 39 is arranged to open to pressure or flow acting upwardly through the regulator pipe 19b and to close to pressure acting in the reverse direction.
While the liquid heads up in the well, operating fluid, which enters the shot-hole from the surrounding strata escapes through the regulator pipe 19", past the check valve 39 and the low-pressure highvpressure valve 31 into the piston chamber 23", where its back pressure acts upon the iston 24EL to hold the main pressure valve 1 closed. When the liquid rises high enough to close the float valve 20 or to rise above the lower end of the regulator pipe 19", the outflow of the operating medium is cut off, with the result that the valve 17 is caused to open. The highpressure flowing medium is then admitted to the interior of the well through the branch 37. Through the branch 38 and the upper portion of the regulator pipe it also acts upon the low-pressure high-pressure valve 31, closing this valve instantly so that the high 39 in this pipe.
pressure can not reach the chamber 23"L toA branch 38, past the low-pressure hi h-presthe piston 24', thus closing the valve 17. The sure valve, to vthe operating cham er 23", flowing medium remaining in the chamber 49 where it causes the closing of the valve 17.
Figure 4 This is a design suitable more particularly for wells in sand too soft to withstand the flowing pressure if shot-hole. Accord ingly, an enclosed volume chamber 49 is disposed in the shot-hole, this chamber having an automatic yinlet valve 50 at the bottom. The upper end of the chamber communicates with the lower end of an air tube 51, by which the volume chamber may be supported. The air tube 51 extends upward through the closed top of the casing 5 2 and is connected above the latter with the flowing medium line 15. The discharge tube 5 passes centrally through the length of the air tube 51, and downward within the volume chamber 49 to a point thereof, this tube being provided with openings 18 and with a check-valve 7 above the highest of these openings.
49 to a sufiiciently low point therein. A float valve 52 is arranged to close the lower long as there is a suitable level of liquid in the vol comparatively low level. 19f also has an inlet 53 above and outside of the .volume chamber 49, this inlet being confloat valve 54 adapted to be closed by the llquid when it reaches this level in the chamber falls his level. The regulator pipe 19t is connected with the piston chamber 23, the outlet of which is restricted -pressure valve or aperture 21, this outlet passage being shown connected with the upper part of the discharge pipe 5 past a c eck-valve 4 of a separate weight or spring, thus berk 49 and u the discharge pip'e 5. en most of the fluid has been forced out of the chamber 49, the float valve 52 opens, permitting the flowing pressure to act on applied to the wallskof the near the bottom 17 end of this pipe as d outside the volume f escapes through the o enings 18 and through the regulator pipe, al owing the head of liquid in the well outside of the volume chamber to o en the inlet valve 50 and to refill or part y fill the volume chamber 49.
As soon asthc liquid falls away from the float valve 54, this val the operating medium, which now enters the shot-hole, to pass through the inlet 53 and through the regulator pipe and the operating chamber 24'* so as to hold the main sure valve 17 closed. The entrance of liquid filling the volume chamber causes the valve p1pe is again cut off, the main pressure valve is agam opened, and the liquid in the volume chamber is again discharged .upward through the pipe 5.
1. The method of flowing wellsy which comprises maintaining a back pressure on' an aeriform operating medium escaping from the well, utilizing the pressure of such mefrom the well, and utilizing fall in pressure in said medium due to rise of liguid in the well to bring about turning on o the aeriform flowing medium. .7 2. The method of flowing wells which comprises maintaining a back pressure on an aeriform operating'medium escaping from ll, utilizing the pressure of such mekeep a flowing medium turned ofl' well, utilizing fall said medium due to rise of liquid in the Well to .bring about turning on of the aeriform flowing medium, and utilizing pressure of he flowing medium to bring about turning oil' of the aerifo'rm flowing medium when liquid has been flowed out of the well.
3. The'method of flowing wells which comprises maintaining a back pressure on an aeriform operating medium`lescaping from the well, and utilizing the fall in pressure in said medium when escape thereof is obstructed by predetermined rise of' liquid in the well to turn on an aeriform flowing medium.
4. The method of flowing wells which comprisesapplying the pressure of an operating medium escaping from the well to cause aeri- -form flowing medium to be shutoff from the well during the period required for the liquid to head up, and obstructing the escape of the operating medium by a'predetermined rise ofli uidin the well so that the flowing medium t en flows the liquid out of the well, while keeping the path of escape of operat- \ing medium obstructed during the flowing period.
ve opens, permittingl 5. The method of flowing wells which comprises utilizing the fall 1n pressure in an aeriform operating medium escaping from a well to turn on a flowing medium when the escape of the operating medium is obstructed by predetermined rise of liquid in the well.
6. The method of flowing wells which comprises keeping an aeriform owing medium shut oil from the well during the period required for the liquid to aeriform operating medium from the well during such period, obstructing the escape Yof said operating medium by rise of liquid in the well, utilizing the resulting change in condition in the path of escape of the operatin medium to turn` on the flowing medium, keeping the path of escape of the operating medium obstructed during the owing period, and thereafter reo ening said path.
7. Pneumatic we l-fiowing apparatus having a valve for turning on and off the flowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of aeriform operating medium from the well adapted to become obstructed on predetermined rise of liquid in the well, said conduit provided with a restricted escape orifice, and means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve.
8. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus, comprising a discharge tube extending to the lower part of the well and having entrance openings for flowing medium at one or more points above its open lower end, means for delivering the flowing medium to the well, a valve for turning on and 0H the flowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of operating medium from the well adapted to become obstructed on predetermined rise of liquid in the well, means opposing escape of operatin medium through said discharge tube, an means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve.
9. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus having a valve for turning on and oli the fiowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of operating medium from the well adapted to become obstructed on predetermined rise o 1i uid in the well, and means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, there being means whereby sai conduit is kept obstructed by the pressure acting to flow the liquid out ofthe well.
10. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus having a valve for turning on and o the flowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of operating medium from the well, means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, a valve subject to rise of li uid in the Well and to pressure during the owing period for closing said conduit, and means for automatically applying the pressure at the end of the flowin period to unseat the second-mentionedv ve.
11. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus having a valve for turning-on and off the flowhead up, conducting f on and off the a conduit for conducting a ow of operatin medium from the well adapted to become o structed on predetermined rise of liquid in the well, and means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, there being means whereby said conduit is caused to remain obstructed during flowing and is thereafter automatically reopened for the escape of operating medium.
12. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus having a valve for turning on and off the iowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of operatingbmedium from the well adapted to become o structed on predetermined rise of liquid in the well, means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, and means whereby the pressure of the flowing medium is applied at the end of the flowing period to bring about closing of said valve.
13. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus having a valve for turning on and olf the flowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of operating medium from the well adapted to become obstructed on predetermined rise of liquid in the well, means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, means whereby said conduit is caused to remain obstructed during flowing to be tlereafter automatically reopened, and mean for automatically applying the flowing pressure at the end of the flowing period to bring about the closin of said valve.
14. neumatic well-owing apparatus having a valve for turning on and o the flowing medium, means for bleeding a portion of the floWin medium into the well to serve as an operating medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of said operating medium from the well adapted to become obstructed on predetermined rise of liquid in the well, said conduit provided with a restricted escape orifice, and means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve.
15. lPneumatic well-flowing apparatus including a discharge tube for conducting liquid from the well, a valve for turning flowing medium, a conduit for conducting a flow of operating medium from the well, means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, and means connected with the upper part of the discharge conduit whereby the pressure therein toward the end of the flowing period is utilized to bring about closing of said valve.
16. Pneumatic well-flowing apparatus including a discharge tube for conducting liquid from the well, a valve for turning on and oft the flowing medium, a conduit for conducting a low of operating medium from the well, means connected with said conduit for controlling said valve, and a conduit leading from the upper part of the discharge conduit and connected with said controlling means for communicatin pressure from the discharge tube toward t e end of the owing medium,
plpe, a conduit for in period to bring about' closing of said v ve.
17. In well-owing apparatus, an eduction supplying aeriform fluid to the well to flow liquid out through s'aid eduction pipe, a Valve 'in said conduit, and means responsive to increased pressure in the upper part of said eduction plpe to bring about closing of said valve.
RICHARD M. HASKELL. f