|Publication number||US1756747 A|
|Publication date||Apr 29, 1930|
|Filing date||Aug 16, 1928|
|Priority date||Jun 12, 1928|
|Publication number||US 1756747 A, US 1756747A, US-A-1756747, US1756747 A, US1756747A|
|Original Assignee||Lionel Holland|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (39), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
930. L. HOLLAND 71,756,747
AEROPLANE LANDING MEANS I Filed Aug. 16, 19gs s Sheets-Sheet 1 pr 9, 1930- 1.. HOLLAND AEROPLANE LANDING MEANS Fildjug. 1e, 1928 a Sheets-Sheet 2 April 930. L. HOLLAND 1,756,747
AEROBLANE LANDING mums Filed Aug. 16, 1928 s Sheets-Sheet s Patented Apr. 29, 1930 I rFic-l LIONEL HOLLAND, or CULCUTTA, nnrr sn INDIA I AEROPLANE-LANDING MEANS Application filed August 16, 1928, Serial No.
This invention relates to landing and/or dcspatching apparatus for aeroplanes or the like.
The object of the invention is to provide apparatus which can be used to enable the landing of or despatch' of aeroplanesto be efleoted from positions in which the aeroplane could not possibly be landed or could not take oil" unless some suitable apparatus is was provided. a
The main object is to provide means where by aeroplanes may be landed or despatched from the centre of a city from, for example, the top of a high building,'or from any other .15 placew 181'6 the necessary ground is not available for an aeroplane to take oil from or to land on.
T he advantages of apparatus or means for this purpose will be obvious as it would allow a of landing and despatching stations to be provided in the heart of a congested oity, thus enabling passengers to alight or to start on a journey Without the trouble, expense and delay of having to go miles away to a suitable aerodrome. V v
The apparatus which is about to be describedis not only suitable for use on the top of a building but could also be used on a ship or pontoon, or in any desired position where the necessary ground, or space of water, does not exist for ordinary landing and taking off par asses but where the neighborhood is not restricted by numerous high; trees or baileings in its close proximity.
The invention consists of apparatus for enabling the des 'a'atching and/or landing of aeroplanes to be effected consisting of a landing mast (or tower) with-a pivoted arm carried by the mast, said arm being capable of revolving around the axis of the mastand being providedwithan attachment device for an aeroplane on the outer end thereof, and being so balanced and controlled that under the weight of a motionless aeroplane hanging from the end of the arm, the-said arm will take up an inclined lowered limiting position, but which arm, asthe aeroplane gathers speed. around the mast and whilst the aeroplane is revolving around the mast attached to said arm w'll take up a raised. position 300,078, and in British India .Tune 12, 1928.
approaching'more and more to the horizontal position with its end sweeping through a path having a larger and larger radius as the speed of the aeroplane and of the arm around the mast increases, whereby the said arm may be usedvto control the swinging outwards and upwards of an aeroplane as its speed increases and to control the whirling of the aeroplane aroundthe mast until the necessary radius and flying speed is attained for the aeroplane to cast off, and, whereby, the arm being in a raised position and an aeroplane being in process of landing, the said arm, upon an aeroplane engaging its end, will swing round with the aeroplane, and the aeroplane as it loses speed will be conrolled by said arm as it, in revolving around the mast, gradually sinks to a desired limiting lowered position. It also comprises apparatus for enabling the despatching and/or landing of aeroplanes to be effected where limited space is available, consisting of a mast (or tower) with a pivoted arm having an attachment device for an aeroplane thereon and being capable of rotating around the mast and also swinging up and down in the'plane of the mast, characterized by this, that the arm has means whereby it may be caused to rotate around the mast and is so balanced and controlled that, when an aeroplane is attached thereto and the said aeroplane is motionless or moving around the mast at slow speed, the arm will hang with its outer end in a lowered position but is prevented from dropping below a limiting position in which limitin position the end of the;
arm and the aeroplane is held or constrained to travel on a circularpath having a radius suiiicient to prevent the aeroplanes wing from touching the mast, and when the aeroplane is moving around the mast at ahigher speed the said arm will take up a more elevated position approaching nearer and nearer to the horizontal with its end describing a circular curve of larger and larger radius as the centrifugal forces due to the speed of rotation of the aeroplane and the arm around the mast increases, for the purposes explained.
The arm is adapted to rotate about or with the lnastlor tower and may be pivotally at-- I iiiarm may slide or roll, means being provided' at the outer end of the arm for the attachment and detachment of aeroplanes thereto or therefrom. V v a In said apparatus the pivoted arm may be counterbalanced easily to swing from its lower to its upper limit. It may be counterbalanced so that it will, under its own weight and balance, tend to take up a positionapproximating to a horizontal position or the upper limiting position.
In any case the raising and lowering of the pivoted arm may be under control; for example, be controlled by a winch or the like in q some convenient manner. Alternatively, the
' so that the tension in the same when the position of the arm may be under spring control. A wheel or sector may be fixed to the pivoted arm at its pivotal'point, which may be operable by cables or the like, which thus control the raising or lowering of the arm. A spring or springs may be used in combination with the cables or the like, the tension or pull in which s arin or s )rin s bein such that it will, when allowed to act, cause the pivoted 1 arm to rise to its ralsed and more or less horizontal position, but the tension in which can be released or relieved to enable the pivoted arm to drop to its lowered position.
In combination with the above the pivoted arm may be provided with a crank deviceach jacent to its pivotal point, the crank arm of which is connected to a spring and the arrangement being such that as the end of the said arm sinksthe tension on the said spring is increased. 7
The spring arm may be connected to means whereby its initial tension may beadjusted arm sinks 'to its lower limiting position may also beachusted to reach a desired value dependent on the anticipated weight off the aeroplane to be landed.
Further, thisapparatus may be so arranged that the'arm, if the aeroplane is'not as heavy as is anticipated, will come to rest when an aeroplane is being landed in a position above the limiting lower positionandmaythereafter be. lowered gently to said lower limiting position by slackening ofi' the tension in the spring; 3
Suitable swivelling means or revolving joints may be introduced into this cable or the like to prevent the twisting of the cable when thepivoted arm rotates about the mast,
Lever devices, gearing or other mechanism may be provided bymeans of which the tension on the cables or the like supporting the pivoted arm may be adjusted to cause said arm to take up, or to tend to take up, a desired p01 sition.
In thisapparatus the pivoted arm may be of a stiff construction in the direction of the 7 The invention includes an aeroplane landing or launching device, comprising a mast or tower, and an arm on said part adapted to rotate about or to be rotated about the axis of said arm or tower, said arm also being arranged'to be capable of tilting to allow its outer end to rise and fall and being so balanced or controlled that the weight of an' aeroplane when stationary or moving slowly around the mast Wlll bring the arm down to its lowered position, characterized by this that the said arm is of the lightest possible construction compatible'with suitable rigidity in a vertical plane, and is capable of resisting without exceeding recognized working stresses such as the bending moments induced therein by an aeroplane hanging from the end of the arm only when the aeroplane is suspended at the reduced radius or lever-arm which obtains when the arm is at a steep inclination to the axis of the mast, for example when the'angle between the mast and arm is 30 or less, the said arm-being capable of resisting relatively highlongitudinal tensional forces applied thereto, for example the resultant iorce due to the weight of an aeroplane and the centrifugal forces induced 1 owing to the rapid'rotation of the aeroplane and the arm around the mast, with the object that the arm may rise and revolve around the mast in a raised or elevated position to con form to the forces due to a rapidly moving aeroplane attached to the end of the arm, and
may accordinglybe used mainly in longitudi nal tension to whirl and control the aeroplane attached thereto or toy be whirled thereby whilst controlling the aeroplane.
In this embodiment of the invention the i said pivoted arm need have only sufficient vertical rigidity to supportits own weight Jwhenraised to the horizontal position,but must have ample strength to resist the longitudinal tension therein when whirling or being whirled by an aeroplane attached to or hanging outwards from the end of the arm in launching or landing.
. Lightness of this arm is a most important and desirable featureowing to the fact that when an aeroplane in landing hooks onto the arm it is necessary for it to overcome the inertia and to accelerate the arm, or, even if the arm is itself being rotated at the time, it may be necessary to accelerate it further or to moderate its speed of rotation- The lighter the arm is, the less is the inertia and the less the stressin the connections when alterations in speed of rotationare called for. In this particular instance the arm works mainly in tension when whirling the aeroplane or being whirledthereby, and hence may be made of extremely light construction.
Under ordinary conditions the arm needs only to be strong enough to support its own weight when raised to the horizontal position in which the lever arm and bending moment on the unloaded arm are a maximum. Vhen it drops to a steep-inclination the end of the arm may rest against the circular runaway made for it around the base of the mast and the bending moment may be very small. Under certaip conditions the arm might however be so balanced that under the weight of a very small or light aeroplane it would take up a sharp inclination, such as one having an angle of less than 30 with the mast, without necessarily coming into contact with thesaid circular run-way, and in such conditions the arm would be given suitable stillness to sustain its own weight and the weight of the light aeroplane thereon when suspended at such smaller leverage.
In any of the apparatus according to this invention the attachment gear for attaching the aeroplane to be launched is attached to the end of the pivoted arm and may be connected to cables orthe like, in such manner that the saidatt-achment may, when desired, be paid out orextended to enable the radius of the curve on which the aeroplane is caused to move to be extended beyond that given by the length of the pivoted arm.
This is a 'leature'which is importantto the best opera liion of the method of launching. lVhcn the aeroplane pivoted arm, which is in its lowered position, and the aeroplane engine is started, this causes the aeroplane and the arm to start rotating around the axis of the mast at gradually increasing speeds. If desired the mechanism'whlch itself rotates plane swings outwards the centrifugal forces acting thereon rise rapidly. It is important to keep these centrifugal forces as low as possible for any particular speed or movement of the aeroplane around the mast. This can be done by increasing the radius on which the aeroplane is moving when at any particular speed. The radius canbe increased by paying out the attachment to the aeroplane so that instead of being held tight to the end of the rotating inclined arm it is allowed to run out gradually. attachment must be controlled either manually or automatically. sothat it does not start until the aeroplane has su'tlicient ground The paying out of the g clearance, and does not extend to such a point 7 that the aeroplane is completely out of control or can suffer an accident; that is to say, until the aeroplane has closely approached tne speed at which it will fly unaided the attachment should not be let out so far that the aeroplane, if it suddenly stalled or upset in a gust of wind, could drop to the ground, but on the contrary it should be supported clear of the ground by the attachment to the end of the arm. This however will allow of very substantial extension of or letting ahead, of the aeroplane as the same is being 'let out. The arm instead of acting as a brake may thus help to slightly lift the aeroplane. It will further be understood that when flying speed is attained the aeroplane whilst still attached to the arm may even rise above the arm when the flexible cables to which it is attached are let out. During all these operations the arm will mainly be under longitudinal tensional stresses.
In thisapparatus the pivoted arm, instead of being inert and merely capable of rotation under the impulse given to it or the forces applied to itby the aeroplane, may be capable of rotation around or about the mast or tower, and means may beprovided whereby the said arm may positively be made to rotate.
The pivoted arm may beadapted to be ing the arm, said cable or the lilzepassing around jockey pulleys or the like and then to the drum of a winch, or otherdriving or rotating mechanism preferably driven by a suitable engine or motor, said mechanism being capableof rotating the pivoted arm at a desired speed.
A disengaging or free-wheeling device may be introduced so that the pivoted arm may rotate freely when an aeroplane is landing irrespective of the driving mechanism being in gear or not.
The rotating pivotedarm may have a vane or the like fixed to the pivoted end, which vane is in line with, or at an angle to,the
arm, and is adapted to cause the arm totake up a desired position relatively to the direction the wind is blowing. I p
The pivoted arm may have a wheel at its and hooks on to the attaching device.
outer end mounted on suitable bearings, which wheel, when the arm descends to its limiting lowest position, engages and is adapted to run round the track provided for the purpose around the lower end of the mast or tower.
The tower or mast will be of relatively small diameter below the circular track around the lower part thereof, so that the wings of the aeroplane may enter'below the track; and the tower may have, above the said circular track around its base, a working platform carrying thereon the arm raising and lowering gear, the arm rotating gear and/ or the aeroplane attachment paying out gear, and the winchesor engines to work the same. i
The apparatus may have as the attachment device to which the aeroplane is connected a ring, hoop or the like, for example of wire rope held spread out by spring means, with means whereby the plane of the ring or the like may be turned to be parallel to or to lie in the vertical plane passing through the pivoted arm.
According to a further part of this invention the attaching device on the aeroplane may have a horn or the like adapted to enter the ring, hoop or the'like on the pivoted arm of the apparatus and to cause the attaching device on the aeroplane to engage said ring, hoop or the like.
The horn on the attaching or detaching clevice on the aeroplane may lead to a hook having a curved over or internally concave top part in which the ring or the like of the attaching device on the pivoted arm takes when the aeroplane is travelling'at speed This hook may have a safety catch, pawl or spring device which will prevent the attachment parts from coming adrift when once the two have madeconncction.
Tlie sard attaching and detaching device in the aeroplane may be capable o f'being,
under the control of the aeroplanes pilot,
rotatable about a vertical axis so that the horn pointsbackwards when the aeroplane.
is about to detach from the pivoted arm on starting a flight, the arrangement be ng such that when so-rotated so thatthe hornpoints backwards the safety catch or like retain-' ing device shallor maybe made inoperative to release the aeroplaneon its gaining flying speed. f 1
1T0 the attaching-or hooking on device on the aeroplane a spring may be fitted enabling the shock on sudden attachment to the pivoted arm to be'cushione'd, the said spring device preferably showing ona scale in the cock-pit of the aeroplane the-pull developed in-the attachment. r
The attachments may be so arranged that the engaging hook on the aeroplane is connected by rods or cables to the landing wheels or axles of'the aeroplane so that any sudden tension on the hook is transmitted to the aeroplane structure directly or partially through the springs of the aeroplane landing gear.
r The said device may be so arranged that the aeroplane shall be capable of hanging from the hook thereof and the connections be made to the body of the plane in such manner and of such robustness that they are capable of withstanding a tension equivalent to at least three to four times the weight of the aeroplane.
The invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings which show, merely by way of illustration and largely in a diagrammatic manner certain forms the different parts of the apparatus may take. In these drawings Fig. 1 is a diagram of the apparatus.
7 Fig. 2 is an elevation of a tower and pivoted arm giving greater details and certain indications of constructional details.
Fig. 8 shows diagrammatically gear for;
Fig. 5 is a diagram showing the attachment of multiple part blocks and tackle between the springs of the paying out device and the aeroplane attachment ring. It also shows how the tension on the cable for supporting the arm increases as the arm sinks lower and lower. V
Figs. 6 and '7 show in some detail how the last two devices may be combined.
Figs. 8 and 9 show the attaching device on the end of the pivoted arm and the cable attachments. a a
Fig. 10 indicates means whereby the pivoted arm maypositively be nade to rotate.
Figs. 11 and 12 show the attaching and detaching device on an aeroplane.
Fig. 13 shows a spring controlled connection in the device carried by the aeroplane and a scale to show the pull, and
Fig. 14 is. a diagram explaining certain considerations which reduce the shock upon the apparatus on the landing of an aeroplane.
The invention consists of .a device for launching aeroplanes into the air and for landing aeroplanes from the air. 7
It comprises essentially a mast (which is very strongly fixed either to theground, to any building, to a ship or other structure stationary or moving of suilicient strength for the purpose) from the top of which projects a freely revolving and rising and falling arm 2. At the end of the arm further awa from the mast is a rin 1100 or loo or other attaching and releasing arrangement 7 3 the counter-part of which ring or other ar rangement is mounted upon or built into the aeroplane or aeroplanes which it'is intended shall be launched from or landed upon the arm and mast. The counterpart of the ring may on the aeroplane consist of any suitable shape of hook or grappling hook 4 having.
a projection. or horn 5 which the pilot of the aeroplane by so steering the aeroplane is capable of causing to attach itself to the said ring other arrangement 3; or, vice Versa,
hook to release themselves and separate.
N ear the base of the mast is mounted a circular track 7 so arranged and of such size and position that a wheel 8 mounted upon and revolving upon the arm 2' may run upon said track and thus prevent the arm 2 fouling or rubbing against the mast and also en abling the aeroplane when it is moving slowly to revolve round the mast near its base suspended from the top of the mast by means of the arm 2, the arm then resting against the track 7 being supported on the aforesaid wheel 8. I y
The arm is pivoted at 10 and may be counterbalanced, for example by a weight 11, in sucha manner that (when no aeroplane is to be launched) it comes to rest projecting out more or less horizontally as at 2f-that is to say in a position suitable for enabling an arriving aeroplane to attach itself to the outer extremity of the arm. g
The foregoing parts of this invention are described more fully hereinafter, but are sufticient to make the principleof this invention clear. The method of operation is as folrows 1-- To commence with the lanching of an aeroplane into the air the aeroplane is suspended from the hook 3 and the arm 2 is resting against the track 7 supported from the track on wheel 8; the propeller of the aeroplane is revolved in the ordinary way and causes the aeroplane to move forward, the wheel 8 running on the track 7 andthe aeroplane following a circular path around the mast 1 still suspended from the freely revolving arm 2; as the speed increases the aeroplane 9 and arm 2 begin to leave the track still revolving rount the mastIbecause the centrifugal force of the aeroplane and arm going round cause them to swing out from the mast and to revolve round the mast at a greater radius which radius will go on increasing as the speed increases; but the centrifugal force is not the only force tending to cause the. aeroplane and arm to swing outwards and upwards and to revolve at a greater "radius the pilot of the aeroplane soonlias some air pressure onthe aeroplan'e'wlngs to make use of and he so uses this and steers v the aeroplane that italso tends to raise the aeroplane and arm upwards and outwards and to revolve at a greater radius as the speed increases; there is also a third force which may or may not be used without effecting the principle of the invention and that is the arm 2. by means ofits counterbalance 11 or owing to a spring tension applied thereto is tending to assist in lifting the aeroplane and to'take up the position It will thus be seen that as the speed (on its more or less circular path) of the aeroplane increases it Will occupy a more and moreoutward and upward position until by means of its speed through the air it is supported upon, its own planes; when this state of affairs is reached it is merely necessary for the aeroplane pilot to move the necessary handle 6 or levers, or operate such other arrangement as may be in use. to cause the ring Or loop 3 and liOOkfl or other attaching arrangement which was holding the aeroplane to the arm to disen-V themselves and then the aeroplane is completely separated from the arm and mast and proceeds on its journey. v I
The landin of the aero lane 15 a reversal of the sequence of the events described in the:
launching and maybe explained as follows. The'arm of the mast by means of its counterbalance 11 or owing to the tension in lifting ropes to be described later when no aeroplane is attached to it, is arranged to take up'a, more or less horizontal position as at 2 the ring 8 or other attaching arrangement is also ready to receive and be engaged by its counterpart 4 Which is attached to or forms part of the aeroplane; the aeroplane which isto he landed approaches the end of the arm in a direction more or less at right angles to the arm and is steered in such a way as will cause the horn 5 and hook 4 on the aeroplaneto catch on to the ring 3 on the arm 2, or as will cause the attaching arrangements of the aeroplane and the arm of whatever type they may be to engage in one another and lock-securely together in such a Way that they cannot be disengaged or unlocked unless the pilot of the aeroplaneby the moving of a certainlhandle, levers or other arrangements causes the afore'-' saio ring and hook or other attaching are rangements to disengage and separate; but at the time of landing this would not be done so that the aeroplane becomes attached or locked to the end of the arm at 2 and draws the arm with it; the aeroplane beinghooked on cannot proceed any further in a straight direction because it is'now attached to the end of the freely revolving arm' and the momentum which the aeroplane possesses causes it to draw the arm with it and to take up a circular path and revolve round the mast. lhe arm may or may not be constructed so that it is more or lessflexible in the direction which is more or less the direction of the path of the areoplane at the time of its becoming attached thereto so as to minimize as much as possible the shock to the aeroplane and to thearm and mast at the time that the areoplane becomes attached to the end of the arm; further the arm itself, and more parlower and nearer to the mast, because the centrifugal force holding the aeroplane extended outwards is gradually becoming less and.- less and because the lift of theraeroplane on its own planes is also becoming less and less as the speed of translation drops until the wheel 8 on the arms rests against and revolves upon the track 7 at the base of the mast, and, finally, the propeller being stopped altogether, the aeroplane will come to rest hanging from the arm in the latters lowermost position. It is more or less incumbent vuponthe pilot of the areoplane to steer the areoplanein a-truly-spiral and regular path around the mast in spite of the wind tending to cause the aeroplane to rise on one side when meeting the wind and fall on the other side when traveling with the wind. This the pilot doesby moving his planes or vanes in the usual manner known to pilots.
Referring now-to Fig. 1 let usassume that the lengt-l 'of the mast or tower 1 from the level of the track 7 to the pivotal point of the arm 2 is 150. Further let us assume that the radius of the track 7 is about Below the track? the diameter of the mast or tower must be reduced at 12 to be the least compatible with strength. The height H of this reduced portion must be ample to receive the largest areoplane to be handled between the supports of the track 7 and the ground or surface below. Such clearances as are reasonable to allow oftilting of the wings must be provided. With a track 40' in radius it is probable that aeroplane having wing spans up to 70 feet or thereabouts could be accommodated. 7
With the dimensions indicated above an aeroplane would have to, attain a speed of 12 or 13 milesper hour around the track 7 before it had any tendency to leave the track and swing outwards, owing to the centrifugal force thereon, The arm 2 would swing outwards to the position 2* making an angle of 30 with the vertical when a speed of 25 01126 miles per hour is attained. These speeds neglect the influence due to the wind pressure on the-wings of'the aeroplane which at such a speed as 25 l'l11l6S per hour would be beginning to have a very distinct influence,
These speeds also neglect the counterbalance or pull on the arm which may cause it to rise planes. Such a speed is one approaching that at which the aeroplane will have gathered speed enough tofly. The end of the arm 2 is then in position 2 moving on a radius of about 110. i I
It will be obvious that shortly after the arm reaches an angle of the plane will have acquired flying speed. This speed depends on the type of aeroplane and the load carried thereby.
' When the arm reaches a position making ,an angle of with the vertical, as indicatedat 2, the speed o-frotation of the aeroplane willbe about 60 miles per hour if it is still attached. to the end of the arm. Most aeroplanes should have sufficient lift to fly before this speed is reached. The plane ifsecured to the end of the arm will be steeply inclined to the horizontal as it is being forced round in a circle the diameter of which is about 27 0. The pull on the attachment and along the centre of the arm will be, neglecting the effect of the lift on thewings, about twice that of the weight of the aeroplane. To reduce the heavy tilt on the aeroplane and also the rate of revolution of the arm which under the conditions suggested above would vary from about 4 revolutions'per minute when the arm is at 30 to 6 revolutions per minute when the arm is at 60, the attachment 3 might bepaid out. Let us assume the attachment 3 is paid out so that it starts lengthening when the arm has reached an angle of'30 and has lengthened the arm by when the arm reaches an angle of 60.
The radius at which the aeroplane is moving when the arm is at 60 and the attachment has paid out to'this extent is about 200 and the aeroplane would have to exceed a speedof 7 0 miles per houron this radius to hold the arm out at this angle. o
By paying out the attachment the. radius on which the aeroplaneis moving is at once increased and accordingly the centrifugal force exerted by the aeroplane on the attachment at the speed it is travelling at the moment is reduced. 'The result of paying out the attachment suddenly with the arm revolving at any particular angle would be that the length of cable connecting the end of the arm to the aeroplane would at firstdrop' below the angle reached by the arm, the actual revolutions per minute of the .arm would momentarily drop and the aeroplane would By paying out the attachment gradually the aeroplane would attain to a flying speed before the arm 2 had risen as high as it otherwise would have to rise and would also at tain this speed with less centrifugal force on the connections and being on a larger radius it would not be tilted to the same extent when about to be cast oil.
As will hereinafter be explained the arm 2 may be caused to rise by positive means such as by the action of a winch so that the 'arm' better position as far as centrifugal force thereon and tilting thereof than otherwise.
Fig. 3 indicates a means whereby the arm 2 be caused to rise or fall as desired. For example to enable a seco ndaeroplane and any other aeroplane to be launched after one has been launched and has caused the arm to re main in the more or less horizontal position 2. Now the counterbalancing of the arm may be carried out as follows The inner end of the arm is pivoted upon a centre '10, about which centre the arm rises and falls as hereinbefore described. Upon the same centre 10 and built into and forming part of the arrnmay be a wheel or sector of a vheel 14. Around this wheel or sector passes a strong flexible rope or cable 15 the end oi which is coi ineeted to the periphery of wheel at 16. The rope or cable then passes down the middle or near the middle of the mast 1 being brought to the required po sition either by making the wheel of the requisite diameter or by the insertion of a jockey pulley 17, it then passes to and is fastened to a freely rmxolvable joint 18. T iis joint enables the upper part of the rope or cable 15 which has just been described to revolve freely with the arm 2 as this revolves round and round the mast 1 without twisting the lower port-ionot the rope or cable 19 (which is just about to be described) with it, 'The lower portion 01"" the rope or cable 19 then passes iii an the lower end of he revolvable' joint to a spring or springs 20 and the strength of this sping or springs is so adjusted that the tension therein is normally sufiicient to raise the arm until it occupies the more or less horizontal position; The lower extremity of this spring or springs is tastened'to. a spring tension adjusting lever 21 which may beprovided with a catch which may be operated to cause the said lever to remain in either of two positions. This lever may be so arranged that when it is in one position (the lower one), indicated at 21, thearm 2 without any aeroplane on. it would occupy, themore or less horizontal position 2 and with an aeroplane on it would then occupy the lowermost position, the weight of the aeroplane having causedlie counterbalancing spring or springs to be stretched siniicientlyto allow the arm to c escend to this position resting'against the circular track 7 around the mast. It will thus be seen that when the sp ing tensionad justing lever is in its lower position 21, and an aeroplane has just been launched the arm is in its upper more or less horizontal position 2. N ow when it is desired to despatch from the base the masta' second or subsesition 21 to allow of sutlicient slaclmess to be given to the spring, rope or cable 20, 19, 15
that the weight of the arm will cause it to descend to its lowerposition 2; and then the ring or other the arm may be attached to its counterpart on the next aeroplane which it is desired to. launch; then when the next aeroplane has been attached the'spring tension adjusting lever is removed to its lower position 21' and thus imparts an outward and upward pull to the arm so that it is trying to raise the aeroplane and occupy the more or less horizontal. position 2 so that the next aeroplane can then be launched as ,hereinbefore 'de-' scribed. In a similar manner any number of aeroplanes may be launche 7 If it 1s desired to land a second aeroplane or subsequent aeroplanes the operation is 1 fected as follows:lhe first one which has been landed is hanging on the end 3 of the arm. The sprin tension adjusting lever is then moved to its upper position 21 which reduces the outward and upward pull in the arm. Some support under the aeroplane or under the aeroplanes wheels is then moved or pushed into position so thatthe aeroplane is raised sufficicntly to remove its weight from the ring of hook or other. attaching device upon which it is hanging at the-end of'the arm to enable the said ring or hook or other attaching device to be detachedand completely separated, and which thus enables the aeroplane to be wheeled or moved away from the mast altogthcr. provision may be made for lowering the acre.- plane from the eno ot' the arm by the opera-- tion of levers or by paying off the cable holdingthe attachment 3 so that it rests on its own wheels or otherwise upon the ground or other support and may similarly be moved or wheeled away from the mast altogether. The spring tension adjusting lever is then gradually moved to its lower position 21 and in moving it the arm is thereby raised to attaching device 3 at theend of v But as an alternative the raised position 2. If so desired the spring tension adjusting lever or-its equivalent may be arranged with gearingjso that by rocking it to-and fro or by providing it with suitable gear ratios it will bewithin the strength of one man to raise the arm to raised position. The auxiliary wheel or seetor may be replaced by two or more wheels or sectors in which case two or more ropes or flexible cables would be provided from the anchoring positions on the wheels or sectors to the revolving joint. Similarly two or more ropes or flexible cables may be provided between the revolving joint and the spring adjusting lever or equivalent. The object to be obtained by having more than one rope or flexible cable may be either that of enabling the revolving joint to be constructed with an opening right through its centre to allow of the passage through it of other ropes or cables hereinafterdescribed, or that of getting greater flexibility, or that of getting a greater margin of safety.
A further auxiliary device, which may or may not be employed to work in conjunction with this invention, is illustrated diagram- Inatically in F ig. 4 and has either or both of the following objects in viewfirstly that of minimizing or reducing the shock to the arm and to the aeroplane at the time that the aeroplane to be landed becomes attached to the end of the arm, and secondly that of increasing the radius at whichthe aeroplane revolves around the mast at either or both of the following times; firstly, immediately following that at which it has just become attached to the arm, or, secondly previously to the moment at which it becomes detached from the arm; for at either or both of these times the impact on the arm and on the aeroplane and the discomfort felt by the occupants of the aeroplane owing to the eifccts of the centrifugal force due to the circular motion of the aeroplane around the mast are likely to be at a maximum and to vary 1nversely as the radius of the curve on which the plane is forced to move. This device is such that it enables the ring or hook 3 or otherattaching device at the end'of the arm 2, when a pull is exerted upon it by an aeroplane attached thereto, which pull 1s greater in force than the dead weight of the aeroplane, to be drawn out furtherandextended outwards away fromthe normal position at the end of the arm which it occupies when the aeroplane is either hanging stationary from the arm or is only revolving slowly around the mast. This capabilityof thering or hook or other attaching device of being end of which is attached to a spring of such strength and so arranged that it can only be stretched out or lengthened when a pull is exerted exceeding the dead weight of the aeroplane. The other or fixed end of the spring is attachedto a strong anchorage either within the arm itself or within the mast, and in cases where the fixed end is at tached to an anchorage within the mast then a revolving joint is interposed at any convenient point between. the place where the sliding rod" or tube or flexible cable or rope has its direction of force changed at the top of the mast'and the position of the anchorage.
In Fig. 4 the attachment device 3 is connected to the cable 22 preferably in such a manner that the base of the said attachment may be pulled up tight against a stop or seating 23 in the end of the arm 2.' The cable passes down the arm 2 and around a pulley 24. It then passes down the mast or tower being provided with a swivel or equivalent 25. Very powerful springs 26 may be attached to the cable and the end of the cable 27 passes around the drum of a winch 28." If
springs 26 are introduced into the cable the strength of these. springs should be such resisting this with a suitable margin of safety. 7
Further, these springs 26 should be capable of a considerable amount of extension. As indicated in Fig. 4 the spring could scarcely extend or contract to an amount exceeding say 35% of the length of the arm 2, but
Such a multiplying arrangement is.
is preferable that such a spring should be placed under an initial tension beforethe' aeroplane is hooked on, which initial tension should be about equivalent to the weight of the plane so that the aeroplane bythe time the arm 2 comes to rest in its lowered position will be held up to the end of the arm by the initial tensionin the connections. The cable 27 may therefore be connected to a winch 28, which winch might conveniently have certain indications such as 1 ton, 2
tons, 3 tonsto indicate the initial tensionin the spring with the drum inthe said positions. V y
A single device suitable for giving a spring extension of say of the length of the arm when landing a very large aeroplane would give but little extension-perhaps only a 5% extension when landing a very light plane. A light plane would accordingly be subjected to higher relative impact in stress than a heavy one under the lesser extension and it may be found advisable to duplicate or triplicate the devices shown in Fig. at and to design separate springs to handle'respectively light, medium and heavy planes.
It is not absolutely essential to have a spring or springs 26 fitted as it would be quite possible by using a cable which could be paid out, say under the brake or friction control of a winch drum, or under control of hydraulic or like braking gear, to reduce the shock in landing an aeroplane and reduce the stresses and the tilting of the machine in assisting planes to take off. In such cases the plane when hooked on when landing would pull out the cable under heavy brake resistance and the said cable would be wound in again so as to pull the aeroplane hard up against stop 23 before the arm came to rest in its lower position. When an aeroplane was to be assisted in getting off the cable would be let out gradually found requisite.
With a paying off gear it will be evident that facility in attaching or detaching of an aeroplane to or from the arm. when'in lowered pos tion would be greatly increased, as all that would be needed would be to use the winch 28 to pay 05 the rope 22 to lower the aeroplanes gently to earth, or conversely to slack off the attachment ring 3 until it could be hooked on to the aeroplane on the ground or surface 13 below and then to lift the aeroplane up against the stops 23 on the arm by tightening the rope 22 as requisite.
The rope 22 may have a device 34 clamped thereto which may take up against a buffer stop 25 wh n the rope has pulled out to the limits which it is desired should not be ex ceeded.
Referring now to Fig. 5 the one end of the two part cable 22 which passes to and is attached to the aeroplane attaching ring 3 passes round the jockey pulley 24 and to the swivel or like joint 25 and thence to theanchorage 65. The other part 22 of this cable after passing over a jockey pulley and through the revolving joint 25 passes to the multiple blocks 66, 67. This system of blocks is shown in the figure as having eight parts. The attachment ring 3 therefore would have an extension of four timesthe extension of the springs 26 The lower 66 of the set of blocks is attached to the springs 26*" and has guide members adapted to slide up and down the slide bars 68, 68, as far as the stops 69. The springs 27 are connected to the cross bar 71 and this is'connected by the cable 27 to a winch drum 28*. Any desired tension within certain understood limits may be placed on the springs by working or paying out the winch 28 A The upper set of. blocks 67 is attached to a therein. The upper end of 72 is connected at 16 to a crank arm 14 fixed to the pivot 10 of the arm 2.
It will be realized that assuming the difference in level of the end 16 of the crank 149 between positions 2 and 2 of the arm is say at 0 and the spring when extended by 1' 0 requires an extra tension of 1 ton on the ring 3 to so extend it, then as the arm drops from 2 to 2 block 67 rises 4: O and the block 6 rises a little over 3 .0 and the initial pull on the ring 3 is increased automatically to an amount of about three quarters of aton.
B these means the initial tension on the rin 3 with the arm in raised position may be increased, to say of a ton, on the arm falling. with the result that it may be so arranged that it will certainly raise the pull on the attachment to be above that due to the pull caused by the weight of the aeroplane itself when the arm is in said lowered position.
Referring further to Fig. 5 it will be seen that any desired tension maybe placed on the rin g 3 with the arm raised. This adjustment will be effected by the winch 28*. Upon an aeroplane attaching to the end of the arm a sudden pull is applied to the attachment 3. Assuming for the moment that this pull reaches a maximum value of say three tons on the ring 3 and that a pull of three tons is equivalent to a lengthening of the springs 26" by a d1stance of twelve feet; then owing to the multiplication given by the blocks and tackle arrangement 66- 67 the ring moves outward by approximately 48 feet thus reducing the shock of the connecting operation. I
As the speed of the aeroplane attached to the arm'around the mast falls off, this pull drops drawing the ring 3 in towards its stop 23 on the end ofthe arm. As however the arm falls the other factor comes into operation increasing the pull on the ring 3 as the arm falls lower and lower. The numerical values of the tensions will of course be varied to suit 't 1e size and wei ht of the .b 1 depeno on the inc 0 'niember 72 which has a rotatable oint 73 .liO
wire ropes (of which two are shown) 22 are attached to the yoke and the back 33 of the yoke may be shaped to be capable of taking a comfortable seating on the stop 23 on the end of the arm 2. The ropes 22 pass around pected to comewhich direction is perpendicular to the arm 2.
In Fig. 10 a means for causing the arm 2 to rotate around the mast is shown.
In this the endless ropes 40 which are passed around the drum of a suitable winch,
large rope pulley 42.
rotating mechanism or the like 43 pass up to the top of the mast and'around a pair of jockey pulleys a1 and thence around the This rope pulley is fixed to the revolving head 44L which carries the pivot 10 on which the arm rises and falls. By working the winch 43 the arm 2 may be made to revolve about the mast 1 whether an aeroplane is attached' or not. Y
A. free wheeling or disengaging arrangement (not shown) must be provided enabling the revolving head 44 to rotate freely with out check from the winch or driving mechanism 43 when an aeroplane suddenly hooks onto the arm. e
The causing of the'arm to rotate about the mast by means of gearing or other mechanism may be of great assistance, since the extra assistance so given to an aeroplane as it is trying to take off may be of very great importance to it as assisting to overcome the frictional resistance in moving on a curve. The positive driving of the arm shortly before the" aeroplane has gathered flying speed and the paying out of the attachments so as to both assist the aeroplane to gather speedon its curved path and to increase the radius of the path on'which the 7 plane is flying and to thus reduce its tilt at the moment of casting 015, may indeed be found almost essential.
Further, with mechanism to positively cause the arm to rotate it may or may not be found possible for an aeroplane to hookonto an arm when landing which arm is already rotating. If this can'be done the shock to the arm and the apparatus may be considerably reduced and the stresses and strains in the parts be thus reduced both in the mast and arm and also in the'aeroplane itself. In order to hook onto a rotating arm it would probably be necessary for the pilot to approach the mast on a curve or spiral.
In Figs. 11 and 12 device is shown which could be fitted to an aeroplane to make it possible for it to be launched or received with apparatus as hereinbefore described. Assuming that a ring loop'3is attached to or'carried by the end of the arm 2 then a hook 4 having a projecting horn 5 is mounted on the aeroplane.
In Fig. 11 the apparatus is shown inrits normal positionthat is the position in which it would be when the aeroplane is about to attach to the ring 3 or when it is so attached.
The point 45 of the horn is above and in ad Vance of the pilot so that he can see clearly how to steer the planeto cause the point of the horn to enter the ring or hoop 3. The horn runs through the said ring loop 3 and causes the hook part t to engage the ring. A spring pawl .46 or catch prevents the parts from disengaging. V] hen hooked on, the ring takes onto the concave bend 47 at the top of the hook and the strain is taken with the ring loop 3 in the position shown in dotted lines. The hook is strongly stayed to the'aeroplane body as the stress thereon may exceed that due to the weight of the plane itself by twofor more times depending upon the length ofthe arm 2 and the radius of the curve in whichthe aeroplane is caused to travel, and also upon the impact or relative suddenness with which position with the point 45 of the horn pointing forward to the reverse position when it. is de-v sired cause the aeroplane to detach itself from the ring 3. e V
in 12 the hook is shown when in a position to detach from the ring. The horn 5 points backwards owing to the turning of the shaft 4-8 and handle as. The disengaging iember 5-0 which is fixed to the aeroplane structure, has, as the shaft 48 and hook 4 turns, engaged and pressed downthe pawl 46 so that it no longer closes the throat 51 of the hook. When the pilot judges that he has sufficient flying speed he guides his aeroplane so that flying on the proper curve it also lifts so that the part 47 of the hook instead of en:
gaging the ring or loop 3 lifts clear'thereof and the plane disengages from the ring and flies clear. t will beobserved that this can not be done until a reasonable flying speed has 7 been attained otherwise the part Not the hook cannot be caused to lift clear.
The ring on the arm2 should be so arranged that it will tend always to take up a POSltlOZI under its own Weight which will make it hang in its yoke with its plane properly placed to I allow the ring to rise slightly 'andto twist through 180 C. The reduction of stress on the hook and ring might be the criterion by which the pilot would judgewhether he could wards and inwards and cast off.
.The attachment shown in Figs. 11 and 12 might be modified so that when landing the horn 5 pointed forward all the time and when an aeroplane was to be launched it pointed back all the time. In the latter case the release of the spring catch would preferably be operable by means independent of the handle 49 so that the catch-was only released after the pilot thought he had attained flying s eed.
Fig. .18 shows a modification of the attaching arrangements carried by the aeroplane wherein a spring 74 placed in the barrel 74 reduces the shock of the sudden pull on hooking onto the ring loop 8. The scale 7 5 may show the pilot in the cockpit the strain in the rod 48, when, in the operation of launching, the said scale indicates little or no stress, the pilot will know that he is largely supported by the air pressure on his wings and that he may prepare for casting oil".
As an alternative, (not illustrated) the hook 4 may transfer the pull through suitable rods or cables to the axle of the landing wheels of the aeroplane and by these means the springs of such landing gear be utilized to reduce the shock to the aeroplane itself.
Fig. 14 illustrates diagrammatically the re ception or landing of an aeroplane when a paying outattachment gear is used.
Suppose the aeroplane 9 is flying in the direction of arrow 52 and hooks onto the arm 2 at 53. This arm previously will have been raised to nearly the horizontal position so as to give as much clearance above'ground as possible.
On hooking on at 58 the attachment starts pulling out either under spring frictionalor brake control. By the-time the end of the arm 2 has got to point 54 the aeroplane is at point 54. When the end of the arm is at 55 the aeroplane is at 55. By the time the arm is at 56 the aeroplane is at 56.
We will assume that the spring resistance or the frictional or other resistance Wlll only allow the attachments to pay out under the weight, speed and centrifugal forces" developed, by a dlstance D. The radius ofthe curve to which the aeroplane is forced to fly withincreases accordingly to some law from infinity, 1f the aeroplane 1S originally moving straight on the tangent-to a radius which may fall to the radius R but will finally become D +R.
It will be noted that the various positions 54, 55 56 of the end of the arm lie behind the positions 54, 55, 56 of the aeroplane at the same instant owing to the inertia of the arm. There will therefore be a distinct bend where the attachments join the arm. The angle 59 between the line of action of the attachments and the direction of the arm tends to increase as the arm gathers speed.
Shock on the attachments may be reduced by making the arm rather whippy horizontally. This may be effected by making knuckle joints in the arm controlled by springs so that if necessary the arm under lateral stress will defleet or bow considerably. In Fig. 14 the bending of the arm is clearly indicated and it will be clear that a certain amount of desirable.
Upon hooking onto the arm a considerable stress and strain is thrown on the apparatus and on the aeroplane. The transition curve 53, 54, 55, 56 joining the tangent 57 which is desired to forcethe aeroplane to follow much reduces shock and stress.
give is The pilot by approaching on a curve as indicated by arrow 58 can also help to reduce the shock. Also it is of course necessary for the pilot to bank rapidly at the moment of, or
preferably just before, attaching.
- The wheel 8 on the arm runs on this track. 7
This wheel, or any equivalent skidding or rolling device, might be mounted on springs or be fitted with pneumatic tyres to reduce the shock. 5
Ample space is needed below the track 7 for side projectionsof an aeroplane wing there'- under. v ingly be of small dimensions: but of great strength as'it cannot be stayed and yet must be capable of resisting the bendin moment The central column 12 must accord- I due to the forces applied to the top of the mast through the arm 2. For a mast 100 feet high a steel tube 4 6 or 'a little more indiameter built of thick steel plates, or of cast steel braced with tie rods,might be suitably strongly anchored to the ground. Fora mast it maybe necessary to increase the diameter to 6 0" or more.
A working platform 62 on which the various winches and mechanism is mounted may be provided abovethe track.
The mast aboveithe track 7 maybe guyed to the braced structure 61 supporting thefsaid track by suitable guys63, 63 thus reducing the size and weight of the mast 1. I The mast 1 may be built up of steel plates or be of any suitable construction. It made of. steel plates the ropes 15, 22, etc., might be 11- side the mast. I i At the top of the mast thearm 2 or revolving head 44- might be provided with a vane 6i.
The ring or loop 3 although spread out wide to receive an aeroplane will, directly an aerowire rope may be anchored to the part 29 and after passing round the loop 3 and throughan eye on the part 29 a suitable number of times, say 6 or 8 times, the further end be also anchored to the said part 29. Various loops on therope may be suitably lashed or bound together to make a single rope of 7 great strength and flexibility.
It will be of course understoodthat the invention is not restricted to the embodiment described andillustrated. V
For example the details might be much modified, within the scope of the invention.
Instead of springs for controlling the paying out gear it might be possible to substitute 'ri'system of weights or hydraulic or like cyl inders, so that as the rope is paid out the tension should progressively increase.
The gear might be duplicatedto suit the size orweight of the various aeroplanes to be handled. r. V I
It has been suggested to use a crane'with a vertical pole and a fined horizontal arm thereon for the purpose of launching and landing aeroplanes, which crane was to be mounted in a vertical bearing and. capable of rotating with its fixed horizontal arm therein. To the end of the arm a sheave was fixed and a hoisting arrangement was mount red on the base of the pole. In launching, an
aeroplane was fixed to a rope which passed over the said sheave and was taken to the hoist. The aeroplane was raised clear of the ground by the operation of the hoist, and the aeroplanes engine started. The aeroplane being thus suspendedfrom the outer end of the horizontal armcaused the crane to rotate, and as the aeroplane and the crane; gathered speed the rope was gradually paid feut enabling the aeroplaneto swing outwards and upwards. Upon the aeroplanehaving accelerated both itself and the craneto obtain flying speed the rope was castoli "from the;
cled round with the rope trailing on the ground and it was suggested that the rope mi ht be caught whilst so trailing, brought to the crane, and attached thereto and the aeroplane pulled in. p Y
The present invention is however entire- .ly difierent as it does not contemplate using about the mast upon the rising and fallingend of th'e'arm so that the aeroplane starts "from the lowered hanging position and is gradually swung outwards and upwards whilst still controll d all the time by the arm until a suitable flying speed, elevation and circular path o1 suitable radius is attained. The aeroplane is then cast as and is completely independent of any rope. In landingian aeroplane, the same hooks on to the arm, which may be rotating around the mast at the time, and 1S gradually brought to rest as it whirls on a gradually falling V spiral the arm all the time.
It has been. proposed 1n aeroplanelaunch- 1 ing and landing gear to provide a tower with an arm capable of rotating around or being rotated around the top of the tower when in a horizontal position. 7 V
And it has been proposed to raise an aeroplane attached to a bight of cablehanging from the lower side of the said arm, and when the said arm is horizontal and the aeroplane in raised position hanging therefrom,
to start the engine of the aeroplane'or to startrotating the arm until sufficient speed is attained to launch the aeroplane. In this proposed device the arm was oi .stifi, rigid construction and was pivoted so that its outer end could be lowered to enable to attach thereto. 7
As said arm had necessarily to be of sulficient strength to lift the aeroplane hanging from; its endand the arm acting as a cantilever had to be of considerable strength, stiffness and weight and had accordingly rather an undesirable inertia. 1
According to the present invention the arm, whilst can-ableof' rot ting or being. rotated rlS ii? a I "H upwards, is very much lighter in that it arm as acantilever but merely to swing it out andupwards the aeroplane and rotate around the mast.
The arm accordingly acts mainly in tension and may be in. l little inertia. Thearm also holds and directs the aeroplane all the time as it swings up i very light and hence have around the mast, being under the control of o 1 10 the aeroplaneconstruction and being caintended not to lift the r from the lowered to the launching position. Means moreover may be provided whereby the arm as it swings up pays out the aeroplane.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is 1. Apparatus for despatching and landing aeroplanes, comprising a landing mast; a pivoted arm carried by said mast, and revolvable thereabout; an attachment device on the outer end of said arm for receiving an aeroplane; means balancing and controlling said arm in such manner that under the weight of a motionless aeroplane hanging from the end of the arm, the said arm will assume a downwardly inclined position, but which arm, as the aeroplane gathers speed around the mast, revolves about and will assume a raised position gradually approaching the horizontal, with its end sweeping through a path having a continually increasing radius and means for releasing or attaching an aeroplane at the desired position of the arm to the horizontal.
2. Apparatus for despatching and landing aeroplanes where the available space is limited, comprising a mast; a pivoted arm; an attachment device on said arm for carrying an aeroplane thereon and rotatable about said mast and swingable up and down in the plane of the mast; means for rotating said arm about said mast; means limiting the lowermost position of said arm; and means balancing and controlling said arm in such manner that when an aeroplane is attached-thereto and the said aeroplane is motionlessor moving around the mast at slow speed the arm will hang with its outer end in a lowered position but is prevented from dropping below a limiting position in which the end of the arm and the aeroplane is held or constrained to travel on a circular path having a radius suflicient to prevent'the aeroplanes wing from touching the mast, and when the aeroplane is moving around the mast at a higher speed the said arm will take up a more elevated position continually approaching the horizontal with its end describing a circular curveor continually increasing radius as the centrifugal forces due to the speed ofrotation of the aeroplane and the arm around the mast increases.
3. Apparatus for landing and despatching aeroplanes, comprising a mast; an arm adapted to rotate about the longitudinal axis of the mast pivotally attached adjacent the top of the mast and capable of assuming any position between a fully extended upper position in which the said arm may approach the horizontal, and a limiting lower position with the arm sharply inclined to the axis of the mast; means defining the limiting positions of said arm, the said arm when in said lower limiting position making contact with a circularv track surrounding the base of the mast, around which track the said lower end of the arm may slide or roll, and means at the outer end of the arm for the attachment or detachment of aeroplanes thereto or therefrom. I
4. Apparatus according to claim 1, in which a resilient member controls the position of the pivoted arm.
5. Apparatus according to claim 1, in
aeroplanes comprising a landing mast; a pivoted arm carried by said mast and revolvable thereabout; an attachment device on the outer .end of said arm for receiving an aeroplane;
means balancing and controlling said arm in such manner that under the weightof amotionless aeroplane hanging from the end of the arm, the said arm will assume a downwardly inclined position, but which arm, as the aeroplane revolves about and gathers around the mast, will assume a raised position gradually approaching the horizontal, with its end swinging through a path havinga continually increasing radius; means for releasing or attaching an aeroplane from or to the arm at the desired position of the arm to the horizontal; a crank device on said pivoted arm adjacent its pivotal point; and a spring -.to which the crank arm of said crank device is connected in such manner that as the end of the arm sinks the tension in the said spring is increased. 1
7. Apparatus according to claim 6 including means for adjusting the initialtension of the spring so that when the said arm sinks to its lower limiting position the tension in the spring may be adjusted to reach a selected ultimate value dependent on the anticipated weight of the aeroplane to be landed.
8. Apparatus according to claim 6 including means for slackening off at will the tension in said spring whereby if the aeroplane is'not as heavy-as is anticipated, the said arm will come to rest, when an aeroplane is being landed above the limiting lower position, and may thereafter be lowered gently to said lower position by slackening off the tension in the said spring.
9. Apparatus for despatching or landing aeroplanes, comprising a landing mast; a pivoted arm carried by said mast, and revolvable thereabout; an attachment device on the outer end of said arm for receiving an aeroplane; means balancing and controlling, said arm in such manner that under the weight of a motionless aeroplane hanging from the end of the arm, the said arm will assume a clownwardly inclined position, but which arm, as the aeroplane revolves about and gathers speedaround the mast, will assume a raised position gradually approaching the horizontal, with its end sweeping through a path having a continually increasing radius; means for'releasing or attaching an aeroplane from or to the arm at the desired position of the arm to the horizontal; means supporting said pivoted arm; at least one spring in combination with said supporting means, the tension or pull in said spring being such that it will, when allowed to act, cause the pivoted arm to rise to its raised horizontal position; means for releasing or relieving the tension of said spring to enable the pivoted arm to drop to its lower position; and mechanism by means of which the tension on the said supporting means for the pivoted arm may be adjusted tocause said arm to assume, or to tend to assume, a desired position. 7
10. Apparatus for 'des'patching and landing aeroplanes, comprising a landing mast; a pivotedarm carried by said mast, and re volvable thereabout, said arm being substantially rigid in the direction of the vertical plane passing through the momentary position of the arm and the axis ofthe said mast, but being relatively flexible in a direction substantially perpendicular to the said plane an attachment device on the other end of said arm for receiving an aeroplane; means balancing and controlling said arm in such man-' ner that under the weight of a motionless aeroplane hanging from the end of the arm, the said arm will assume a downwardly inclined position, but which arm, as the aeroplane revolves about and gathers speed around the mast, will assume a raised position gradually approaching the horizontal, with its end sweeping through a path having a continually increasing radius; and means for releasing or attaching an aeroplane from or "to the arm at the desired position of the arm to the horizontal.
11. Apparatus for despatching and landing aeroplanes comprising amast; a pivoted arm;
a rotatable head on said mast forcarrying said pivoted arm; an attachment device on said arm for carrying an aeroplane thereon, and being rotatable about said mast and also swin-gable up and down in the plane of the mast ;-means limiting the lowermost position of saic arm; and means for rotating said arm comprising a cable, rotating mechanism for winding said cable at variable speeds and means for driving said rotating mechanism at any selected speed, the cable passing around the said rotatable head and thence tothe drum of said rotating mechanism, the said mechanism being rotated at a selected speed.
12. Apparatus according to claim 11 including means for releasing the cable, whereby the pivoted arm may rotate freely when an aeroplane is landing. 7
18. Apparatus according to'claim 1 including a vane or the like fixed to the pivoted end of said pivoted arm, said vane being adapted,
because of its angular position with respect to the arm, to cause the said arm to assume a desired position relative to the direction of whatever wind is blowing.
14. Apparatus according to claim 3 includ ing a wheel mounted on suitable bearings at the outer end of said pivoted arm, the said wheel being adapted to cooperate with the i said circular track in such manner that when the arm descends to its limiting lowest position, the wheel engages and is adapted to run about the said track.
15. Apparatus for landing and despatching aeroplanes comprising a mast; an arm adapted to rotate about the longitudinal axis of the arm for the attachment or detachment of an aeroplane thereto orv therefrom, the
said mast bein of smaller diameter below the circular track than above said track, whereby the wings of the aeroplanemay enter below the track. a
16, Apparatus for landing and despatching aeroplanes comprising a mast; an arm adapted to rotate about the longitudinal axis of the mast, pivotally attached adjacent the a top of the mast and capable of assuming any position between a fully extended upper posit: in which the said arm may approach the horizontal, and a limiting lower position with the'arm sharply inclined to the axis of the mast means defining the limiting positions of said arm; a circular track surrounding the mast adjacent the base thereof, the said arm when in its said lowering position making 7 contact with said track and around which track the said lower end of the arm may slide or roll; means at the outerend of the arm for the attachment or detachment of aeroplanes thereto or therefrom, the said mast being of smaller diameter below the circular track than above said track, whereby the wings of the areoplane may enter below the track; a working platform on said mast above said circulartrack; arm-raisii1g and lowering gear mounted on said platform; aeroplane-attachment-paying-out gear on said platform;
and means also mounted on said platform for operating said two gears.
17. Apparatus for despatching and landing aeroplanes, comprising a landing mast; a pivoted arm carried by said mast and revolvable thereabout; an attachment device for receiving an aeroplane on the outer end of said arm; means on said arm for releasing or attaching an aeroplane thereto at a desired position of said arm to the horizontal; and cables connected to the attachment device in such manner that the said attachment device may, when desired, be extended to enable the radius of the curve on which the aeroplane is caused to move about the mast to be extended beyond that permitted by the length of the pivoted arm.
18 Apparatus according to claim 17 in which the attachment device comprises a spring-extended loop of cable which is normally opened wide and capable of being readily engaged by cooperating means on the aeroplane, and which under the action of the spring, when the weight of the aeroplane comes thereon, lengthens into a narrow loop capable of carrying the Weight of the aeroplane and of resisting the centrifugal and similar stresses.
19. In combination, apparatus for despatching and landing aeroplanes comprising a landing mast; a pivoted arm carried by said mast and revolvable thereabout; an attachment device on the outer end of said arm for receiving an aeroplane; and engaging gear on the aeroplane for cooperation with said attachment device, said engaging gear comprising a projecting horn; means for forwardly projecting said horn when the aeroplane is about to engage the attachment device; the said horn having a depression or indent in the hook or curve thereof adapted to receive and engage the said attachment device; and a grip or catch for preventing the aeroplane, once hooked. from accidentally disengaging with the said attachment device.
20. In combination, apparatus for despatching and landing aeroplanes comprising a landing mast; a pivoted arm carried by said mast and revolvable ther-eabout; an attachment device on the outer end of said arm for receiving an aeroplane and engaging gear on the aeroplane to be landed or despatched, said engaging gear comprising a horn and hook; spring means for cushioning the shock of landing and also adapted to extend in launching under the weight of the aeroplane and the action of the centrifugal force; and an indicator for showing the stress on the said springs, and thereby indicating when such stress in launching has been sufficiently reduced to enable the aeroplane to cast off from the attachment device with safety.
In testimony whereof I hereto affix my signature this fourteenth day of July, 1928.
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|U.S. Classification||244/63, 244/110.00F|
|International Classification||B64F1/00, B64F1/04|