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Publication numberUS1756897 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 29, 1930
Filing dateJan 16, 1928
Priority dateJan 16, 1928
Publication numberUS 1756897 A, US 1756897A, US-A-1756897, US1756897 A, US1756897A
InventorsBillings John Gregory
Original AssigneeBillings John Gregory
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus for utilizing exhaust gases of internalcombustion engines
US 1756897 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

'.HAUST COMBUSTON ENGINES J. "www FOR UTILIZING METHOD AND APPARATUS' GASES OF INTERNAL HN O I ml. S M Q. c

JD APPARATUS FOR S 'INTERNAL Filed Jem.

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Filed Jan. 16.

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Patented Apr. 29, 1930 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE JACOB BILSXY, NOW BY CHANGE F NAME JOHN GREGORY BILLINGB, 0F CHICAGO, ILLINOIS METHOD AND APPARATUS FOB UTILIZING EXHAUST GASES 0F INTERNAL- COMBUSTION ENGINES Application med January 16, y1928. Serial Io. 247,036.

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for utilizing exhaust gases fronrinternal combustion engines and more particularly to the reutilization in the engine of treated exhaust ases to obtain greater fuel economies and e ciencies.

Heretofore it has been sug ested to feed a portion of the exhaust gases ack to the en- `ne to utilize the fuel value still remaining 1n the exhaust gases. In general, however, such re-use of the exhaust gases is impractical for the reason that the gases contain not only particles of unburnt carbon and oil but sulphur compounds that have a very detrimental effect upon the cylinders, pistons and the like. l

It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a. method and apparatus for utilizin the exhaust ases, wherein means are provided for removing detrimental constituents from the exhaust gases prior to re-use.

It is a further import-ant object of this invention to provide amethod and means for reutilizing exhaust gases in the engine to effect greater fuel economies and efliciencies.

Other and further important objects of this invention will be apparent from the disclosures in the specification and the accompany ing drawings.

This invention gin a preferred form) is illustrated in the rawings and hereinafter more fully described.

On the drawin Figure 1 is a si e elevational view illustrating one a plication of my invention upon an automobile, with parts broken away and in section.

Figure 2'is a longitudinal sectional View of my device. y

Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line III- III of Figure 2.

Figure 4 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line IV-IV of Figure 2.

Figure 5 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line V-V of Figure 2.

Figure 6 is a sectional view taken on line VI-VI of Figure 5.

Figure 7 is a longitudinal sectional View of a modified form of my device.

Figure 8 is an enlar ed sectional view taken on line VIII-VII of Figure 7.

Figure 9 is an enlarged sectional view taken on line IX-IX of Figure 7.

Figure 10 is a longitudinal sectional view of a washing apparatus for use with my device, with parts 1n elevation.

The reference numeral 1 indica-tes as a whole a device embodying the principles of my invention as used in connection with the internal combustion engine 2 of an automobile 3. It will be understood, however, that my device is equally applicable to stationary internal combustion en ines. The device 1, as shown, is adapted to inserted in the exhaust pipe 4 running from the exhaust manifold 5 to the rear of the automobile, where the exhaust gases are vented to the atmosphere. The exhaust gases from the engine 2 are thus all passed through m device, wherein the entrained particles such' as carbon, oil residues and the like, as well as sulphur containing compounds, are removed. A pipe 16 serves to conduct a portion of the treated gases from the device l back to the intake manifold 7, or to any suitable point on the intake line to the en ine, such as the carburetor.

he device 1, as best shown in Figures 2 to 6 inclusive, comprises, in its preferred form, a hollow sectional casing 8, having attached at its intake end a catch-basin 9. Said catchbasin 9 may be directly connected to the exhaust pipe 4 or may be connected through a washing filter 10 (Figs. 1 and 10) as desired. The washing filter 10 will be hereinafter more fully described.

The catch-'basin 9 comprises an elbow 11 having a downwardly turned portion 12 for discharging the exhaust gases into a removable trap 13. Said trap 13, which is rovided with a small drain opening 14, is a apted to be threaded into a shell 15 surrounding said downwardly turned portion 12 and forming a. passage 16 therebetween for the exit of gases from said catch-basin. Within the passage 16 are positioned two spaced screens 17 and 18 insulated from the walls of the shell 15 and the elbow portion 12 by means of insulation 19. The lower screen 17 is preferably of larger mesh than the upper screen 18, for

a purpose thatwill later appear. Said screens 17 and 18 are connected by means of wires 20- and 21, respectively, passing through suitable bushings 22 and 23 to an outside source of high potential electricity. It is thus possible to charge the screens,v 17 and 18 with 'high voltage electricity in order to create brush and corona discharges to ionize the as passing between the screen electrodes. hese electrodes maintain a silent or low discharge. The entrained particles o carbon and oil residues in the exhaust gases are thus lthrough into the trap 13. T e upper screen 18 prevents the'carrying alon of the particles into the main portion of t e gas absorbing device 1.

The hollow casing 8 is formed with a tubular section 24, removably connected at one end to a flared conical section 25, which inl turn is connected to the catch-basin 9. A

Y plurality of hollow bailles 26 arranged in open y pounds from the exhaust gases. The absorstaggered relation and supported from a frame 27 are adapted to be positioned within said tubular sect-ion 24, Each of the hollow bales 26 is iilled with absorbent material capable of removing sulphur containing combent material may suitably comprise a mixture as follows:

*Y Parts Sodium ethylate Calcium oxide 5 Strontium oxide 5 F erric oxide 25 Animal charcoal 25 Asbestos fibre 10 The sodium ethylate serves to absorb sulphurdioxide if present in the-gases and also acts catalytically. The iron oxide acts to absorb any hydrogen sulphide present, the alkaline earth oxides act to neutralize the sulphur acids in the gases and the charcoal as a general absorbent for gases.

After passing through the hollow baiiles 26 the treated exhaust gases may suitably be heated and mixed with air before being re turned to the engine or discharged from the device. Means for admitting air into the casing 8 comprises a hollow tube formed of porcelain or the like, inserted in said cas ing 8 at right angles thereto and rovided with apertures 29 to admit air into the inside of said casing. Said apertures 29 are preferably positioned on the side of the tube 28 -`toward the discharge end of the device, so that the air will be drawn in by the suction of the exhaust gases in passing through the device. In order to heat the admitted air,

mamas? said tube 28 is wound with coils of a resistance wire 30 connected by means of wires 31` and 32 to any suitable source of current. A relatively larger cylinder 33, formed of foraininous material surrounds said tube 28 and heating coil 30 in order to prevent possible ignition of the exhaust gases, in accordance with the rinciples of the miners lamp.

Beyond) the tube 28 the casing 8 is provided with a restricted portion 34 having an opening 35 in the wall thereof for connection to the pipe 6 leading to the intake of the engine.

k.A certain portion of the exhaust gases will thus be drawn back into the engine together with the usual fuel mixture and the heat value of the unburned portion of the exhaust gases thereby utilized. Inasmuch as the portions of the exhaust gases so fed to the engine are free from entrained particles of carbon, oil residues and the like and from corrosive sulphur-'containin gases, greater fuel efficiency can be realize without injury to the engine cylinders. At the same time the added heat supplied to the fuel mixture serves, especially in cold weather, to vaporize the fuel more completely. A switch`36, (Fig. 1) may be provided for cutting out the heating coils 30 when it is not desired to heat the incoming air.

Before the waste gases are finally discharged from the device 1,`the are passed through successive hollow ba es 37 arranged within an extension 38 to the casin 8.,. Said hollow bailes 37 are preferably filled with catalytic materials, such as platinum or palladium asbestos, cou rous or cupric oxide, platinum, palladium, t orium or zirconium wire, or zirconium oxide. The latinum or palladium asbestos serves to oxi izethe carbon monoxide and methane in the exhaust gases and the copper oxides to react with the carbon monoxide in case the supply of air is not sufficient for a complete oxidation of the monoxide to the dioxide. The gases as they are finally discharged into the atmosphere are thus purified of poisonous constituents.

In the modified form of my device, as illustrated in Figs. 7 'to 9 inclusive, a hollow casing 39 corresponds to the casing 8 above described. Said casing 39 is provided with baffles 40 as beore,.butthe air is admitted to the inside of the casing in a different manner. The intake end ci the casing 39 is formed with a siight restriction. as at 41, beyond whichA are provided passages 42 and 43 extending through thc wall of said casing at a slight angle in the direction of the flow of the gases. Pipes 44 and 45 communicate on the outside with said apertures 42 and 43 these pipes being provided with enlarged open ends 46 and 47, respectively. Pipe elbows 48 and 49 are secured to said casing 39 at points beyond the baffles 40' and communicate with the interior of said casing 39 through apertures 50 and 51 respectively.

lao

fresh air through the openings 54 and 55 into the pipes 44 andv 45 and thence to the interior of said casing 39. A certain amount of exhaust gases wil be' drawn through the openings 5() and 51 and elbows 48 and 49,

respectively, into the pipes Maud 45 tobe mixed with the incoming air.- -The mixture of exhaust gases and vair thus formed may be drawn from the casing 39 through an opening A56 into the pipe 6 and thence to the engine intake to be utilized as before. An added section 57 on the casing 39 is provided with hollow baflles 58 containing catalytic and oxidizing materials. In this case, however, spaced terminals 59 and 60 are positioned between said hollow baffles 58 and connected by wires 61 and 62 respectively to a suitable source of high potential electricity to provide an ozone spark. The purpose of this is to aid the catalytic and oxidization materials in the converting of carbon Inonoxide to carbon dioxide.

As mentioned above, a suitable Washing. filter (F ig.'10) may beused ahead of the device 1, this Washing filter to be filled with a. fluid 63, such as tetrahydronaphthalene, capable of reacting with and absorbing sulphur containing compounds. The filter 10 comprises separate chambers 64 and 65 connected at spaced points by unions 66 and 67. Gases are led into the chamber through a pipe 68 having a vertical portion 69 extending beneath the level of the fluid 63. As the level in the chamber 65 rises, due to pressure, or accumulation of condensate, the fluid passes over into the chamber 64 through the union 67 and a pipe 76 leading to the bottom of said latter chamber. Both of said chambers 64 and 65 are provided with removable caps 71 and 72 to permit the fluid 63 to be drawn out. The filter 10 thus serves as an additional meanstor removing sulphur containing conipounds from the exhaust gases. At the Asaine time when tetrahydronaphthaleno is used as the filter fluid, if any of the tluid is en- I trained in the exhaust gases and carried back to the engine, no harm results, since tetrahydronaphthalene is itself a combustiblesubstance suitable for use in internal combustion engines.

This application constitutes an improvenient upon my copending application entitled: Process of purifying the exhaust gases from internal combustion engines, Serial No. 205,319, filed July 13. 1927. now Patent No. 1,716,481, issued June 11, 1929.

l am aware that many changes may be made and numerous details of'constructien may be varied through a wide range without depart` ing from the principles of this invention. and I, therefore, do not purpose limiting the patent granted hereon otherwise than neces sitated by the-prior art.

v I- claim as my invention:

1. The'process of utilising 'the exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine., which comprises filtering said gases to remove sulphur-containing compounds and returning aV portion of the gases for re-coinbustion insaid engine.

2. The process of utilizing the exhaust gases from an internal combtuitionv engine,

which comprises electrically removing entramed particleslrom the exhaust gases,

filtering said gases to remove sulphur coritaining compounds and returning: a'portion of the gases for recombustion said engine. The process of utilizing -theexhaust gases from an internal combustion engine, which comprises electrically removing entrained particles from the exhaust gases, filtering said gases to remove sulphur conu taining compounds,A introducing a gaseous oxidizing medium linto said gas ow, and returning a portion of the gases tor. re-coi'n bustion in said engine.

4. The process of utilizing 'the exhaust gases from an'internal combustion engine, which comprises subiecting said gases to an electrical silent discharge to precipitate solid particles, carb-on residues and 'the litre, ultering the `treated'gases to ren/inve sulphur containing compounds, introducing air into the flow ogases and returning a portion ot" such gases to the intake to the engine.

5. The process of purifying and utilizing exhaust gases 'from internal combustion gines, which includes filtering and washing said gases to remove sulphur-containing cornpounds and returning a portion oft the thus purified gases to the engine.

6. The process of purifying and utilizing enhaust'gases from internal combustion en" pines. which comprises treating said gases with tetrahydronaphthalene 'to remove oily residues and sulphur-containingcompounds and returning a portionof the thus puried gases to the engine.

7. The process of utilizing the exhaustV gases from an internal combustion engine. which comprises filtering the exhaust i reinove sulphur containing compounds., in troducing air into the dow or" littered and returning a portion of the mixture ai?.

and filtered gases thus formed to the engine.

8. The process of utilizing the exhaust gases trom an internal combustion engine, which comprises filtering the exhaust gases to remove sulphur vcontaining compounds, introducing air into the flow of filtered gases. heating the mixture thus formed, and returning a portion of the heated mixztur'etd the'en- 811m 9. In a device for utilizing exhaust gases from internal combustion Iengines, means for filtering theggases to.` remove lsulphurlconftaining compoundsyand means for conduct ing a portion ofthe'ltered 'gases back to-the intake of the engine. i

10. In a device for utilizing exhaust gases from internal combustion engines, means for filtering the gases to remove sulphur containing compounds, electrical-means'for precipi tating entrained particles from the ases, and means for conducting a portion of t e filtered gases back to the intake ofthe en ne.

11. In a device for utilizing ex aust gases from internal-combustion engines, means for v filtering the gases t0 remove sulphur containing'compounds, electrical means for precipitating entrained particles from the gases, means for introducing a gaseous oxidizing medium into the gas flow, and means for conducting a ortion of the filtered gases back tothe inta e of the engine.

12. A'device for utilizing the exhaust gases from an internal combustion en 'ne, comprising a hollow casing adapted to inserted in the exhaust pipe from the engine, hollow bailles arranged in said casing and containing absorbent material, means for admittin air into said casin and a conduit leading rom said casing to t e intake of the en ine.

13. A device for utilizing the ex aust gases from an'internal combustion en 'ne, comprising a hollow casing adapted to e inserted in the exhaust pipe from the engine, hollow bailles arranged in said casing and containing absorbent material, means for admitting air into said casing, electrical means for heating the admitted air, and a conduit leading from said casing to the intake of the engine.

14. A device for utilizing the exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine, comprising a vessel containing a washin fluid and adapted to be inserted in the ex aust pipe from the engine, a hollow casing connected to said vessel, bales arranged in said casing, means for admitting air to said casing and a conduit connecting said casing tov the intake of the engine to return a portion of treated exhaust gases to said engine.

15.' A device for utilizing the exhaust gases from an internal combustion engine, comprising a vessel containing a washln fluid and from an 4internal combustion engine, comprising a vessel'containin a washm fluid and adaptedto be'insert from theengine, a catch basin communicating with 'theo'utl'etfof said vessel a, hollow casing, a"fconduit"betweensaid catch basin and said casing having spaced screens therein, means for electrically charging said screens, bailles arranged in said casin ,means for admitting air to said casing an a conduit connecting saidl casing. to the intake ofthe engine to return a portion of the treated exhaust gases to saideiigine.`

In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribedmy name at Chicago, Cook County,

Illinois.

- .JACOB BILSKY.

dapted to be inserted in the ex aust pipe from the engine, a catch basin communicating with the outlet of said vessel, a hollow casing, a conduit between said catch basin and said vcasing having spaced screens therein, baies 'arranged 1n said casing, means for admitting I,

air to said casing and a conduit connecting` said casing to the intake of the engine to return a portion of treated exhaust gases to said c engine.

16. A device for utilizing the exhaust gases in the ex aust pipe lasl

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2429732 *Jan 4, 1945Oct 28, 1947Willys Overland Motors IncSystem and apparatus for operating submerged internal-combustion engines
US2611680 *Jan 16, 1950Sep 23, 1952Joseph P RuthExhaust gas conditioning method
US2673446 *Sep 26, 1952Mar 30, 1954Salardi Mary DeApparatus for processing combustion gases
US2679724 *Jan 16, 1950Jun 1, 1954Edmund S PomykalaExhaust gas purifier
US2704504 *Feb 2, 1950Mar 22, 1955Arthur O WilkeningSound trap and air transfer device
US2737936 *Feb 9, 1953Mar 13, 1956Clement S ClarkeInternal combustion engine
US2738854 *May 17, 1954Mar 20, 1956Ben B ThrowerExhaust filter
US2771736 *Mar 3, 1955Nov 27, 1956Fred E MckinleyExhaust gas purifying apparatus
US2857323 *Oct 20, 1955Oct 21, 1958Welsbach CorpMethod for ozone generation
US2876064 *Feb 2, 1954Mar 3, 1959Mine Safety Appliances CoPrevention of catalyst poisoning
US2946325 *Feb 14, 1958Jul 26, 1960Gentile FrankMuffler for use with catalysts in internal combustion engines
US2968359 *Dec 4, 1958Jan 17, 1961Cocker Machine & Foundry CompaMuffler construction
US2989144 *Dec 27, 1956Jun 20, 1961Styrie OttoMethod of and apparatus for purifying and decontaminating exhaust gases of combustion devices
US3009513 *Dec 24, 1956Nov 21, 1961Oxy Catalyst IncTreatment of waste gas streams
US3043096 *Mar 14, 1961Jul 10, 1962Nat Exhaust Purifier Co IncExhaust gas purifier and muffler
US3066755 *Apr 21, 1960Dec 4, 1962Diehl William CarlMuffler with spiral partition
US3142150 *Sep 18, 1961Jul 28, 1964Martin B PearlmanDevices for use in the treatment of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines
US3154387 *Feb 23, 1962Oct 27, 1964Nathaniel H WrightCatalytic fuel oxidizer for exhaust gas treatment
US3177650 *Nov 27, 1962Apr 13, 1965Caruso JohnDevice for reducing air pollution from internal combustion engines
US3180083 *Jun 5, 1961Apr 27, 1965Robert B HellerGas processing method and apparatus
US3188167 *Jul 12, 1961Jun 8, 1965Minerals & Chem Philipp CorpTreatment of exhaust gases
US3214907 *Apr 17, 1962Nov 2, 1965Erich MartinMulti-stage engine and method for operating the engine by combustion
US3228755 *Aug 10, 1962Jan 11, 1966Rane R LottinvilleChemical muffler for filtering exhaust
US3306034 *May 17, 1965Feb 28, 1967Clarence BoydMethod and device for exhaust gas purification
US3350878 *Mar 21, 1966Nov 7, 1967Eunice F LambertCarbon monoxide burner for automobile exhaust
US3545201 *Aug 22, 1969Dec 8, 1970Bjarne PedersenExhaust gas treatment
US3645098 *Sep 28, 1970Feb 29, 1972Gen Motors CorpExhaust emission control
US3712029 *Jun 25, 1970Jan 23, 1973J CharltonExhaust pollution control system
US3722182 *May 14, 1970Mar 27, 1973J GilbertsonAir purifying and deodorizing device for automobiles
US3788042 *Mar 16, 1972Jan 29, 1974Y YuenGas-liquid contacting apparatus
US3802191 *Sep 20, 1971Apr 9, 1974Fox RAir pollution control unit for internal combustion engines
US3831377 *Jul 24, 1972Aug 27, 1974A MorinMethod of and apparatus for reducing pollution caused by exhaust gases of an internal combustion engine
US4304096 *May 11, 1979Dec 8, 1981The Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaMethod for reducing particulates discharged by combustion means
US4316360 *Aug 22, 1979Feb 23, 1982The Regents Of The University Of Minn.Apparatus for recycling collected exhaust particles
US4338784 *Dec 11, 1980Jul 13, 1982The Regents Of The University Of Minn.Method of recycling collected exhaust particles
US4355504 *Dec 11, 1980Oct 26, 1982The Regents Of The University Of MinnesotaApparatus for reducing particles discharged by combustion means
US4587807 *Apr 18, 1983May 13, 1986Nagatoshi SuzukiApparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/278, 60/297, 60/279, 96/59, 60/275, 422/174, 60/274, 55/DIG.300, 95/58, 423/242.2, 423/213.7
International ClassificationF02G5/02
Cooperative ClassificationF02G5/02, Y02T10/166, Y10S55/30
European ClassificationF02G5/02