|Publication number||US1757288 A|
|Publication date||May 6, 1930|
|Filing date||Sep 7, 1926|
|Priority date||Sep 7, 1926|
|Publication number||US 1757288 A, US 1757288A, US-A-1757288, US1757288 A, US1757288A|
|Inventors||Bleecker Warren F|
|Original Assignee||Bleecker Warren F|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 6, 1930. w. F BLEECKER v1,757,288
SYSTEM FOR SHOOTING WELLS BY RADIO Filed Sept. 7. 1926 v12 Sheets-*Sheet E` L--f' /3/ /5/ j INVENTOR.
Patented May 6 1930 PATENT, OFFICE WARREN F. BLYEECKER, OF BOULDER, COLORADO vSYSTEM FOR SHOOTING WELLS BY RADIO Application med september 7, 1926. semi No. 133,994.
My invention relates to a system and appa.- ratus for shooting oil wells and its primary object resides in providing in combination with an explosive, a detonator and means to 5 effect the operation thereof through the medium of an electric current set up by electromagnetic waves produced in a distant sending element of wireless transmission.
An embodiment of the invention has been 10 illustrated in the accompanying drawings in4 the several views of which like parts are similarly designatedv and in which Figure l represents a sectional view of a well showing the position of a torpedo in which the detonator and its operating medium are embodied, relative to an explosive charge in the bottom of the welland a sending station of electro-magnetic waves, exteriorly of the same,
Figure 2, a sectional elevation of the torpedo adapted for use in the system, in which a receiving antenna is disposed outside the shell in which the detonator and its operating medium are enclosed,
Figure-3,21. similar viewvillustrating the construction of a torpedo having its antenna v within t-he shell or casing,
Figure 4, a diagrammatic-view of the detonator circuits of the torpedoes shown in Figures 2 and 3, y
Figure 5, a similar diagrammatic view'of a circuit of modified form and arrangement,
Figure 6, an enlarged? sectional and `partially diagrammatic view of an antenna adapted for use in a torpedo of the type illustrated in Figure 2, and
Figure 7, a section taken on the lineI 7-7 Figure 5.
Referring first to Figure 1 of the drawings,
the numeral 5` designates an oil well having a metal casing 6. A charge of high explosive is contained in the bottom portion of the well as at A7, and lowered upon the charge is a tor- I'pedo which embodies the detonator element '.which, as stated hereinbefore, is actuated by l electromagnetic waves produced in a wireless sending station located exteriorly of the 'well asindicated diagrammatically at 8.
' The sending element as shown in Figure 1, is of the spark gap type in which strong electro-magnetic impulses are produced by the passage of an electric spark across a gap 9 in an electric-circuit as a result of the excitation of a transformer 10. Included in the circuit is an aerial 12 which sends out the electro'- magnetic waves produced in the oscillatory circuit, for the purpose of exciting a current in a corresponding antenna of the torpedo as will hereinafter be described.
The sending element as described is preferred by reason of its simplicity and reliability in producing electro-magnetic waves of the required strength and frequency but it is to be understood that other arrangements may be employed, such as one in which the transmitter employs undamped waves, using an oscillating vacuum tube. The circuit of the transmitter includes as usual, a condenser 13 to give capacity to the circuit, and it may include choke coils 14 for the purpose of protecting the transformer. I
N ow referring to Figure 2 of the drawings, the torpedo comprises a carrier preferably in the form of a metal shell l5 hermetically closed at its top by a flanged plug 16 fastened by means of screws 17. A gasket 18 of resilient material is placegrbetween the edge of the shell and the'lan'ge of the plug, and the plug has'a central opening for the passage of the *wires of an electric detonating circuit within the shell to an antenna outside the same.
The antenna 19 may be composed of a loop -wound on an insulating body 2O and protected from moisture and other harmful inluences by a covering 21 made of guttapercha, paraiin or the like as shown in Figures 6 and 7. v
The body hasv a screw-nipple 22 by means of which it is fastened in the opening of the plug of the torpedo-shell and the nipple has bushings 23 of non-'conducting material for the passage of the terminal ends of the antenna loop. t Inside the shell is a tubular container 2l in which are disposed a charge of explosive as at 25, one or more caps 26 adapted to ignite the charge by the passage of an electric current, a dry battery cell 27, and a colicrer 28. The battery is the source of electricity of the detonator circuit which as best shown in Figure 4, includes a conductor 29 connecting a pole of the source of electricity with a terminal of each of the caps and having. a break in which the coherer is connected, and a conductor 30 which connects the opposite pole of the source with the other terminals of the caps. A
The circuit by which the coherer is excited through the waves transmitted to the receiving antenna 19 from the transmitter and which may be considered as being 1n operation a part of the detonator circuit, comprises two conductors 31 which connect opposite ends of the antenna with opposite ends of the coherer, and a condenser included in one of the conductors. l
The Jform of the torpedo illustrated in Figure 3 differs from that hereinabove described mainly in that the antenna is enclosed within the shell. Since the antenna is thus protected from moisture and other iniuences it requires no covering and may be made of a loop wound upon a simple support mounted in any convenient manner in the container.
l The shell v32 is made of glass or other nonconductive material, and a glass cover 33 at its upper end is held in place by tie rods 34. In case the coherer will not carry sufficientA current to complete the detonator circuit to lire the initial explosive charge of the torpedo, a relay circuit including a relay switch 36 and a battery 37 may be employed to provide a current of augmented strength as indicated in the same view.
It is to be understood, however that the relay-switch is desirable only where circumstances require the provision of an increased current flow to operate the caps which ignite the charge in the torpedo, Under ordinary conditions therelay may be omitted, since owing to the limited 4gistance between the sending station and the mouth of the well and the receivingantenna of the torpedo near the bottom of the same. no great amount of sensitiveness is required to decrease theresista-nce in the coherer when' struck by the electromagnetic waves, so as to transmit suficient current to explode the detonators. y
In the foregoing description the controlling element of the detonator circuit has been referred to as a coherer and the drawings have been correspondingly made to include an element of this particular type. Itwill be readily apparent, however, that the system is not restricted to theyuse of a coherer Isince any device having a resistance which is normally very high but greatly decreases under the influence of electro-magnetic waves, may be employed within the scope of the invention.
As an example of substitutions of the above stated character, a vacuum tube may be so connected in the circuit that the electro-magnetic vwaves from the transmitter cause an increased iow of current in the plate-circuit. Other variations in the arrangement and construction of parts both at the sending station and the receiving end of the system may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention which, broadly, consists in the ignition of an explosive charge ,by electro-magnetic waves generated at a distant point, for the main purposeot` blasting or shooting oil wells or other similar shafts sunk into the earth.
It will be evident that the system provides a means for i niting the charge in the well at any selecte( time without the use of connections such as are employed in the present systems of shooting wells by electricity, and that owing to the strength of the electromagnetic waves excited at the sending station, required for the proper ,functioning of the cooperating parts at the receiving end, the system is of necessity so insensitive as to be secure against the influence 'of waves of ordinary strength such as those produced in radio transmission.
In the operation of the system the torpedo is lowered into the well upon a main explosive charge previously v or simultaneously .placed in the bottom portion of the same.
The transmitting station at the mouth of the well is energized by excitation of the'transformer through the medium of a switch 38, for the production of electromagnetic waves which are radiated by the aerial 12 and received by the-antenna 19 of the receiving element at the bottom of the well.
The electromagnetic waves, striking the antenna circuit of the receiving device, increase the conductivity of the coherer or lother electroreceptive appliance and cause increased current to ipyv through the detonator circuit, which iigconsequence i nites the initial charge of the torpedo. The c arge thus exploded lires the main charge in the Well. V
It will be understood that where a coherer is used as the resistant element, current may constantly pass through the detonator circuit,
' which current however is insuicient to ignite the caps, until the conductivity of the coherer is increased by the electromagnetic waves generated at the sending station. In case a vacuum tube is employed, the detonator-circuit receives current only when the electro-magnetic waves from the transmitter cause an increased iiow of current through the platecircuit.
The arrangement and construction of the parts collectively referred to as a torpedo in the foregoing description may also be varied Within the scope of the invention. The caps may, for example, be outside the shell containing the circuits, in which case the initial charge can be omitted or the initial charge vmay be placed outside the shell andthe caps arranged in operative proximity to v the charge.
It is further possible that the mere production of a spark in a circuit controlled by an electroreceptive device in an antenna cir- 6 cuit niay'ignite the charge and thereby avoid the use of caps.
The terni"detonator as used, embraces any element or association of elements capable of iiri'ng an explosive charge for shooting a Well, and it includes a fuhnin'ate adapted to be ignited by electric 'or other impulse, and a priming charge adapted to be exploded by the burningr ofthe ulminate.
lf the detonator is contained in the same water tight casing as the receiving device, the priming charge must explode with suiicient violence to detonate the main explosive charge whichis outside the casing, or if the detonator is outside the casing, the fulminate must be protectedfrom moisture by suitable water-proofing means and the electrical connections between the receiving device and the detonator made by vinsulated Wires or V other electrical conductors.
The explosive, by which is understood any high explosive such `as I litro-glycerin, gelacarried by the; casing, and a loop antenna mounted in said compartment and in communication with the detonator. l
3. A device for shooting wells comprising a torpedo having a casing, a detonator cartin and the like, is ordinarily placed-0utside the casing because of its relatively large bulkl and also because the explosives at present used in shooting wells, require no protection from water, oil or other liquid.
The receiving device must 'obviously be protected froinany liquid that may be presreliable operation it should also be protected from dirt and dust or from contact with surrounding objects. For these reasons it is practical to place the receiving device in a water tight casing as herein described and shown in the drawings, and' it is in accordance with good engineering practice to'enclose the detonator in the same protective casing. .A1-l
ent in the well, and in order to yinsure its though as stated hereinbefore, this-is noty essential, it is preferred to employ the invention in this form, together with a water-proof antenna placed outside the casing.
Having thus described myA invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Pat- 1. A device for shooting wells comprising a torpedo having` a casing, a detonator carried by the casing, an antenna detachably mounted on the casing and having a water proof enclosure therefor, and means in the casing to effect operation of the detonator by electro-magnetic Waves transmitted to the antenna from a distant point of wave production.
2. A device for shooting wells comprising a torpedo having a casing, a detonato'r carried by the casing, means in the casing to `etect the operation of the detonator by electro-magnetic Waves 'transmitted from a e5 point of wave production, a compartment ried thereby and-means in the casing to eiect 70, the operation ofthe detonator by electromagnetic waves transmitted from a point of wave production, and a detachably mounted water proof compartment carried by the casing and enclosing an antenna.
In testimony whereof I have a'liixed my signature. l
WARREN F. BLEECKER.
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|US2672813 *||Apr 1, 1948||Mar 23, 1954||Hercules Powder Co Ltd||Method of firing electric detonators and circuit therefor|
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|US3834310 *||Jun 18, 1973||Sep 10, 1974||Fats Co Ltd||Remote control circuit and apparatus for exploding explosives|
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|US6075462 *||Nov 24, 1997||Jun 13, 2000||Smith; Harrison C.||Adjacent well electromagnetic telemetry system and method for use of the same|
|US6820693||Nov 28, 2001||Nov 23, 2004||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Electromagnetic telemetry actuated firing system for well perforating gun|
|US7987760 *||May 9, 2005||Aug 2, 2011||Applied Energetics, Inc||Systems and methods for igniting explosives|
|US20030098157 *||Nov 28, 2001||May 29, 2003||Hales John H.||Electromagnetic telemetry actuated firing system for well perforating gun|
|DE1074474B *||Title not available|
|U.S. Classification||102/322, 89/1.15, 200/214, 175/2|
|International Classification||F42D1/05, F42D1/00|