US 1758502 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 13, `1930. c. H. CROWELL PROCESS OF MAKING FIBER FILLED WOVEN PRODUCT original Filed may 1o, 1927 2 sheets-sheet 2` CHARLES H CROWELL am ,u M
@5% @Mom/1W Sz, MEE mm tn 03 zoom @E55 u Patented May 13, 1930 fl- JNITED STATES CHARLES H. CROWELL, OF FAIR'VILLE, PENNSYLVAENIA rnocnss or MAKING FIBER-FILLED wovEN'PRoDU'oT Application led May 10, 192'?,` Serial No. 190,328. Renewed October 19, 1929.
The invention relates to a process for making a combined web of cloth and paper and more particularly to a process for making a fiber filled woven fabric.
According to the invention a web of suitable cloth may be adhesively secured to a web of suitable paper to form a single composite web, and a secondweb of cloth may be adhesively secured to the paper to forma double composite web, the single composite web being in a damp condition when the second cloth is applied. The paper web may be split to form two single composite Webs, while the double composite web is in a damp condition.
The carrying on of the several operations while the materials 'are not fully dried, allows the process to be sped up and also promotes even and uniform splitting of 4the paper.
Furthermore, according t0 the invention the several operations may be carried on without any undesirable effects from wrinkling and without causing other imperfections in the product.
A further feature of theinvention lies in the subsequent treatment of a single or double composite web by suitable calendering rolls under suitable conditions of heat and pressure to thoroughly and intimately press the fibers of the paper into the fabric of the cloth to Various other features-'and advantages ofk the invention will be apparentfr'om the following particular description and from an inspection of the accompanying drawings.
Although the novel features which are be.
lieved to be characteristic of this invention will be pointed out with particularity in the claims appended thereto', the invention itself, as to its objectsa'nd advantages, the mode of its operation and the manner of its organization may be better understood by referring to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part thereof, in which Figs. 1 4 inclusive, represent diagrammatically the steps in combining and splitting the several webs in the improved process.
make in effect a fiber filled woven product,
Fig. Y 5 represents, diagrammatically, the steps in combining a composite web of cloth and paper to form a liber filled woven fabric.
Referring now to the drawing, in which the steps and apparatus are indicated more or less diagrammatically, and more particularly, to Fig. l, a web of suitable paper 1 has applied thereto Asuitable adhesive on one side thereof by means of suitable rolls indicated by 2. A web of light open-mesh cloth 3, such as gray goods, may be aplied to the adhesive covered surface ofthe paper vweb by passing between suitable rolls 4 to form a single composite web 5, the composite web being prefc5 erably passed through a drying room 6, to preferably partially dry the composite web, so that it is delivered in a damp condition. The composite web' 5 has then applied thereto additional adhesive on the free side of the paper, and a second web 8 of cloth is applied to this side of the paper by means of suitable rolls 9 to form a double composite web 10, this web being passed through a drying room 11 to preferably partially dry the double composite web so that it is delivered in a damp condition. The double composite web may then be passed between splitting rolls 12, and the paper may be split, as illustrated diagrama0 matically, forming composite webs 13 and 14. By using the proper weight and kind of paper, adhesive may be applied thereto, the cloth web combined therewith, and the single composite web 5 may be delivered from the 85 drying room damp, without wrinkling and without having any other imperfections.
yThe damp delivery speeds up the processing considerably, since `the composite web 5 may be passed through the drying room very quickly. Since the composite web 5 is delivered from the drying room without wrinkles the adhesive from the adhesive roll 7 may be applied and the second web of cloth 8 may be applied without causing wrinkles or other imperfections in the web. The delivery of the double composite web 10 from the drying room' in a damp condition, also speeds up the processing.
`Delivering the single composite web 5 from 100 not cause ex ansion wrinkles or other imperfections in t e composite web, when the large amount of adhesiveis applied. It has been found that a good grade of kraft paper of weight 45 pounds to the ream of 480 sheets 24 x 36 in size gives good results. This paper is particularly free from imperfections in the texture thereof, and does not wrinkle when the single composite web is delivered damp, and the second adhesive is applied to the paper web while in a damp condition.
`By using the proper weight paper, and deliv'ering t e single composite web and the double composite web damp the paper splits unequallybut readily and very evenly and uniformly, the heavier split web adhering to the cloth web first applied, while the lighter split web adheres .to the cloth web secondly ap lied.
t has been foundI that in some cases a lighter paper web may be used, as for instance, a 35 pound paper under the same conditions of processing' as above described. It has been found that this weight splits evenly and uniformly into approximately equal halves.- v
The adhesiveused maybe any of the adhesive materials used in the art, such as a paste having a iour base or a starch base, or any of the adhesive gums. If a waterproof adhesive is desired gilsonite, asphaltum or the like may be used.
Referring now Ato Fig. 2, the single composite web 14 havingthe heaver split paper web, and which may/be quite dry is passed through further adhesivev rolls 15, where ad lie'sive is applied to the exposed side of the paper. Then a third web 16 of cloth is applied to the adhesive between suitable rolls 16 and the resultant double' composite web 17 may be passed through a drying room 18 and delivered preferably damp to paper splitting rolls 19, on which the paper is split into equal webs 20 and 21, the paper splitting evenly and uniformly. Thus it will be seen that using a sufficiently heavy paper originally prevents wrinkling and other imperfections. Delivering the paper web with cloth applied to both sides damp automatically allows ready, even and uniform splitting. Furthermore, no wrinkling occurs when the third adhesive and cloth web is applied to the heavier part of the split paper because the first back-ing cloth and adhesive prevents this action.
The above process thus far provides what has beentermed, for convenience, a single composite web, that is, a cloth backing with a single layer of split paper applied thereto.
If it is desired to produce a double composite web having a paper coating on each side, fur ther rocessing is necessary.
Re erring now to Fi 3 an additional site web such as, for instance, the composite web20 or 21, which it is desired to modify into a double composite web. The double composite web 25 with the unsplit paper on one side and the split paper on the other side,
may be passed through a suitable drying apparatus, 26, from which it may be delivered damp, after which adhseive may be applied to the exposed side of the unsplit paper web, by adhesive rolls 27.
A second single composite web such as composite web 20 or 21 which it is desired to make double, is applied to the adhesive between suitable rolls 28 to form a multiple composite web 29 which may be passed through suitable drying apparatus from which it may be delivered damp. The multiple composite web 29 is then passed through splitting rolls 31 where the unsplit central web 22 is split'into a light layer forming part of the double com'- posite web 32 and a heavier layer forming part of the double composite web 33, the un- Re erring now to Fig. 4, the other double composite web 33 with the unequal la ers of split paper may be passed through adyhesive rolls 34 to apply adhesive to the heavier paper layer. Another web of cloth 35 may be applied to the adhesive by means of suitable rolls 36 and to form a multiple composite web 37, this web, if desired, being passed through suitable drying apparatus 38 from which it is preferabl delivered damp. The heavier paper we is split by means of splittin rolls 39, this websplitting equally to form a ouble composite web 40 having an equal layer of paper on each side, and a single composite web y41 having the desired layer of paper on one side.
After either a'single composite web is made or a double composite web, according to which is desired, each web having the desired thin layer of split paper, these composite webs may be further processed as follows to thoroughly'ill the cloth with thc fibers of the pa.- per. The composite web including a layer of paper and a layer of cloth which is subjected to further treatment as explained hereinafter may be produced by the process hereinbefore 'inafter explained. The mixture containing the intermediate rolls may be covered with described or by any other process'usedfor the purpose -of forming a composite web inv cluding a layer of cloth and a layer of paper.
Referring to Fig. 5, in which the further processing is shown as applied to a single composite web, the composite web may be passed between a suitable wetting roll 60 and a companion roll 5l where the paper side is saturated with wetting mixture. e
The wetting roll 60, contacting the paper side of the compositev web 50 shown as the upper roll in the drawing may be made of rubber and has the wetting mixture applied thereto. Suitable regulating means maybe i provided to regulate the amount of wetting mixture applied to the rubber roll. The regulating means may be such that an iniinitesimal amount may be appliedif desired. i
If desired, the wetting mixture may have suitable sizing, such as potato starch, and suitable waxes incorporated therewith. This arrangement makes the paper side of the composite web much more water repellent, and places the composite web in a much better condition for applying the adhesive coating which is applied later in the process, as herethe starch sizing and waxes has good penetrating qualities, especially if the mixture be applied hot.
The, composite web 50 is then passed through a supercalendering machine 52, the calenderingmacliine being indicated diagrammatically. The calendering machine may comprise a plurality of rolls between which the web is squeezed. Alternate rolls may be of cast iron which are steam heated, while paper or cloth. The composite web 50 is passed between these rolls, asshown, with the paper side facing the steam heated rolls to prevent sticking. The rate of travel of the composite web and the distance between the wetting roll 60 and the super-calender 52 is preferably such as to allow ample time in which the wetting mixture can thoroughly spread and penetrate the composite web.
By means of this calender, in which the composite web 5() is subjected to both heat adhesive and the cloth.
split paper is materially increased over thek old combined webs made by old processes which merely attain more or less a coating relation between the paper and the cloth. Each portion of the web is in Contact with the rolls continuously from 'its entry into the calender to its exit therefrom. No shrinking occurs throughout the entire process.' The process uses the paper after it has been feltcd and made into the most even and uniform product possible.
The double composite webs may be treated in the same manner as the single composite web to obtain the intimate relation between the paper and the cloth. Similarly the multiple composite webs may be treated in the `same manner, ifdesired. After the paper and cloth webs have been pressed together to form a fiber filled woven fabric, the resultant web may be furthery treated. Layers of attaching adhesive may be applied to either lone or both sides either over the'entire area orin the form of adhesive strips. Furthermore, one or both sides vmay be colored or coated with wax or other materialwhich may' be necessary to give the desired finish. The attaching adhesive is preferably applied to the more pronounced paper side of a single composite web. v' A y If colored material is desired, the cloth may be coloredor dyed before combining with the paper, and if both sides are desired to be alike, colored paper may be used.
The'fiber filled woven product according to the invention is superior to an paper coated fabric heretofore produced. e surfaces are superior for coating and as printing surfaces,
:waterproof or otherwise, such as used for the leaves in childrens books,fshade cloths, cloth bags, bale wrapping etc.` In addition, theedges cut evenly and there is no unraveling, nor is there any tendency for the edges to curl.. The final product may be in the form o f flat sheetsor in the form of bundle rolls.
Although certain novel featuresof the invention have been shown and described and are pointed out in the annexed claims, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes in the several steps of the i process and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing fiom the spirit of the invention. e
What is claimed is:
l. The process of making composite fabric.
which comprises adhesively securing a web of light-cloth to lonev side of a web of paper which will not wrinkle, allowing said webs to remain damp, adhesively securing 'a second web of light cloth to the other s'ide of said paper web while saidy paper web is damp, and splitting said paperrweb while said paper web is damp.
2. The process of making composite fabric which comprises adhesively securing a web of light cloth toone side of a web of paper, allowing said webs to remain damp, adhesively securing a second web of light cloth to the other side of said paper web, and splitting of paper,
said paper web while'said paper web is damp. 3. VThe process of making composite fabric which comprises adhesively securing a` web of light cloth 'to one side of va web vof paper sufficiently heavy'jnot to wrinkle, partially drying 'said webs, adhesively securing a second web of light clot-h vto the other side of said web of paper, partiall drying the resultant product, splitting sait paper to form a first` composite fabric having a relatively light web of paper and a second composite fabrlc having a relatively heavy web of a er, adhesively securing a third web of iig "t cloth tothe paper of said second composite fabric, partially drying the resultant product and splitting said vrelatively heavy 'web of paper. 4. The process of making composite fabric 'which comprises securing a web of light cloth to one side of a web of paper, securing a second web of light cloth to the other side of said web of paper, splitting saidpaper to form a first composite fabric having a relatively light web of paper and a second composite fabric having a relatively heavy web securing a third web of light cloth to the paper of said second composite fabric heavy web o y paper.
` light cloth 5. The process of making composite fabric which comprises adhesively securing a web of to one side of a web of paper free from 1m erfections and suiiciently heavy not to wrin (le, allowing said webs to remain damp, adhesively securing a second web of light cloth to the other side of said paper web, and unequally splitting said paper web while said paper web 1s damp, into two single composite webs having uniform coats of split paper, one coat being heavier than the other.
6. The process of making composite vfabric which comprises securing a web of light cloth to oneside of a web of paper, securing a second web of light cloth to the other side of 'said paper web, and unequally splitting said paper web into two single composite webs having uniformly even coats of split paper.
7. The 'process of making double composite fabric which comprises securing the cloth side of a single composite web to one side of a paper web, securing 'the cloth side of. a
i v second single composite web to the other side of said paper we Vunequally splitting said paer web to -form two double composite imanes fabric which 4comprises` securing the cloth side of a single composite web to one side of a my hand.
y CHARLES H. CROWELL.
hereunto set we s, one having a heavier coating of paper f kthan the other, securing a web of cloth to said heavier coating, Vand splitting said heavie coating to-y form composite webs.
8. The process of making composite fabric which comprises securing the cloth side of a composite web to one side of a paper web, securing a ycloth web ,to the other side of said paper web and splitting said paper web to form two composite webs.
9. The process of making double composite