US 1759474 A
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May 20, 1930. J. VOLQUARD'SEN 7 SPRING HINGE FOR ICE DOORS 7 Filed April 10,1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR.
LMJ. \(OLQUARDSEN Patented May 20, 1930' PAT N men LELAND J. VO QUABDSEN, OF
SAN ERANCISQO, CALIFORNIA j srmne HING Fon. ICE-BOX noons Application filed. April 10,
This invention resides 'inthe provision of an improved hingefor ice box and refrigerator doors, the hinge'being constructed to serve as a spring closing means for the door 5 and as a means for locking the doorinan air tight closed position, thereby -making the hinge serve a triple purpose and doing away with the necessity of using three separate and distinct devices, to wit: a hinge, a spring closing device, and a latch.
One of the objects of theinvention is to provide a compact, strong, durable and-efii ,cient hinge of the character described which, when the doorto which'it is attached is moved from open to nearly closed position, will forcibly swing the door from the nearly closed position into fully closed position, and hold the door in such closed position under sufiiciently heavyspring pressure to insure'the 2 maintaining of an air tight seal without the use'of separate pressure latch. I
another object of the invention is to provide a spring hinge of the characterdescribed which is provided with a novel means for con-' trolling the action of the spring in the operation of the door with which the hinge is associated. The main objection to ice box and refrigerator doors such as now generally employed is the. some manually operated latch must be manipulatedto fasten the door in closed position andmake a tight seal ofthe refrigerator or ice box. It frequently happens that these manually operated latches are either improperly manipulated or fail and prevent a' proper sealing or a proper holding of the door in closed position. These failures bring about waste of ice and of food, and are serious objections particularly in large cafes and restaurants whereextensiveand proper refrigeration is necessary. Furthermore in large ice boxes andrefrige rators the doors, in order to provide properthermalinsulation, are necessarily heavy and a great. deal of effort is required'to open and close such doors. v I
The present invention provides in a single hinge unit, for the automaticmovement of the door into closed position following a predetermined closing movement of'the door,
1928. serial No. 268,826. 7
for forcibly closing the door and forming a tight seal by spring action, and for holding the door thus closed under the strong spring tension and preventing accidental dislodgea mentof the door from itsair tight'closed position; Thus, it maybe said thatthe-de vice of my invention provides for an auto-" matic closing andfasteningof-the door thereby overcoming the objections attending the use of doors having manually operated fast ning devices. Among the advantages of the spring hinge of this'invention is the provision for counterbalancing the door whereby it may be easily operated and will be main; tained in open. position and may be used as a shelf or tray in the operation of putting food and other articles into or removing food'for other articles from the ice box or refrigerator.
Another purpose of the invention is to pro vide a hinge of the character described which may be used without change in the construction thereof in connection with doors which swing either upward into open position or downward into openposition, a change" oflocation only being necessary with regard to the installation of the hinge to make itopcrate on a downwardly opening door instead of an upwardly opening door and vice'versa;
With the above mentioned and. other obects in View, the invention consists in the novel. construction and combination of parts hereinafter described, illustrated in the ac companying ,drawinssand set forth inthe claims hereto appended. it being understood that various changes in theform. proportion. size and minor details of construction within the scope of the claims may be'resorted to without departing from the spirit or sacri ficing any of the advantages of the invention. Referring to the drawings: I Fig. 1 represents a front elevation of the hinge of myinvention as it would appear when appliedto a door of-anice box or refrigerator, the'parts being in position with the door closed, part of the door beingshown.
Fig. 2 represents a vertical sectional view taken on the-plane ofline 22 of Fig. 1;:
Fig; 3 represents. a vertical sectional view taken on the same planerasFig. 2 but showing the hinge as it would appear when the door vation of an ice box showing the hinges and v of the hinge arranged as shown in Fig. fibut' is open, part of the door being shown.
Fig. 4 represents a cross sectional viewtaken on the plane of line 1+4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 represents a fragmentary front eledoor with the latter in closed position. Fig;-6 representsa vertical sectionalview of the hinge as it would appear when used with a door adapted to swing down into closed position instead of up." r Fig. 7 represents a verticalsectionallview with the parts in position assumedwhen the door is open.
Fig. 8 representsa horizontal sectional 7 .view taken on the plane ofline 88 of Fig. 7. Fig.'9"is a fragmentary front elevation of a refrigerator showing the hinges arranged" to operate "when the doo'r-is swung upward into'closed position instead of d'ownwa'rd'as shown-injFig. 5.
The embodiment of-the invention which is shown'in the accompanying drawings .com-
rise hinge casing generally designated 1 and which isadap'ted to be secured by screws reciprocall-y'mounted in the casingl. The
' rack bar 7. has an expansion spring 8 mounted thereon with the lower end of the spring resting upon a shoulder 9 and the upper end of the-spring bearing against the under side of a guide block 10 removably held in the casingby screws 11. The upper" portion of the rackbar-slidesthrough an opening12 provided in said block. By this arrangement Withthe door hung as shown in Fig. 5', with two hinges of invention, one ateachend, when the door is swung downward from closed into open position, thepi-nionsfi engaging the teeth'6 of the rack bars 7 cause said rack bars to moye upward and compress the springs 8. These springs operate as will be latermore fully described, to effectthe closing of the door and'a holding of the door in closed position so as to 'form an air tight seal. 'The door is counterbalanced by the springs 8 and the closing force of the springs does'not become. effective until the door has been moved into a position near the vertical.
Thus thedoor will remain at any point between. a predetermined nearly closed posi tion and a-fullyfopen position andbeing counterbalanced can be operated easily. p
I provide a means which will assist in counterbalancing' the door and also bring about a-forceful quick closing movement and flanges.
a securing of the door in closed position against unintentional opening movement.
Thismeans is adjusted so that it may be regulated to suit the conditions'at hand and to vary the closing and locking operations- This means is in the nature of a spring 'urged detent, which may be ar-f as i desired.
ranged to setup sufficient friction toas'sist V in counterbalancing the force of the door. This spring urged detent means inbeing urged into detenting position brings about a quick, forceful closing of the door and then serves as a forceful andstrong yielding latch which holds the dooragainst being moved out of properly closed position unintentionally. but will readily yield when the door is grasped and pulled open; In detail this means in the present embodiment comprises a pivoted member generally designated 13:
carrying a detent member 14 inthe form of a roller, which roller rides upon one side of the rack bar7. A spr1ng15 urges this memher and roller into engagement withthe rackbar. A depression or notch'16 is providedin the rack bar for reception of the'roller 14. The member-'13 comprises an inverted L- shaped piece 17 pivoted between its ends as atlS withinthe casing 1." Attached to one side of the verticalleg of the piece 17 is an elongated plate 19 secured in placeby means of a screw 20 which passes through an elongated slot 21 in the plate and into the piece 17. On the upper'end of the plate 19 is a lateral projection 22 which is engaged bythe lower end of an adjusting screw '23 carried by the piece 17. The plate 19 is provided with flanges 24 along its opposite edges and the roller 14 is journaled between these extend on opposite sides of the rack. bar through enlarged openings 26 in the'lower end of'the plate 19 and are provided with screw threaded outer terminals uponfwhich nuts 28 are mounted. The springs 15 are mounted on the rods 25 between the nuts 28 and the outer side of. the'plate 19 and force Rods 25 carried by the casing 1 the plate towards therack bar so as to yieldingly hold the roller in engagement with said rack bar. The tensionof these springs Q may be regulated by the nut 28. The plate 19 may be vertically adjusted by loosening thescrew '20 and manipulating the screw 23, r
the enlarged openings 21 and 26 permitting movement ofthe plate relativeto the screw 20 and rods 25. 7 By these adjustments the. timingv of the closingandfastening operations may be varied as desired. To limitthe downward movement of the doorto the hori l zontal, a stop member 30 is provided on the. p
casing l .in position to be engaged by the upper end of the rack bar'7. I 7
"With the hinge arranged as shown in Figs.
1 to Binclusive, a second depression or notch 31 provided in the member 7 is sealed with suitable material such as Babbitt metal in- 'narily the case.
dicatediat 32 so as to provide a smooth face. .This Babbitt'metalis removed in theinstance of another use oflthe hinge aswill be later morefully described. However, if desired the depressions 31 may be left open as is the depression 16 and in this event the door will be securely' held in down or ope-n position.
' T In the operation .of-the hinge of my invention arranged as shown in Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive, assuming that the door is closed and the hinge parts are in the position shown'in Figs-1 and 2, when the door is pulled clownward, the pinion and rack bar 5 and 7 oper-.
ate to pushthe rack bar up and compress the spring 8. Thus the opening of the door is offected against the action of the springs of the 1 two hinges and the heavy doors will be coun terbalanced so that they may be easily and effectively opened without slamming. But a slight pull is necessary to start the door, it being necessary to disengage the roller '14: from the notch 16 in the starting operation. The roller 14.- being spring urgedagainst t as member 7 sets up friction and thereby assists in counterbalancing the door. When the door is to be closed it is swung upward and.
this movement is assisted by the springs 8 of the hinges. Icebox and refrigerator doors are usually exceptionally heavy and the provision for counterbalancingthe doors by the hinges of this invention makes for an easier and better operation of the door than is ordi- VVhen the door reaches a point near the vertical, on being closed, the force of the spring is greater than the weight of the door and the door is quicklymove d by said springs into closing position, the rollers 14 then extending into the'notches- 16. The springs 15 pressing theserollers 'l against the curved surfaces of'the notches 16 provide a cam action which aids the springs 8 in effecting the closing movement, thus giving a quick closing action, inasmuch as this cam action tends to move the rack bar 7 downwardly. With the rollers extending into the notches 16 as shown in Fig. 2, the door is effectively held'in closed position under spring pressure and will therefore be secured against unintentional opening movement.
This closing'pressure may be varied to some extent by adjusting the plate 19 carrying the roller to cause the rollerto extend a greater or,
less extent into the notch as desired. Inthis waythe door is automatically fastened in closedposition and'the fastening means also assists in the closing movement due" to the leverage force imparted by said locking ,means when the rollers le'thereof extend into the notches 16. I a
*Referring 'to*Figs.6 to 9 inclusive, the hinges are arranged to provide for hanging the door from the upperside so that the door is opened by being swung upwardly and closed upon beingswungdownwardly. This arrangement is usually necessary where the compartment for which the door is used is disposed above normal shoulder height in ice boxes and refrigerators. The hingesare placed at the upper edge of the door as shown in Fig. 9 and operate in substantially. the same manner as previously described. Fig. 6 shows the door in closed position. but the hingeparts are at this time in the position which they assume when the door is hung andis inthe position as shown in Fig. 3 withthe rollers 14 engaged in'the lowermost notches 31. In hanging the door the hinges and door are set up so that the springs 8 are under maximum compression when the door is closer (see Fig. 6). To open the door, it is swung upward and the pinions 5 move the rack bar 7 downward This movement of the rack bars is assisted by the compressed springs 8 and these springs therefore through the rackbars and pinions tend to lift the doors during the opening thereof. In this .way the 7 usually heavy doors may be easily lifted due to the assistance given by the springs 8'. It" 18 only necessary to exert a quick forcefulpull on the door to start the opening movement, this pull being necessary to move the rollers is out of the notches 31 which normally function to hold the door-in closed position,
When the door has been moved into nearly horizontal position, the rollers again engage in theno'tches 16 and therebyv hold and fasten the door in open position and against accidental dislodgment from said position. To close the door it is given a quick: forceful pull to disengage the rollers ltfrom the notches 16 and the closing movement is 'ef-= fected against the action of. the springs 8 which are compressed during such movement.
In this way heavyd'oors may beeasilylet down into closed position without slamming. The springs 8 assist inholdmg the door open andassist in closing it also. The rollers 14 riding on the rack bars 7 during the closing movement and being under strong spring pressure assist in counterbalanoing tlie door, and whenthe door moves to a nearly vertical position, the rollers will snap into the notches 31 and thereby quickly and forciblymove the door into final closedposition'. The spring force of the rollers acts as a leverage to push the rack bars 7 upward and the fastening means thereby assists in effectingthe inal 1. A hinge of the character described I cally accelerate the closing of the door when prising a housing, a bar reciprocally supported'upon the housing, means associated with'the housing and door and adapted for connection with the door, which means when the door with which it is connected ismoved into open and closed positions will reciprocate said bar, a spring associated with said housing and bar, which spring acts as a counterbalance 'forthe'door, anda spring urged ,detent means operating to automatithe door-is i nYnearly closed position and to .hold the door. in closed "position against unintentional opening movement.
- 1 2Q A hinge of the character described'comprlsmg a casing, means associated with the casing and upon which a door maybe hung, which means moves when the door is moved,
a-memb'er on the casing associated "with the door and'moved by'said means, an expansion spring RSSOCIELtGd with said member, which spring-expands on movement of-said member 1y, holds the movable 'member in a position in one direction and is compressed on movement of said member in the otherdirection and a spring urged means which. when the door is nearly closed accelerates the closing thereof and when the door is closed yieldingbetween, said member and said pin provid-' ingfor movement vof the member on rotation T of the pin, an expansion spring tending to .7
move said member in onedirection and which expands on one movement of said member and contracts on the othermo'vement of said member, and means which when the door is near to-a predeterminedposition will engage said movable member so as to accelerate its movement toward said position and to yielding'ly hold said member in position to maintain the door in said predetermined position against unintentionalmovement out ofsaid 5Q position. 7
4'. A hingecomprisinga casing, a hinge pin revolvably connected with the casing and adapted to have a door fixed thereto, a bar slidable in the, casing and having a notch therein, a meansof connection between. the bar and pin providing for movement of the bar on rotation of the pin, an expansion spring associated with the casing and bar and arranged to expand on movement of the barin one direction and to be compressed on movement of the bar in the other direction; a detent'member engaged with said bar and "adapted 'to extend into; said notch on movement of said bar into a predetermined posii n; andspri gm an yieldingly holding said detent in engagement with the ban said detent member and said notch-being adapted tocoact for accelerating the movementiof said V bar when thebar is nearing-the said prede; H
v. V n
5. A hinge comprislng a casing, 'ahinge pin revolvably connected with the, casing and adapted to have a doorfixed thereto, a bar] A slidablein the Icasingfand having a' notoh therein, a. means of connection between-the bar andpin providing for movementof the bar on rotation of the pin, anexpansion spring associated with the casing and-bar and arranged to expand on movement ,of
the bar in onedirection and 'to be compressed on movement of the bar. in the other directiom a memberpivotally-mounted in the casing,
a roller carried by said member and engag-.
with the bar, which'roller is adapted to extend into said notch on movementofthe bar to bring the notch opposite the roller; and spring means yieldingly holding said roller in engagement with said bar, so as to cause said roller to accelerate the movement of the bar when the notch is moved toward and into partial engagement with'the roller.
6. A hinge comprisingacasing, a hinge" pin revolvably mounted upon the casingand adapted to have a door attached thereto, a
rack bar slidably mounted npon the casing, a pinion carried by said pin and engaging the teeth of the rack bar, said rack bar having a notch therein, a shoulder on said rack bar, a'helical expansionspring mounted upon the rack bar with one end engaging said shoulder, amember -mounted on the casing and withwhich the other end of the spring engages, a member pivoted-within the casing, a roller carrledby said member and 'contacting with said rack bar, which roller is adapt ed to extend into the notch of the rackbarw; and spring means yieldingly holding said pivoted member in position to maintain the roller in yielding engagement with said rack bar, said member being adjustable to vary the leverage of the roller action upon the bar, .7. A hinge comprising a casing, a hinge-pin revolvably mounted upon the casing-and f 7 adapted to have a door attachedthereto, a rack bar slidably mounted upon the casing,
teeth of the rack bar, said rack bar having a notch therein, a shoulder on said rack bar, a
helical expansion spring'mounted upon the rack bar with'one end engaging said shoulder,
51.. 5 a pinion carried bysaid pin and engaging the, i
a member mounted onthe casing and with which the other end ofthe spring engages,a[
member pivoted within the casing, a O1: er-
carried by said member and'contactingwith; I 12 5 said rack bar, which roller is adapted' toyextend into the notch of the rack bar seas-to act at times as a movement acc'eleratingmechanism, spring meansyieldingly holding said pivoted member in position tomaintainthe roller in yielding engagement with saidrack bar and means for adjusting the roller supportlng member to vary the position of the roller.
U 8. In a hinge ahinge casing, a horizontally disposed hinge pin rotatably connected with the casing and adapted to have a door hung thereon, bar slidably mounted within the casing, an expansion spring associated with the casing and bar, means of connection be tween the bar and pin providing for movement or" the bar on rotation of the pin, the
- tally disposed hingepin rotatably connected with the casing and adapted to have adoor hung thereon, a bar slidably mounted within the casing, an GXPELRSlOIl' spring associated with the casing and bar, means of connection between the bar and pin providing for movement of the bar on rotation of the pin, the spring compressing on movement of the bar in one direction and expanding on movement of the bar in the other direction and acting to counterbalance the Weight of the door at tachecl to the hinge pin, and a spring urged detent adapted to yieldingly engage the bar when the bar is in door closing position, said bar and detent having co-acting faces which when engaged cause the bar to be urged in a direction which will maintain the door closed.
10. A hinge comprising a hinge casing, a rack bar slidably mounted upon the casing, a horizontalhinge pin rotatable upon the easing and adapted to have'a door connected therewith, a pinion fixed to the hinge pin and engaging the teeth of the rack bar, an expansion sprlng associated with the casing and rack bar and arranged to compress on movement of the rack bar in one direction and to expand on movement of the rack bar in the other direction, said rack bar having a notch therein, a member pivotedv on the casing, a plate adjustably supported on said member, a detent roller carried by the plate and engaging said rack bar, which roller is adapted to extend into the notch on movement of the bar to a predetermined position, and to coact with said notch for accelerating the bar movement near to said position, means providing for adjustment of said plate to vary the position of the roller, and spring means yieldingly holding the roller in engagement with said rack bar.
11. A hinge comprising a hinge casing, a rack bar slidably mounted upon the casing,
' a hinge pin rotatable upon the casing and adapted to have a door connected therewith, pinion fixed to the hinge pm. and engaging the teeth of the rack bar, an expansion spring associated with: the casing and rack bar and arranged to compress on. movement of the rack bar in one direction 'and'tol expandon movement of the rack bar in the other direction, said rack bar having a notch therein,
a member pivoted on the casing, a plate adj ustably supported on said'member, a detent rollercarried by the plate and engaging said rack bar, which roller isadapted to extend intothe notch on movem'ent of the bar to a predetermined position, means providing 'for adjustment of said plate to vary the position ofthe roller, spring means yieldingly holding the roller in engagement with said rack ba'r, said spring means comprising rods fastened to the casing, said plate having openings tierein throughwhich the rods loosely ex-s tend, adjustable members on the outer terminals of the rods and expansion springs mounted on-the rods with their terminals engaged with said plate and said adjustable members. 3
12. The combination with a door and a mounting therefor, of hinges connectlng said door with said mounting, each of said hinges comprising a'slide bar, means of connection between the door and said slide member pro viding for movement of the slide member In one direction on opening of the door and in the other direction on closing of the-door,
spring means associated with said slide memher and against the action of which said slide member moved 1n one direction and means for yleldingly holding said slide member against movement incident to closing of the door,-
which means releases the door incident to intentional movement of the door on being opened, and which accelerates the closing movement of the door in a nearly closed position thereof.
13. The combination with a door and a supthe door, spring means associated with said bar and compressing on one movement and expanding on the other movement of the door,
which spring means counterbalances the weight of the door, and means operating automatically when the door is moved into nearly closed position for quickly and forcibly closing the door and maintaining the door in closed position under spring pressure, which means includes a spring urged detent yieldingly engaged with the bar and a portion on the bar with which said detent engages so as r to hold the bar against unintentional move- B r p l i 1359, 174
V 'olud e hinge pins disposed in ahorizontal plane whereby the door is *inoviible up and cloning -each hinge'also including at spring 'ineans operativelyoonnected With the mount- 7 ing and the door and which eounterbalances the door and assists in maintaining the door closed under spring pressure, which spring means is automatically brought into play upon manipulation ofthe door, and a spring i rgeddetent means operating to hold the spring meansfag ainst unintentional move- I Jnent out of a position maintaining the door oloseitand to accelerate the closing movement I o f the door near to its closed position. p 1 LELAND J VOLQUARDSEN.
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