US 1761660 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 3, 1930. F. D. CUMWNGS 1,761,660
- l BUILDING CONSTRUCTION (QUAKEPROOF BUILDING) I Filed Oct. 16, 1928 2 Sheets-Sh et l Patented .inne o, 193@ rrnerr FRANK n. oUMMrNGs, on Los ANGELns, cALrFoRNrA Y BUILDING `ooNsrnnccrroN (erinnern-oor BUILDING) Application filed October 16, 1.928. Serial N.' 312,849.
This invention relates to improvementsin building construction, (quake proof building).
More especially it provides for the embodiment ofimproved quake-absorbing elements, for reducing materially the dislocating effects of earthquakes and the like upon buildings and other structures, with result,-
ing damage to persons and property.
In my co-pending application for patent Serial No. 247,607, I vhave disclosed and claimed means to this end, which, by` a sort of flexible earth-connection to a large degree prevents the oscillations of the earth containing a 'multiplicity of'rollers.
from being communicated to the structure and its contents. The present-invention embodies improvements in the quake-absorbingv elements, andthe disclosure herein isV of a species different from the species claimed in the said application. Y
The invention relates in Y general to the mounting of the superstructure of the building, or of the other engineering work which is to be protected, asi-for instance an aque-` duct or a bridge, ona foundation cleavqage e lines of contactbetween rollers and structure afford atotal supporting area which is vastly greater'than where the rolling ele-` ments are balls, as heretofore proposed, and, as compared with ball supports, this correspondingly reduces the intensity Vof the crushing forces to which the rolling elements are subject, when in action, and when at rest. This in turn reduces the deformation of each rolling element, resulting from its compression, andV increases the Vfacility with which all of them start into action when oecasion arises. These Vdistinctions'become of especial importance where buildings of Vsubstantial weights and heights are to be pro-1 v tected; In the said co-pending application the species illustrated and claimed includes two cleavages, the onehaving rollers extending at right angles tothe rollers in the other: and with Vthe embodying of a cam in each rolling element, so that, with lateralr amplitude of quake, the cam introduces alifting of thestructure, and gravity tends to re turn the strueturetooriginal position.
In the species herein set forth the rollers may be cylindrical. A cam isV embodied in one orboth of the surfaces against which a roller contacts. Practical problems of building such axshiftable combination into a wall accurately and economically are met by providingfor bearing plates which can be veasily laid by those skilled in the .con-
Arnr 'Prien Y struction of masonry or concrete, and which become respectively rigid with the foundation or the superstructure, and which provide the desired cam lifting effect by co-acting with the rollers when anV earthquake occurs. Several ways are illustrated herein.
The bearing plates may have, on their backs, `lugs'or projections for more rigid inbuilding with the foundation or with the superstructure. Theirv respective faces, which .constitute walls of the cleavages containing the rollers, may be corrugated in a valleys whose lrising slopes constitute the cams. Varieties of these are described herein with their advantages. It is intended Athat thepatent shallV cover by suitable eX- pression in the appended claims whatever of 7 Figure 4 is an elevation,in section on i-4. of Figure 2; i Figure 5 is an elevation, in section on 5 5 nf Figure-2; 4 Y Figure 6: is aY diagrammatic.showing of positions Vwhich may be assumed vby'rollers andA tlieireiigaging elements Vwhen a shock occurs; andvv Y Figures Z-l() are Ders ae'ctive of alternative e l l arrangements-of the camsurfaoes.
on the lower cleavage plane, indicated at 8-3;
Referring to the drawings, and especially to the form of the invention illustrated in Figures 1-5, the building` foundation 10 and its superstructure 3Q are represented as being held apart by rollers 15 and 25, with median plate 20 between the rollers. The rollers 25 are arrangedL in a cleavage which extends under the superstructure at the level 2 2, above the median plate 20; and the rollers 15 are in another cleavage at the level 33, below the median plate 20. These clear-ages are horizontal and parallel. As represented, the Whole of each cleavage is in a single horizontal Zone, but the Whole extent of a cleavage is not necessarily so. The median plate 20, which is separated by the cleavages from both foundation and superstructure, rests on the tops of the rollers 15 of the lower set, and supports the rollers 25 of the higher set. The cam surfaces are arranged so that each roller hears against at least one cam. surface, which may be below it or above it; and there may be such surfaces bearing upon it both below and above, as in Figure 10. These cam surfaces are in the nature of shallow valleys with intervening rounded ridges, Figures 4t, 9. VIn the middle of each of these valleys a roller rests; or the valleys may be inverted over the rollers, Figures 5, S. Preferably the median plate 20 will be of metal, and usually madev of sections, of convenient length, (short` like building blocks; or long. like stringers) arranged in succession along the foundation. It will haveits surfaces, either both plane; or both furroived With valleys; or one surface plane and one surface furroWed; as ma7 be elected by the designer. rlhe furrovvs in the same cleavage are all parallel to each other; and these all run at right angles to those in the'other cleavage. Preferably the rolling surface is made With out any sharp peakat its highest point. Then if an earth movement is of such amplitude as makes the rollers run over the crest, the smoothness of the curve will facilitate the rollers being` brought back totheir original position by the return oscillation ofthe earth.,
lith the form of plate 20 seen in Figures 1-5 the roller-engaging surfaces of both foundation plate 1l and superstructure plate 31 may be plane. rThis simplifies the construction of the foundation and superstructure. All of the cam surfaces Will then be provided on the median plate 20, being seen at 21 on its under surface and at 23 on its upper surface. The cams can thus be prepared in advance with as great precision as may be desired, by the making of this one plate, which can be made by casting, forging, machining, or Whatever desired method of manufacture and of linish, may be most easy, goed and economical. And the top face of the foundation 10 may be a steel plate 1l comprising a standard steel shape which needs only to be laid truly horizontal by the mason or other craftsman. Then, if the rollers and plates 15, 20. 25 and '31 have been accurately made, it is only necessary to lay them loosely in their proper places and then to proceed With the superstructure. Standard steel shapes can also be utilized for the under plate 31 of the superstructure 30.
But, as seen in Figure 7, if it be desired, the roller-engaging under surface of the superstructure may be a plate 32 having the cams; and similarly the roller-contacting face of the foundation may be a plate 12 having the cams, in Which case the median plate 22 might be plane both on upper and lower faces as in Figure 7. Or, if desired, th,n cam valleys may all be inverted as in Figure 8, being formed in a median plate 23 and in a superstructure plate 32', or both may be concave upward, as in Figure 9, in the plates 24 and 13; or the cam valleys may be duplicated for each roller. one with hollow up and the other inverted with hollow down, as in Figure l0. ln this last case the rise of the cam need be only one half aA nat, on each member. for the getting of a desired lift. Vslhero both are concave downward there is less of a pocket underneath for the gathering of dirt or foreign matter. that might obstruct the operation.
The respective plates 11, 20 and 3l may either be in' long` lengths, as beams. or bc comliositc. in short lengths, comparable to building. blocks, of masonry or other sort. it being a matter of choice Whetherv to lay the plates 11 and 2() and 3l in long units or in short units. These may have flanges to house the rollers cndv-.fise^ examples being seen at 27. They may have flanges to grasp securely the top of foundation and bottom of superstructure, as at 17 and 37. And, especially if the plate be in small units.l there may be projections 18 (Fig. 4) from the plate into the adjacent concrete or masonry, of foundation or of superstructurc. in order the more firmly to lock the surface plate in rigid relation with the foundation or superstructure of which it is a portion. The plate 31 may constitute a sill for the superstructure, if this plate be a long unit; and masonry blocks may be laid on it as in Figures l and Or, if it be in short sections. a long sill may be laid over the sections, in which case the part 89 in Figure ei might represent a cross sectionof such a sill of Wood, upon which construction could proceed.
The drawing represents in Figure l a foundation 10 of poured concrete, and a superstructure 30 of concrete blocks, laid as masonry on a long steel flanged plate 3l which constitutes the sill. The plates 1l and 20, on the contrary, are represented. as
and the sections of platell have another;-
but for the structure shown in Figure 9 the sections of foundation plate 13 and of median'plate 24. may be identicall in shape; and if square may be laid in succession all around. the'structure, regardless of cornersV and changes in direction of the course of the wall. positioned close to each edge of the wall of the building as those at right and left sides in Figure l; and to have'one or more between them. This makes a. broad bearing base for supporting whatever is above.
A structure thus embodyingl tlie'invention.
is largely unresponsive to horizontal forces whose natural tendency would be to dislocate or demolish it. The foundation can yield to and fro horizontally in any direction, moving upon eachset of rollers simultaneously whatever distance is needed so that, by the combination of both, the foundation moves away from the superstructure in any direction with the qua-king of the earth, while the superstructure will be lifted and lowered slightly as the rollers le ride up and down their respective cams; and if the quake leaves the foundationpermanently displaced laterally from its origina-l lo'- cation, the superstructure automatically will move to where the foundation is, by gravity, with the rollers running back to the depths of the valleys. v v
As each of the cam surfaces is inthe nature of a groove, or valley, the rigidly paral-v lel walls thereof maintain the parallelism of all the rollers in a particular cleavage. If the rollers are cylindrical, all willcome to rest in the middlesf the valleysV with their tops vat uniform height. Thus'the rollers will tend to arrange themselves in proper operative positions, and will be retained in such positions; and normally-gravity willV hold them at rest, ever ready to provide for the desired yielding of foundation in any direction at time of earthrpialreV hazard.
The abilityof the *devicev toV respond to oscillations in any horizontal direction is due to the angularV relation between the two 'directions in which rolling movements can occur and can combine to produce the Vdesired resultant movement. Thisresultant is attained most easily andsimply when Vthe said relation is rectangular, which is lthe arrangementlikely to bemost used in practice. Hence rectangularityfis the relation between valleys and between rollingrmove vments in the different zones indicated in the ln any case itis well to have aroller claims; but it will be understood that thisA is only an approximate term.
I claim as my invention:
l. A device for protecting a structure against earthquakes, comprising the provision of two horizontalfoundation cleavages in the structure;` rolling elements in eachV of said cleavages for supporting the ,load imposed by the superstructure, thexelements in one cleavage having contacts with the corresponding cleavage surfaces extending perpendicularly to like contacts in the other cleavage, whereby all together permit a resultant rolling movement between sub-structure and superstructure with horizontal component in any direction; and cams in said cleavages co-acting with said rolling elements to provide a relatively. slight verti lcal component of movement of the super structure simultaneously with its said rolling. Y f
2. A- structure having earthquake protection comprising two horizontal foundation cleavages; plates lining they cleavagel surfaces, one of said Vplates being provided with parallel valleys, constituting cam surfaces, extending perpendicularly to likevalleysin another plate; and bearing rollers in the valleys for lifting the superstructure upon movement of the foundation in any horizontall direction, said rollers having line contactsV with said plates and serving at all times to ysupport the load imposed by the superstructure.
3. An earthquake protection for a structure, comprising two sets of cylindricwl load-supporting rollers arranged in (liderent horizontal zones at the foundation of the structure; and a plate, located between the two sets of cylindrical rollers, forming part of the structure Vand having its upper and under surfaces respectively in contact with the rollers of the two. sets; and cam surfaces for engaging the rollers in line contact. Y 4 Y f 4. The combination, with a structure, of earthquake .protection comprising loadsupporting layers ofelongated rollers. there being elongated shallow valleys occupied by the individual rollers betwe n the earth and the superstructure which is to be protected.
5. An earthquake,protection for ture, comprising two sets of cylindrical loadsupporting rollers` in different horizontal zones,and shallow valleys torn ed in the structure, wherein the rollers lie,utliose.in one set being perpendicular to those in the other set.. l v
6. An earthquake protection for a'structure, comprising two sets of cylindrical loadsupporting rollers in different horizontal Zones and a plate there between having shallow valleys formed in its upper surface andV similar valleys, inverted and running at right angles thereto in the lower surface, in
which valleys said load-supporting rollers are received.
7. An earthquake protection for a structure having walls, comprising two sets of cylindrical load-supporting rollers in said walls in dilerent horizontal zones, and, associated therewith, and plates, having cam valleys which the rollers occupy said plates being made up of a succession ofV unit-sections which individually have length approximately equalling the width of wall.
8. An earthquake protection for a structure having` walls, comprisingtwo sets of cylindrical load-supporting rollers in said walls in different horizontal Zones, and, associated therewith, and plates having cani valleys which the rollers occupy, said plates being made up of unit-sections each of which individually is approximately as long and as wide as the width of the wall and each of which has valleys positioned in it near its opposite edges, those on one side of the platesection being perpendicular to Jthose on the other.
9. A structure having two horizontal foundation cleavages with load-supporting rollers at each cleavage, all rollers in the same cleavage being parallel and being at a substantial angle to those in the other cleavage.
l0. A structure having two horizontal foundation cleavages with load-supporting rollers at each cleavage, all rollers in the saine cleavage being parallel and being at a substantial angle to those in the other cleavage, said rollers having cani surfaces associated therewith whereby the superstructure is raised by their rolling.
11. A structure having cleavage space eX- tending horizontally between its foundation and superstructure, and, associated with said cleavage space, load-supporting rollers carrying the weight of the superstructure and arranged in two superimposed zones, the rollers in one zone being arranged to roll in one horizontal direction and those in the other zone to roll in a different horizontal direction.
l2. A structure having a plurality of horizontal cleavages between foundation and superstructure, and, at each cleavage, loadsupporting elements arranged for horizontal movement of the superstructure thereon, each said load-supporting element having line contact with the surfaces of its cleavage and extending angularly with respect to the load-supporting elements of an adjacent cleavage.
Signed at Los Angeles, Calif., this ninth day of October, 1928.
FRANK D. CUMMINGS.
CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION.
Patent No. 1,761,660. Granted June 3, 1930, to
FRANK D. CUMMINGS.
it is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above nnmbere patent requiring correction as follows: Page 3, line 104, claim 3, and page 4, lines 7 and 16, claims 7 and 8, respectively, strike out the word anrl"; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Oflice.
Signed and sealed this 22nd day of July, A. D. 1930.
Wm. A. Kinnan, (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents.