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Publication numberUS1764441 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 17, 1930
Filing dateJul 28, 1925
Priority dateAug 4, 1924
Publication numberUS 1764441 A, US 1764441A, US-A-1764441, US1764441 A, US1764441A
InventorsWalter Hahnemann
Original AssigneeWalter Hahnemann
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Arrangement for directional transmission and reception by means of electric waves
US 1764441 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


RECEPTION BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC WAVES Fililid y 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet l June 17, 1930. w. HAHNEMANN 1,764,441 ARRANGEMENT FOR DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC WAVES Filed-July 28, 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 o o v *June17, 1930, W AHNEMANN 1,764,441

ARRANGEMENT FOR DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION BY- MEANS OF ELECTRIC WAVES V Filed July 28, 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 June 17;!930. w. HAHNEMANN 1,764,441 ARRANGEMENT FOR DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC WAVES Filed July 28, 1925 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 dowowouon NQNQHOHQHONQHONOHVN fax ' WALT-ER iiAIiivni/iAnn or;iritrznnnnsgnnnni r The inventionrelatesto a nethod for di- Jun e- 11 7, i930 Iron nrnncrronnn TRANS n'LEc'riiro WAVES Application filed .iui jas, 1e25, seriaiivotaasee, and in Germany .4;". 9 4 s rectional' transmission and reception; by

from one another,

i ie'ans'of electric waves which is carried out A vvitlr several transmitting or receivingan'-I 5f tennae' arranged at a predetermined distance preferably in a straight line. a

I g I "The object of the invention is to obtain as p I sharp as possible a directional e'fiect by a plu-' 10 ra'lit'y oftransiiiitting or receiving antennae located at definite distances apart from one" a 1 another given by theory; 7 i r 5 ,tlieqsame?distai celi .Furthermore,- inthese screen made ofzwire is used.

J t y In contradistinctionto and as an f anent over these prior art devices, I have found that when the; number of antennae which serve as transmitting and. receiving antennae proper, is increased, the distance of i these antenna from eachother must be made dependent upon the-"number ofthe antennae insed in order to obtain an optimum direci ll i teniiae are arranged at certain distances from v -'eachI 0t-her; In -these prior art arrangements eitherfthe nuniberoftheg-antennaeused is too small for i istancefonlyfi) in order t'oipro- 2 ducea welldefineddirectional efl ect, or else the distances'between theiantennae proposed w "as; advantageous are incorrect-in fact, in so 'faiilas these prior art arrangementspropose feradiiiernt numbers ofQantennzeused always z prior'artdevices the directional effect is not ;variable,' in such; arrangements, for'instance,

" jin Which/only a transmitting'and receiving j antenna proper is usedand inwhich for pro-' jodu'c iig,v the CllIQCtlOIlLl; efi'ect a stationary 'ti'onal eifect, this variable distance (Z between ,rth'eantennae followingtlielawz a V r-1 ivvherein in idenotesithe number of antennae, athegwave length of the signals transmitted or'received. I Y

The method according to the invention con- 7 sists in using more than two or three, in other ords-a multiplicity OfitllllSiIllttlIlgiOI re- Directional antennaaritangeinents have V ,5 ,been used heretofore for ireless telegraphy 15 in yvl iclreitherjoi e antenna or several an-v improve- Miss-Ion AND nncErrioiv: eenage s-7 0a").. i

ceiving: antennae which are" arranged v prefer;

order ofinagi itude berof antennaef r c I v For the generaljforimila" 1' in seaa eaewaaa a aha. m

tha "Shows; ma thisformuIas11ou1d 1 notbefmiich difierentlfromgn il if the re} quirement or as; sharp as possible directions f al eiiectjof the arrangementfis to be; obtained; If it; is greaterjth'anfn-;l, that'is'itoj say,- if

is approximately equal to' or even greater than n; then fthe auxiliary niaxiina arising may become predominant, the directional aotion thereby suffers; if the spacing apart with reference to a is too "small, thatis to. saygif 7a is smaller than W{1,' the directionaleifect' is lo-st ovving-to the individual transmitting-or receiving pointsbeingi locatedlrvvithin too a small a range inrelationto the wavelength, The'above Willbereadily understood-fron the Figuresl to 5 of the drawingfilnthese' I vectors forfantennae arrangements are given for different values of and gThe' vvector represents the amplitudes, ithejenergy' is; therefore proportional tofthe-square of these f vectors. lThe dotted straight line a 6 indi-Q cates theline on which are mounted. qt

Wavesorin pulses in the antennae and jiIi-proby means of time lag circuits inserted between figures the gcurvesiffor the'flplane directional I 'ducingthe same directional effect in receiv j ingelectrical waves in the {observers' station Z H79 the difierent' antennae andthe sourcefofelecr' ff f trical energy or the observers station.""" Instead of makingnse-of ti ne lag Lcircuitsthe I same efifect mayhe -obtainedbyproducing the 'properfrelation of phasei of theifeedingcun 100 25 the di-fierent antennae rentfor theparticular antennae in'the source of the current itself.

'Another feature of the inventionconsists in shadowing away or reflecting and making use of one of the two rays of waves emitted by an arrangement according to the invention, or by a similar directional arrangement.

The particularfeatures of the invention and some diagrams elucidating some theoreti-v cal points are shown in-the drawings WlllClL represents in s Figs. *1-5 different diagrams showing up the influence of the number of antennae and Figs. 12 andl? combinations of screensand antennae. p 7

, In Figure l, the case-is shown of two antennae in the optimum. case of lc= n-l=-1. Thedirectional action isstillflquite weak.-

In Figure2, a case of the invention is given where n=3, k nf i=2, The directional effeet is already much better than in Figure 1. Laterally to the direction of the main action, an auxiliary maximum of slight intensity occurs (about one tenth the energy of the main direction). v r V I v In Figure 3, n=3 and 70 3, that is chosen too large. Clearly the one auxiliary maximum has swollen to the value of the main maximum. The directional effect-is therefore spoiled. V y

In Figure 4, n=3 and 70 1, that is chosen too small. 7 The good directional action has been lost, the curve does not differ from Figure 1,which is the arrangement with two antennae. a V i In order to show Whatinfluence the increase in the numberof antennae has, Figure 5 is given- Here the number n ofthe antennae is 5 and according to the invention k=n1 is chosen as at. It is seen how much with five antennae compared withthree antennae (Figure 2) the sharpness of the'directional action has been increased. It shows inthis case that a compromise will be possible according to the prevailing practical conditions between the number of antennae and the sharpness of direction. 1

The figures are based for the case of transmission on excitation of the individual antennae in the same phase. .Here they give the root of the ratio of the amounts of energy radiated dependent uponthe angle to the base of the arrangement; in the case of reception they'give the root of the ratio of the received energy of the total arrangement dependent upon the angle of its base to the direction of the incoming field of electric waves.

If ,thedifferent transmitting or receiving points are excited at the same time min the same phase, this means that the maximum directional action is at right" angles to their connecting line. f v i The invention gains a'general practical importance particularly by the additional fact that the maximum directional vector according to the invention is made ,rotatable- This means may be applied accordingto the invention; not only in cases of the before describedjkind but also for all kinds of antennae arrangements in which thean-tennae are placed at a definite distance from one another and a directional effect istobeproduced by means of time or phase displacement of the waves and impulses in the antennae. The relation-of the vector of .maximum, emission or reception is attained by an arrangement whichlpermits for the different antennae pointssuch mutual time displacements of the oscillation phenomenon to take place as are necessary inorder to bring the main directional action into thedesired angle to the base. A suitable-means for carrying out this feature of theinvention consists in the use'of time lag circuits, for instance in-the form of electric filter chain s, whose, adjust ment as regards their individual links is given on the one hand by the highest employed frequency of. electric .oscillations and on the other hand by the desired sharpness of graduation of the circularheld to be acted upon,

VVlnlst with the use of time lag circuits the correct phase relation inthe antennae is'eftennae. This can be achieved in a great many different wa s, for example, by relativeshifting of the stator of the'main frequency machine, by arrangement of rotating fields with stationarywindings in which coils are rotatable or by the connecting-in of-self-induction coils, condensers and resistances or a combination of the same. 1

l "A practical application of the invention arises, for example, when it isn matter of saving as much energy as possible, for example, when the international wireless trafiic and communication is to be established forthe timebeing only with onest-ation in a perfeet-1y definite known direction with as little cost as possible and excluding as far as possible interferences with other stations (transmission) or by other stations (reception).

- placed from one another at definite distances 7 shown the drawing (Figs. ,6 and 9 to 13).

Beginning with 1 a directional antennae. ar-

rangement without screen this object. of-the invention is fully described in the, following; In Figure 7 a plurality otantennae dis '20 of such character that the undesiredvector-according to the well known rule: angle of incidenceequal to angle of deflect1on-1s reflected towards the same direction as the desired maximum vector of direction, 7 as shown by particular position of-tlie arrows 1 a, (1 ,1), .0, a to one another.

A' screenarrangement adapted for this effeet is shown in Fig. 9 and 10. The screen consists of a conducting wall comprising per-- pendicular suspended conductors preferably. connected to; the earth, the thickness of the screen arrangement amounting to about one wave-length (at least one half wave-length) 40 the four posts 25.28. The carrying into efof the oscillations used. The conducting wall contains a number of lines ofconductors -24) displaced from one another some metres, The individual conductors preferably are so arranged, asshown in Fig. 10,

that the conductors of two neighbouring lines are displaced like the fieldsof achessboard.

Thewhol'e system of conductors is held by V 7 feet of the invention is not at all questionable J for fear of too large dimensions of such an arrangement because nowadays preferably also for large distances use is made of short wave-lengths. 7 f

The described screen arrangement acts substantially as a reflector. It may also be built 7 upof conductors consisting of tuned electrical circuits arranged as is shown in'Figs. 9 and 10. These tuned circuits haverto be damped substantially by radiation for thelpurpose of ire-emitting a substantial part of theimping- ,ing energy and of absorbingonly a small part.

An example of such an arrangement is shown in igxll. It differs from the reflector of Figs. 9 and 10 especially by the variable indnctances which are inserted in the perpendicular suspended conductors 20'-24. Be-

' sides the lines of conductors in this case preferably are positioned from one another. at a distance amounting to about onewave-length (at least one half'wave-length) of the electrical wave used. V V r V It should be understood that. screen ar-v rangements of the described kind (Figs. 9-11) act not only'as reflectors but that they ab-' sorb also a portion of thefimpinging energy; this effect is not'at all adisadvantage because it is also of importance to dispense of radio.-

telegraphic effect towards undesired directions and to avoid in this way as far as possible disturbances of the radiotelegraphic; communication. i r 1 In particular casesit may be advantageous to make use of screen arrangements, and perhaps also of main emitting and receiving arrangements, of aocurved form forinstance'in case of stations where a preferreddirection of communication exists.

In Fig.12 and 13 arrangements of screens of bilateral effect. are shown. 7

Fig. 12 for instance-shows twoanten'nae arrangements A and B parallel to one another and adapted'to be cut in at will and separated from one another by a conducting-wall C. Each antennae arrangement comprises five antennae 15-19 respectively 15'19'. The

right or the left antennae have to be cut in if in the right or the left semi-circle respectively radiotelegraphic communication is to be effected. V e V V Aspecial advantage of this arrangement consists in the possibility to use both antennae arrangements at the. same time for difi'erent communications .without disturbing one by the other. a

In Fig. 13 an example of the invention is shown in which a main antennae arrangement D is positioned between twoscreen arrangements E and F (see also Fig. 6). In this case the screen'arrangementshave to be cut in alternatively. V r In consequence of the fact, that it is possible with the-help of arrangements according to the invention to produce with simple means a sharply defined and directed ray. f waves, besides the possibility of saving energy and avoiding disturbances between different'stations the additional advantage is obtained that the very objectionable interference efi'ects to beobservedtespecially in connection with shortwaves may be remark-- ably diminished by: the cooperation at one receivingpoint of difierent beams travelling over different paths.

If a sufficiently short wave-length is used the whole directionalantennae arrangement maybe built up as a rotatable unit (instead of turning the directional vector by means of time lag circuits). This case is especially I advantageous because in all directions use can be madeof the vector at'right angles to.

the lineof the antennae arrangement, this vector having the highest degree of sharpness compared with all other vectors oblique to this'line. I t o 7 As said alreadyv before the deflection of one of the two possible corresponding vectors may be used with. advantage in connection with all. kinds. of bilateral. antennae a rran'gea ments and combinations, i. e. of arrangements which are adapted to emit twoebeams of w aves w tewards bethgdirectiens of the antennae ar 7. I ra'ngementitself, and in Which these two beams have the characteristic feature thatin turning one ofthernthe other isltu rned in 1 the 'dpposite directipn. This part of the: i

Vention is not limitedutoz the antenna arrangemore than" thpee antennae mounted zit-dis?- nee s'j'froni "'fne anetheneaehbfthe said dieappreg'zimately-equal tq'the value i ilw iehj hi h e @iffih w iv .eii pivy afrs-siiiallilig. 1} Q i I +2.; arrangement: for directional radio m lniqation" cempri i a m p i y in Straig'htf line at .di s cesjfmm one, anQther I 1 ach of t i lSl helength ef the waveempleyed ifoflsiglfnalling] I a V v mplnieation ,eemprising a multiplieity in of; mere than three; antennae l tuned to a he -x:. In, eombinatien an ar qanigement: fer dii aimultiplicity I n J of; more gthjan threea'antennee ,7 len'g'th' bfaitheiwaveein lbye'd' for signalling;

5 management fer shiftingtheg'vectbii ef aximumeflect."

n m "which; he .the

, pa fticnlar time Lenzpha se frelations of the An 1 arrangement fer ,dineetidnal radio mmnn cat oneompr sing j a. .multipliclty n I mount idf linereithfanj thi'ee-tantennae mounted in a ipmximalealy y is tanees being approxi- I f1 angement {for v directional, radio queneyJcori'espondingl to awave-length )t and iinounted in a straight line an'df'at dis} tances frein one another each'of the said disrltances being 1 approximately equal to i the i 1 i be fii$1 b:d vi '1 s 1 nn --one,ti e lag-c rui -ta etien aliadie-icommunieation-comprising a} mounted at distances from 11m. another ;1 each 1 f 10f he;.'ssaid distaneesgbein-g:vappreximatelyr in 9x is th g ling ;=a op ra fs sfia ifidi91iii nfii 'inga pangementineel ted'between thesa1dan5 1agbh a meta bri se l n an arrangement for vshifting:the vecter of f maxl mnm effeet celnpn sing means ffor adgustlng indiv dualt meintervals ,of equal value between the inclividnalimpulseslin the tion efithe'maximnm vecten ef intensity different antennae lfe eachi' individilal direc- 6, e01nb'in.atiQn an arrangement fondi a rectlonalrad ocqmmun eatlon,cdmpnsmg a u tiplic tym K it lnonnted'at equal distances from ne another;

each the: ai-cl distaneesbeingTapp -eximatey: to V5111? nalling; an 'operaterls;station; and an" arre than 'thi eefantennee tion comprising means fore adjusting indiyid- 1 I I i m1 t i itelfye i ,e eq a la ue nith Y individual iimpnlses' travelling -inthe" con},

c Q ;c ni tin th enna a r nge t Y andth-e q emtota gtati'qfiwfdreaehindividnal j 3 direetien fd f ,.fth maXiinu nI Vecton intensity; I 7. 111 eoinbination"an:aprangementiffergfelt' rectiona'l. radio communication comprising :3:

other ;7 of the saiol ed at. equal distaneesl from "Qnean v Y sibein ie W h-2t isfth gthi qf he Wa p y ed fo r signalling gjan =operatofis statien ;{and;=a"1 i compensating arrangementnsertedbetween t e ai -ant nnaa r g e d ezs d op erator fsgstation the eompensating ai tange 'm n Co sist g s'u i ided a d adj sta le 1 ec r ti g: rc it i m natio vwith. sw h ng devi ef0 nn e i at willanumhzr ofsuhdivisiens of the s'aidtimecir iit w into" the c ndu g c'l d ge- "1 tweenthe'antennazarrangement,an-dtheegpe f v e .ator s station; the di'iferentjnllmbersiofgeubfa" divisionsiconlieCtedginteatheseveral timeflag v i IQ l i on ti i1t 1gmi ple of thsm'a s 4 station g, the compensating. ar a-ngementeoni-f V 'sistingpf snh'divideql and ad] l stahleeleetn cal me;la efii t i inzg. Qm ina e wi h" Swi ch ng onc n l g a W mum 1 r .;ber oi;subdivisiens1 of -thesaidftime lag 011 {i a icliit's [i1 b ithefienducting leadshetweenjthe" ncl J the operatorls anten a arrangement I 0 v bdm lqne;

@ 1, the fff cohnected'into any one time lag circuit.

'10. In an arrangement for directionalrad1o COIHIHHIHCZLUOII the combination with an antenna arrangementcomprising at least 1 three antenna positioned inan approximate- 'ly straight'line and at equal'distances from,

one another; of a refiecting screen :built up of electricalconductors and arranged atone side of the said-antenna arrangement and in parallelto the row of main. antennae; and

. an operators station connected to the said antenna arrangement. I

11. In an arrangement for directional radio communication the combination with a main antenna arrangement comprising at least three antennae tuned to a given'frequency and positioned in'an approximately straight line and at equal distances from one another; of afreflecting screen built upof a plurality of antennae'tuned to the sameffrequency and arranged at one side'of the said antennajarrangement and in parallel tothe row of mam antennae; and an operators sta by rangement.

tion connected tothe said main antenna ar- 12. In an arrangementr for directional'radio communication the combination with an antenna arrangement comprising i a multiplicity of antennae tuned to a' g ven frequency and 'posltioned man approximately 'stralght line and at equal distances from oneanoth'er of areflectin'g screen arranged at one sideof 5 the; antennaarrangement and built 1 up of a plurality of suspended conductorswith indu'ctance coilsin series arranged inmparallel to the row of main antennae, the said conductors with thesaid coils beingtuned to the same frequenoygand an operators station i connected to the said antenna arrangement.

13. In an arrangement fordirectional ra di'o communication the comb inationwith an antenna arrangement according to claim 1;

' of areflectingrscreen arrangedat one side of the said. antenna arrangement and' substantially in parallelsthereto; and an operators ,tstationconnect'ed' to the said antennaarrangement.

i 1 14;. In anaarrangementfor 'directionalra d1o communication the. combination with an antenna arrangement according to claim 1; of means for shifting the main. directional vectors of the said antenna arrangement ;'and of means'reflectingone ofthe two directional vectors towards the direction of the other and an operators station connected to the said antenna arrangement and the said shifting means"; v a

v15; In an arrangement for directional radio communication the combination with an antenna arrangement for bilateral direction: al emission and reception of waves; comprising at least three substantially. perpendicular antennae disposed inan approximately straightline. andbeing tuned to a given frequency; of airefiecting screen built up of a plurality of substantially "perpendicular conductors 'arranged'at one side of the said an-. tenna arrangement and substantially in parallel thereto the thickness of the said screen: being approximately equal to the wave-length a of the wavecorrespondin'g to the natural fre 'quency'oi' the antennae of the main antenna arrangement and at least one half ofthis wave-length; and ,of' an operators station connected to the said'antenna arrangement.

* 16. In an arrangement 'for directionalirasubstantially-in parallel to the main antennae saidperpendicular' antennae being tuned to the 7 same frequency 'and' ipositioned at distances'f'rom one'anotlier e'qualt'o at least one half of the Wave-length of the natural Virequencyofthe'said antennae; and of an operators station connected: to the *saidantenna arrangement. 7 I

17. In an arrangement for directional ra diocommunicationthe combination with a main antenna 'farrangement according to claim '1, eachofthe individual antennae of this arrangementbeing substantially 'pera pendicular and tuned to a given frequency; of an operators station of a 1 compensating means nserted between themaln antenna ar- 7 rangemen t "and the operators station and consistingof a number oftime-lagcircuitsin dividuallyf coordinated to the, individual an- V tennae of the said main arrangement andbuilt up of sub-divisions ofa'switching device; for cutting in at will a'number of sub-divisions of each-time lag ciicuitvbetween the. operators station andthe corresponding antenna; and of an auxiliary antenna arrangement -po's i-.

tioned spaciallysubstantially in 'parallel to the main antenna: arrangement, each of the antennae of the auxiliary arrangementbeing "tuned to the same-nat'ural frequency as the leo fiantenneepf the main arrangementfand the e distance between the individual antennae of theauxiliary arrangement being substantially i equal to the Wave length of the said natural frequency of the antennae and at leastequal Y onehalf of this Wave-length.

die communication, twplbilateral directional antenna arrangements according to cla m 1,

arrangements ,uni'lateral, said antennafarra'ngeinents' beingpositionedat both sides of g for energizing said'antenna arrangements ind i V e 18 In an arrangement for directional "ra- 1 a reflecting screen for rendering said bilateral saidscre'emian operators station and means dividually'at desired time periods.) f1; In testimony whereof I aflix my signature. f t l 1 "w LT AHNEMn m CERTIFICATE or CORRECTION.

Patent No. 1,764,441. June 17, 1950.

Walter Hahnemann.

It is hereby certified that error appears in the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: In the drawings,$heet 4, Fig. 8, as shown below should be inserted as part of the Letters Patent and tnat tne said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the' Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 23rd day of August, A.D. 1982.

Wm. A. Kinnan,

(Seal) I Acting Commissioner of Patents.

DISOLAI MER 1,7 64,441.Walte1" Hahnemann, Kitzeberg, near Kiel, Germany. ARRANGEMENT FOR DIRECTIONAL TRANSMISSION AND RECEPTION BY MEANS OF ELECTRIC WAVES. Patent dated June 17, 1930. Disclaimer filed March 3, 1932, by the assignee, Radio Corporation of America.

Therefore, enters this disclaimer relative to claims 10 and 11 of said Letters Patent to Wit:

To the Combination 0f e le1nents set forth in claims 10 and l l of said Letters Patent, except as the same are utllized in a system wherein the operators station consists of adjusting means for producing a desired phase relation in the antennae.

[Ofiicial Gazette March 22, 1932.]

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2524830 *Mar 19, 1945Oct 10, 1950Fed Telephone & Radio CorpBeacon antenna system
US2577804 *Mar 2, 1945Dec 11, 1951Standard Telephones Cables LtdRadio antenna
US2743441 *Jan 5, 1953Apr 24, 1956Hazeltine Research IncAntenna system
US6850130Jul 27, 2000Feb 1, 2005Kathrein-Werke KgHigh-frequency phase shifter unit having pivotable tapping element
US7031751Jan 31, 2002Apr 18, 2006Kathrein-Werke KgControl device for adjusting a different slope angle, especially of a mobile radio antenna associated with a base station, and corresponding antenna and corresponding method for modifying the slope angle
US7366545May 24, 2005Apr 29, 2008Kathrein Werke KgControl apparatus for changing a downtilt angle for antennas, in particular for a mobile radio antenna for a base station, as well as an associated mobile radio antenna and a method for changing the downtilt angle
US20030109231 *Jan 31, 2002Jun 12, 2003Hurler MarcusControl device for adjusting a different slope angle, especially of a mobile radio antenna associated with a base station, and corresponding antenna and corresponding method for modifying the slope angle
US20050272470 *May 24, 2005Dec 8, 2005Kathrein Werke KgControl apparatus for changing a downtilt angle for antennas, in particular for a mobile radio antenna for a base station, as well as an associated mobile radio antenna and a method for changing the downtilt angle
U.S. Classification343/835, 343/841, 343/913, 343/844
International ClassificationH01Q21/06
Cooperative ClassificationH01Q21/06
European ClassificationH01Q21/06