US 1766998 A
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June 24, 1930. JACOCKS' v 1,766,998
APPARATUS FOR COMPRESSING SUBSTANCES Filed Sept. '7. 192a GEORGE .7. uAcocks I N V EN TOR.
BY W ATTORNEY.
Patented June 1930 UNITED. STATES PATENT oFFIcs GEORGE T. JACOC KS, OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, TO HEAT TRANSFER PRODUCTS, INC., A CORPORATION OF NEW.YORK
APPARATUS FOR 'COMZPBESSING SUBSTANCES Application filed September 7, 1928. Serial-No. 304,413.
compressor can be used in other systems and manners with equal advantages. I One of the great disadvantages in refrig- Y eration systems of the compression type has been the leakage of refrigerant past the stufiing box of the compressor. This is apparent because the compressor handles the refrigerant in a vaporous condition under considerable pressure. 7
It is, therefore, necess to provide a stufiing box] that will be gas tight. This means an increase of the frictional load upon the operatingmotor to such an extent as is) waste a large percentage of the power use The other alternative is to enclose the,
motor and compressor in a hermetically sealed casing. While this arrangement eliminates the waste ofenergy, it introduces other complications that are not easy to overcome and renders the parts inaccessible for repair or replacement.
gAnother difiiculty heretofore encountered in many refrigeration systems has been the,
transmission by the refrigerant gasof globules of oil into the condenser and into the l evaporator, which impairs the efliciency of these elements and may so fill up .the system as to prevent the carrying on of the refrigeration cycle.
' The above recited difliculties and the complicity of the moving parts of the ordinary I compressor result in'a great many service calls in connection the operation .of the system in which the compressor is used, all of which is expensive. both to the manufacturer and to theultimate consumer.
It is one object of my invention to provide means for pumping or compressing a substance by drawing the same into a chamber and expelling it therefrom under the influence of the contraction and expansion of a'fluid or other substance.
It is another object of my invention tov provide an apparatus for circulating a rerigerant in a refrigeration system that will eliminate the commingling of the lubricant and refrigerant.
It is a further object of my invention to provide a. compressor for the handling of gaseous vapors which does not require that the stufling box thereof be-gas tight.
It is a still further object of my invention to provide acor'npressor for the handling of gaseous substances in which a fluid is used as the piston for drawing in and compressing the gaseous substance.
It is a still further object of my invention to provide a compressor in which a fluid is usedto draw in and expel a gaseous substance andin which the path of circulation of the fluid is reversed without reversing .the motive power for the fluid.-
It is a still further objectof my invention to provide a. compressor for the handling of gaseous substances in. whichthe moving parts are few in number and operate continually in a bath of oil or other liquid so that servicing of the compressor is (great- 1y 'reduced and practically eliminate It is a. still further object of my invention to produce acompressor that is exceedingly cheap to manufacture yet rugged in construction and efficient in operation for the purposes for which it is intended far beyond compressors now known to this art and intended for similar purposes. I My invention will be best understood by reference to the following specification and also to the accompanying drawing, in which the sin 1e fi'gure is a diagramatical illustra-n tion 0 a refrigeration system embodying my new compressor. s
There is diagramatically illustrated a condenser 1, an evaporator 2, and an expansion valve 3, located between the condenser and p sor 7.
The ports 5 and 8, (Sand 9, are respectively located in cylinders 11 and 12,-that are in turn located on opposite sides of the block 13. It will be noted that the ends of ,y by any ordinary valve the block 13, have reduced or shouldered denser and evaporator and connected parts of the refrigeration system are charged with portions that are screw-threaded and are I adapted to engage with screw-threaded ends of the cylinders 11 and '12 to maintainthe same in fluid tight connection with the valve structure. It will be apparent that many th t f h be o'rclin 0 er arrangemens o am rs y the valve bar 27, is located with t e ports 28 and 29, respectively in communicationders 11 and 12 and valve structure 13 could be efiected, and my invention is not limited to the arrangement shown in the drawlngs.
Each of the discharge valves 5 and 6,. includes a valve chest.14, in which may be .mounted any of the ordinary-and usual valves, here shown as oppet valve 15, and'a retaimng spring 16. ach of the suction'or inlet ,ports 8 and 9, may likewise be closed 17, and retained by ring 18. p he block 13 is provided with four vertical passages 21, 22, 23- and 24. These passages do not extend entirely through the block but are connected at their lower ends by horizontally extending passages 25 and 26. The passage 25 connects the passages 21 and 22, and the passage '26 connects the passages 23 and 24. Extending horizontally through the block '13 and intersectin the passages 21 and 24, inclusive, is a va ve bar 27.. The bar 27 has two ports 28 and 29, adapted to respectively cooperate with the passages 21 and 22, and 23 and 24.
The bar 27, extends outwardly beyond the block 13, at each end thereof and is there provided with outwardly projectlng p ns 30 and 31. The-pins 30 are adaptedto enfiggle the block 13 and thus act as stops to t the movement of the bar-27.- T e pins 31 are respectively-engaged by a dog 32 of aball float 35. The dog is pivoted at 33, on
the lug 34, that projects from the block 13.
At their. upper ends the passages 22 and 23, connect w1th a pipe 36, that communicates with the suct onside of a pump 37 that is driven by a motor 38. Any form 0 pump or motor may be used but in the present form of my apparatus I am using a centrifugal pump driven by an electric motor. At their upper ends the-passages 2 1 and 24 are connected to. a pipe 39, whichcommunicates with the discharge port of the pump 37.
In the operation of my improved compressor in a refrigeration system, the chamer formed by the cylinder 11,-is charged with oil or any other substances that it may be desired to use. It is advisable and I intend to use a .fluid that does not readily mix with the articular gaseous substance tem to which my com- To further this keepbeing used in t e sg pressoris connecte mg apart of the substances, I may introduce the fluid behind a flexible diaphra with the gaseous substance on= the ot er side of the diaphragm.
Also, when ready for operation, the con-.
refrigerant. With this arrangement, the float 35, in chamber 11, is raised toits upper position and the float 35 in chamber 12 is in its-lower position. ,In this osition,
with passages 21 and 23 in which position it is retained by the engagement of the pin 31, with the dog 32, that is located in the chamber 12. It will be noted that in this position the valve bar 27, has the passages 22 and 24 closed.
When the motor 38 and pm 37 are startedfin operation oil will then be drawn from the c passage 26, yertical passage 23 andpipe 36 to the suction side of the pump 37. It
will be discharged fromthe pump through the pipe 39, vertical passage 21, and horizontal passage 25, into t e chamber 12. This operation will create apartial vacuum .or a reduced pressure in the chamber 11-, to
thus withdraw gaseous refrigerant from the evaporator 2, into the chamber 11, .and to draw condensed refrigerant from the condenser 1, into the evaporator 2. By such action the valve of the discharge port 5, will be closed and the valve of the inlet port 8, will be opened. The reverse occurs in the chamber 12 where the inlet valve 17, will closed and the outlet valve 16 will be The fillinglu of the chamber 12 by the amber ll, through horizontal fluid will put t irrefrigerant va r therein j under pressure and, as the cham r fills up, the pressure therein will increase. Also, as the chamber 12'fills up the level of the liquid in chamber 12 is rising and the level of the liquid in the chamber 11, is lowering. When the chamber 12 becomes completely filled, or substantially so, the end of the dog 32, (in the chamber 12) rises past the pin 31, and the pressure in that chamber on the end of the valve bar 27, forces that bar quickly from the position shown in the drawing to a position where the pin 31, (in the chamber 11) will move ast the end of the cooperating dog 32, an thus lock the valve bar 27 in its reverse position. In this reverse position, the port 28, will communicate with the passage 22 and the port 29, will communicate withv the passage 24. Thus, without reversing the direction of rotation of the pum 37, the suction pipe 36, is connected to t e chamber 12, through the passage 22, and the discharge pipe 39 is connected to the chamber 11 through the passage 24. This will remove the 011 from the chamber 12, to evacuate the same and dischar e it into the chamber 11. The discharge of the gaseous refrigerant into the condenser 1, and the extraction of the gaseous refrigerant from theevaporator 2, is repeated and this cycle of the compressor is repeated throughout the operation of the system, which may be under the control of a thermostat or any of the other well-known controls for refrigerating systems.
I have above referred to a pressure in one Bhamber and a partial vacuum in the other chamber. This need not necessarily be the case as in handling some refrigerants,there will merely be a difference in pressure between the two chambers but the principle of operation of my compressor will be the same. Likewise reference has been made to the handling of refrigerants in gaseous ,form.
.This'need not be the case as the compressor will work equally well handling the refrigerant in liquid or vaporous condition.
From the foregoing description it will be noted that I provide an apparatus for circulati'ng the refrigerant in a. system of the compression type wherein the lubricant and refrigerant are not commingled. It will be further noted that I provide a pump that does'not at any time handle the refrigerant vapors. Therefore, the refrigerant can not leak through the stufiing box of the pump. It is a comparatively simple matter to construct. a stufling box that is liquid tight with.
out increasing materially the power loss in overcoming frictional'resistance,'but'as explained above it is much more difiicult to make a stufiing box gas tight.
It will be further noted that I provide acompressor that is continually handling lubricant throughout its cycle of operation and, therefore, no problem rises in connection with lubrication of my improved compressor. I
It will be further noted that should any rangement and location of parts within the" spirit and scope of my invention but such modifications are intended to be covered by the appendedclaims.
I claim: f
1. In a compressor adapted to compress fluid by the alternate exchange of a compressor fluid from one chamber to another, the combination of pumping means having intake and discharge ports; two chambers each having means for the inlet and outlet of a fluid to be compressed; valve means having a compartment for a slide valve in communication with each of the chambers; a passageway leading from each of the chambers through the valve compartment to the intake POI t of the pumping means; a passageway leading from each of the chambers through the valve compartment to the discharge port of the pumping means; a slide valve in the valve compartment adapted to control the flow of fluid through the passageways; and float operated means 1n one of the chambers for locking the slide valve against movement until the compressor fluid in such chamber reaches a predetermined volume.
.2. In a compressor adapted to compress a fluid by the alternate exchange of a compressor liquid from one chamber to another, the combination of a pump having an inlet and an outlet; a first chamber and a second chamber each having inlet and outlet means-for a fluid to be com ressed; a valve body having an opening f r a slide valve, communicating with each of the chambers; a first passageway leading from the firstchamber through the opening in the valve body to the inlet of the pump; a second passageway leading from the first chamber through the opening in the valve body to the outlet of the pump; a third passageway leading from the second chamber through the opening in the valve body to the Inlet of the pump; a fourth passageway leading from the second chamber through the opening in the valve body to the outlet of the pump; a slide valve in the opening in the valve body adapted to bemoved by a float, and ada ted to coact with the slide valve to lock t e same against movement until the compressor fluid in that chamber reaches a predetermined volume and to release the slide valve whensaid predeter-' mined volume is reached; and means in the second chamber comprising a float, and adapted to coact with the slide valve to lock the same against movement until the compressor fluid in that chamber reaches a predetermined volume, and to release the slide valve when said predetermined volume is reached.
In testimony whereof I aflix my signature.
GEORGE T. J ACO'CKS.