US 1770254 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 8, 1930. R. SELIGMAN I v 1,770,254
' HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS Filed March 9, 1929 6 Sheets-Sheet 1 8| "Fig.1.
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HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS Filed March 9, 1929 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 July 8, 1930. R, SEUGMAN I 1,770,254
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6 Sheets-Sheet 5 BY Ma Q ATTORNEY July 8, 1930', R. SELIGMAN HEAT EXCHANGE APPARATUS Filed March 9, 1929 e Sheets-Sheei 6 BY 9 m A TTORNEY Patented July 8, 1930 PATENT OFFICE RICHARD SELIGMAN, OF WIMBLEDON, ENGLAND HEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS Application filed March 9, 1929, Serial No. 345,835, and in the Netherlands March 7, 1928.
This invention has reference to apparatus for efiecting exchange of heat in which a number or a series of plates are adapted to furnish zig-zag channels or passages for the 5 liquids.
The invention further relates to a heat exchanging apparatus built up of a series of plates, preferably alternated with plain plates and closed at the ends by similar plain plates,
each plate of the series having zig-zag channels and all the plates having pipe or conduit portions so that, when assembled inlet and exhaust conduits are provided for each of the fluids passing through the heat exchanger.
.5 Apparatus of this description is capable of adaptation to various systems of working. For instance, the arrangement of the plates may be such that the liquids are conducted in series or parallel, or such that one liquid 10 passes in series and another in parallel, or so thatthe operations of heating and/or cooling are or may be effected simultaneously or successively and continuously and in stages or regeneratively.
In connection with the use or application of such plate heat exchange apparatus in the treatment of some liquids, as for example, the pasteurization of milk or beer or the cooling of brewers worts, and the like, it is found necessary to make provision for controlling the flow of the liquid so that the same may be caused to lag in its passage through a portion of the machine and so lengthen the period during which it is under the action of the 5 heating or cooling medium, as the case may be. Similarly, when using eondensable gases or fluids, such as steam, for the heating medium, it is found necessary to control the path of the steam and provide for the ready re- 0 moval of the condensate, while preserving the smooth surface whereby heat exchange is facilitated. Again, in the working of the apparatus, it is desirable to effect a control whereby the final temperature of the one or the other liquid is ensured.
To this end certain of the plates may have their passages of greater cross sectional area than OtliulS so that, with a given volume of a fluid passing through the heat exchanger in :1 unit of time, the lineal flow through the plates with large passages will naturally be slower than through the more restricted passages and, by proper selection and assemblage, the heat transfer may be controlled.
When steam or other condensible'fluid is used a plate having a box like interior may be used in the' assemblage and provided with suitable drain means, such plate permitting collection .and drawing oif of any condensate.
Also by-passes with suitable valves may be provided to regulate the flow by providing more direct routes for the fluids than through certain of the zig-zag passages. F
For the better understanding of the invention, same will now bemore fully described with reference to the examples illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a face'view of one form of plate as used herewith.
Figure 2 is a horizontal section thereof on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a side elevation showing a form of by-pass arrangement, the same being a modification of that shown in Figs. 17 to 19.
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a plate which may be used with plates such as shown in Figure 1 in providing for a slow flow of fluid through a part of the assembled series of plates.
Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 4 showing a modified construction.
Figure 6 is a view partly 1n elevation and partly in section showing a construction of plate having facial grooves or ribs forming zig-zag channels or passages and also having a box-like space and adapted for use with condensable heating media, such as steam.
Figure 7 is a view partly in horizontal section on the line 7-7 of Fig. 6 and partly in bottom plan thereof. 7
Figure 8 is a half elevation of a form of plate forming one section of a two part plate which, when assembled with its complementary part, forms a structure similar to that shown in Figures 6 and 7.
Figure 9 is a section on the line 9-9 of Figure 8 showin the parts assembled.
Figure 10 is a ront elevation of the complete heat exchanger.
Figure 11 is a side elevation of the heat exchanger showing one arrangement of plates.
Figure 12 is a section on the line 12-12 of Figure 11 but showing a difierent arrangement of plates to an enlarged scale.
Figure 13 is a section on the line 1313 of Figure 12.
Figure 14 is a section on the line 1414 of Figure 12.
Figure 15 is a section on the line 15-15 of Figure 12.
Figure 16 is a section on the line 1616 of Figure 12.
Figure 17 is a front view of an assemblage of plates showing one form of by-pass arrangement.
Figure 18 is a side elevation of Figure 17.
Figure 19 is a plan View of Figure 17.
The plate shown in Figure 1 is formed on each face with ribs 1 whereby zig-zag channels or passages 2 are provided. The said channels 2 are side closed by plain plates 25 (see Figures '12 to 15). The liquid to be treated is admitted to the channels or passages 2 by way of the port 7 and passes out through the exit port 6 while the heating or cooling medium enters by way of the port 5 and passes out through the exit port 4. The entry and exit ports may be disposed so that the liquid and the heating or cooling medium enter and leave the apparatus on the same side thereof. The diagonally opposed ar rangement of the ports is however preferable as it facilitates the introduction of the plates into the machine and enables the inlet and outlet of the liquids to be selected at will. The flow may be in the one or the other direction. In order to preserve rigid separation of individuality of the liquids, the plates are formed with counter-sunk face grooves for the reception of a packing cord or strip 8 adapted, upon the assemblage of the plates being tightened together, to become distorted and establish a liquid-tight main oint between adjacent plates, there being a similar secondary ointing effected about the passages or ports 4, 5, 6, 7 as indicated by the reference numeral 9 and between each of the said jointings there is also a countersunk groove for conveying away leakage. The lugs 10 serve as guides and supports for the plates when in position in the frame F. the latter carrying bars 11 (Figuresv 10 and 11) for engagement by the said lugs.
With the plates as above described, while good results are obtained, it frequently becomes necessary in, say, the pasteurization of milk, beer or the like, where a control of the flow or passage of the liquid is essential or beneficial, to provide means to permit, in a part of the heat exchanger, a retardation or varying of the flow so that the liquid may be held back or caused to lag and thereby be retained for a longer period. of time under the heating or cooling treatment in the machine.
In these circumstances, the aforesaid plates may be associated with plates adapted to provide passages of increased cross-sectional. area for the conveyance of the liquid, and plates for this purpose are illustrated in Figures 4 and 5. They may be constructed as open grids as shown constituted by the bars 12 and the enclosing framework 13, the channels formed by the spaces between the bars being closed at the sides of such plates by flat or plain plates 25 as in Figure 12 as will be readily understood. The channels are connected by inter-communicating ports or passages 1 for the conveyance of the liquids. These plates will ordinarily but not necessarily be arranged in alternating relation with plates of the kind hereinbefore described having channels for the flow or passage of the heating or cooling medium so that the degree of temperatureheating or cooling effect may be controlled during the retarding or lagging period in the conduction of the liquid under treatment through the aforesaid plates having the channels of increased cross-sectional area.
Thus, it will be possible by localizing or otherwise disposing such plates in the assemblage to cause a slower rate of flow or retardation of the liquid and so preserve a desired degree of temperature for a definite period of time or to reduce or increase the same through a given range of temperature at a given rate of flow.
Such retarding plates may be introduced into an existing plate heat exchange apparatus such as hereinbefore mentioned or a number of the plates may be assembled to form a separate or self-contained apparatus and used where the slower movement or flow of the liquid in the zig-zag channels is essential to successful treatment such as in the pasteurization of milk or beer or the cooling of brewers worts and the like. By using these plates having the channels of large cross-sectional area and inserting them at appropriate points in the assemblage, the rate of flow can be retarded and the liquid main tained at a desired degree of temperature or at a gradually reduced or increased temperature through a given or desired range.
When desired, the plates for the hen ting or cooling medium may be placed between retarding plates. The arrangement of the ports diagonally is found to facilitate the introduction of the plates into the machine as it enables one to select at will the inlet and the outlet for the liquids.
Under some conditions of working, it may be that the reduced rate of flow of the liquid will interfere with the easy clearance of air or like fluid evolved during the treatment in the apparatus and thereby cause a variation in the correct flow of the liquid. In order to provide for such a contingency, a venting arrangement may be included in the plate structure so that the escape of the. enclosed air or fluid may take place with facility; the venting arrangement being a vent plug, tap, automatically operating seal, or similar device and here shown as a tap 15*.
When using condensable gases or fluids, such as steam, for the heating medium, in connection with the hereinbefore described plates having facial grooves and zig-zag channels it is necessary, while providing for the zig-zag passage of the liquid, to provide also for the control of the path of the steam or other heating medium in the hollow plate and to ensure the plate withstanding the considerable exterior pressure which is necessarily employed in practice as Well as to be rapidly freed from the condensate.
Plates adapted to effect the purpose of the invention are illustrated in Figures 6 to 9. In these figures the plate is formed with the facial ribs 1.for the liquid and the interior of the plate is formed with baflies 17 forming short passages which connect header spaces 18, 18' disposed respectively at the upper and lower ends of the plate. Thus, the path of the steam is ensured and the rapid escapeof the condensate from the conducting passages into the lower space 18 effected. The diagonal arrangement of the ports is ad vantageous as will be readily appreciated by those acquainted with the working of heat exchange apparatus, particularly of the kind to which the invention relates.
The alternative construction of this plate,
Figures 8 and 9, shows the same divided into two sections 17 and 17 through the baffles 17 This will greatly simplify the machining of the passages for the steam and enable good transfer to be effected.
The baflies by serving to strengthen the plate are useful as aiding the plate to withstand the pressure of the liquid in the facial grooves. They also assist in holding the plate against warping due to changes of temperature and thus enable a flat plate to fit tightly against the ribs1 and close the open side of the zig-z ag passages.
The type of plate shown in Figures 1 and- 2 is indicated in its entirety as 20. The type of plate shown in Figure 4 is indicated at 21, the type shown in Figure 5 is indicated at 22. Likewise the type shown in Figure 6 is indicated at 23.
In Figures 10 and 11 is shown a complete assemblage in one form of a number of the plates within the frame F, side bars 10 pro jecting from the sides of the various plates to engage frame bars 11. The inlet end plate 25 forms part of the frame and is provided with suitable inlets and outlets for the two fluids. V
Reference being had to Figures 12 to 16 inclusive it will be noted that the assemblage up repeatedly until-finally, at the other side of the plate, it travels down to emerge at the lower right hand corner. This is because the first rib 1 at the left of Figure 1 1 terminates short of the bottom, the second rib short of the top and so on. In Figure 15 which is a section through the other side of this plate the fluid enters from the lower left hand corner, travels up and down repeatedl until finally it travels up at the right of t e plate to emerge at the upper right hand corner. This is because the first rib 1 at the left terminates short of the top, the second rib terminates short of the bottom, and so on. Thus one fluid travels down while the other travels up. Each of these plates'is formed with a short tube section 26 at each corner and it will be seen that each plate is provided with a port 27 opening into the respective tube section, the ports at a respective side of the body of the plate opening into the tube sections at opposite diagonal corners while, on such side the other tube sections are closed off. This construction will be perfectly plain from Figures 13 to 16. In the latter figure the ports from the tube sections shown are indicated in full lines while the ports from the tube sections to the rear of those shown are indicated in dotted lines. This port arrangement is also well shown in Figure 13. In Figure 12 the arrows, clearly indicate the routes taken by the different fluids in moving through the apparatus as do the arrows in Figures 14 and 15; It is to be understood that while this arrangement of plates is shown any other arrangement WhlCll may be preferred may be adopted since each plate may fit against another to build up the assemblage.
A by-pass system for cutting out part of I the plates is shown in Figures 17 to 19 inclusive and it will there be seen that a pipe 28 leads from the forward end or inlet of the apparatus at to the center of the tube or conduit at the upper right hand corner, this pipe being provided with a valve 29. Similarly a plpe 30 leads from the outlet end of the lower right hand conduit to the center of the upper left hand conduit and is provided with a valve the lower left hand corner 81. Valves 32 may also be used in the upper conduits 4 and 7. By proper manipulation of these valves the forward part of the assemblage may be cut oft as desired for both liquids either wholly or in part or for one liquid either wholly or in part. In Figure 3 another form of bypass is shown in which each of the conduits 4 and 6 has its inlet and central portion connected by a pipe 33 provided with a valve 34 and a valve 35 controls passage through the respective conduit 4 and 6. As before, the forward plates may be cut off or the flow controlled therethrough. Obviously many other arrangements of by-pass will suggest themselves in accordance with p the particular arrangement of plates to be used and the fluids to be passed through the apparatus. These by-passes form an important adjunct in the control of the heat transfer but are not to be understood as specifically confined to those herein shown.
I claim 1. In apparatus of the class described, a series of plates arranged side by side and having zig zag passages on their opposite sides, conduits at the corners of said plates communicating with said passages and arranged for flow of a condensable heating fluid through the zig zag passage on one side of each plate and for a fluid to be heated through the zig zag passage on the opposite side of each plate, closure plates separating said plates, and an enlarged condensing chamber interposed in the series of plates, and an enlarged condensing chamber interposed in the series of plates and communicating with the conduits for the heating medium whereby the heating medium may travel slowly through the condensing chamber to permit deposit of condensate therein.
2. In apparatus of the class described, a series of plates arranged side by side and having zig zag passages on their opposite sides, conduits at the corners of said plates communicating with said'passages and arranged for flow of a condensable heating fluid through the zig zag passage on one side of each plate and for a fluid to be heated through the zig zag passage on the opposite side of each plate, closure plates separating said plates, an enlarged condensing chamber in-,
terposed in the series of plates and communicating with the conduits for the heating medium whereby the heating medium may travel slowly through the condensing chamber to permit deposit of condensate therein, valves in certain of the conduits intermediate their ends to close oif a portion thereof from the passage of fluid, and valve-d by passes communicating with the valved conduits on opposite sides of the valves therein.
In testimony whereof I have subscribed my signature this 25th day of February, 1929.