US 1771257 A
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W: S. INGRAM July 22, 1930.
AEROPLANE med Oct. 24, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 y l A v v I INVENTOR v ATT01gN1 Y July 22, 1930. r w. s. INGRAM 1,771,257
AEROPLANE Filed Oct. 24, 1928 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 A TTORNE Y Z44. Atnuwnu l IUO Patented July 22, 1930 PATENT OFFICE WILLIAM S. INGRAM, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA AEROPLANE Application filed. October 24. 1928. Serial No. 314,801.
The object of this invention is to devise a novel aeroplane and more particularly novel controlling means therefor which will facilitate its take-off and landing and which will also enable the aviator to more quickly and readily bring the aeroplane out of a nosedive or tail-spin.- Y
A further object of this invention is to devise a novel construction for pivotally connecting the wings to the fuselage, novel means for locking the wings in place to limit their upward movement, novel means for releasing the wings to permit their downward movement, and novel means for controlling the adjustment of the wings, either alone or simultaneously with the control of the tail lane.
With the above and other objects in view, as will hereinafter more clearly appear, my invention comprehends a novel aeroplane wherein the wings are connected in a novel manner to the fuselage, and wherein novel means are provided for controlling either alone or simultaneously, the relative position of the wings with respect to the fuselage and the tail plane to enable the aviator to more quickly leave the ground and rise in the air at a sharper angle, to facilitate the landing of the aeroplane, and also to enable the aviator to more quickly and readily bring the aeroplane out of a nose-dive or a tail-spin.
It further comprehends a novel construction of an aeroplane wherein the wings at their forward portions are pivotally connected with the fuselage and wherein mechanism under the control of the aviator is provided to enable him to bodily turn the wings to a desired angle and to either independently or simultaneously with such action, adjust the position of the tail plane.
It further comprehends novel means to lock the wings in fixed relation with respect to the fuselage, and novel means under the control of the aviator for releasing the locking means.
My present invention can be embodied in a monoplane or in a multiplane type of aeroplane.
Other novel features of construction and advantage'will hereinafter more clearly appear in the detailed description and the appended claims.
For the purpose of illustrating the invention, I have shown in the accompanying drawings typical embodiments of it, which, in practice, will give reliable and satisfactory results. It is, however, to be understood that these embodiments are typical only and that the various instrumentalities of which my invention consists can be variously arranged and organized, and that the invention is not limited to the precise arrangement and organization of these instrumentalities as herein set forth.
Figure 1 is a side elevation of an aeroplane of monoplane type, embodying my invention.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic view of the controlling mechanism.
Figure 3 is a top plan view of the parts seen in Figure 2.
Figure 4 is a top plan view of a biplane embodying my invention.
Figure 5 is a side elevation, the wings being shown in section and the section being taken substantially on line 55 of Figure 4.
Figure 6 is a side elevation of locking'mechanism employed.
Figure 7 is a top plan view of the locking mechanism;
Figure 8 is a side elevation of a locking plunger.
Figure 9 is a sectional view of the joy stick andits adjuncts.
Similar numerals of reference indicate corresponding parts.
Referring to the drawings 1 designates the fuselage of an aeroplane which is provided with a propeller 2 of any desired or conventional type and driven by any desired or conventional type of engine located either within or exterior of the fuselage. The aeroplane is provided with any conventional landing gear 3 and a tail skid 4;.
5 designates the side wings, and instead of these wings being fixed to the fuselage they are pivotally connected thereto so that at the will of the operator they can be swung down wardly on their pivot from the position seen in full lines in Figure 1 to that, for example, seen in dotted lines in Figure 1.
As illustrated the fuselage has extending through it near its upper forward end, a rod 6 rotatably mounted on the fuselage in any desired manner and has fixed to it the side wings 5 which, with the load plane of the monoplane, form the wing.
The side wings 5 carry the ailerons 7 which are controlled in the usual and conventional manner and well known in the art.
The upward movement of the side wings 5 is limited by fixed stops 8 which are fixedly connected with the fuselage. The side wings 5 are secured in their normal or neutral position by means of locking plungers 9 which are guided in the fuselage in any desired manner and which are moved outwardly by resilient means such as, for example, a spring 10, disposed between the locking plungers and, as illustrated, the springs encircle rods 11, on
.which the locking plungers 9 are slidable.
The locking plungers 9 are preferably bevelled at their outer ends 12, see Figure 8, so that when the side wings 5 are being raised into their normal or neutral position they will move the locking plungers 9 inwardly and as soon as the lower faces of the wings passes the plungers such locking plunger-s will be moved outwardly to securely lock the side wings 5 in position.
The locking plungers 9 are moved inwardly by means of a foot treadle 13 mounted on a shaft14, journalled in a bracket 15. The shaft 14 has connected to it arms 16 to which are connected cables 17 which pass around stationary pulleys 18 and are connected at their free ends to the locking plungers 9.
It will thus be clear that when the aviator presses downwardly on the foot treadle 13 it will be apparent that the locking plungers 9 will be moved inwardly and a downward swinging movement of the side wings 5 will be permitted.
In Figure 1, I have shown a monoplane type of aeroplane and in Figures 4 and 5 I have shown a biplane type of aeroplane. The controlling mechanism is the same in each case and I have therefore given corresponding parts the same reference characters.
Referring now more particularly to Figures 1 to 4 inclusive, it will be seen that the fuselage has journalled in it the rock shaft 19 to which the arms 20 are fixed. These arms at their outer ends are slotted as indicated at 21 in order to receive the pins 22 fixed to the wings 5. One end of an arm 20 1s fixed to the shaft 19 as is also an arm 23, to which is pivotally connected one end of a connecting rod 24 and the opposite end of said connecting rod is pivotally connected at 25 to a plate or block 26 fixed on a shaft 27 suitably mounted in the fuselage.
28 designates the joy stick which is provided with a locking member 29 which is normally moved outwardly into locking engagement with the walls of an aperture 30 in the block 26 by means of a spring 31.
The locking plunger 29 is guided by the Walls of the aperture through which it passes and has pivotally connected with it at 32 one end of an elbow crank lever 33 which is pivotally supported at 34. The upper end of this elbow crank lever 33 has pivotally connected with it the off-set portion of a rod 35 which extends exteriorly of the upper end of the joy stick in a position accessible to the aviator so that when the aviator presses down on the rod 35 the locking plunger 29 will be released from its engagement with the block 26.
The joy stick 28 is loosely mounted on the shaft 27 and has pivotally connected with it one end of a rod 36 the opposite end of which is connected to an arm 37 fixed to a rock shaft 38 having a rock arm 39.
This rock arm 39 is connected by means of the rods or wires 40 and 41 with arms 42 secured to the tail plane section 44 so that when the joy stick 28 is moved forwardly or rearwardly the corresponding upward or downward swinging movement of the tail plane section 44 is accomplished.
It will be apparent from Figure 1 that the connections 40 and 41 pass into the chamber of the fuselage through the apertures shown in Figure 1, so that the main portion of the controlling mechanism is concealed within the fuselage.
In the embodiment seen in Figures 4 and 5, the upper wing 45 is fixed to the lower wing 46 by means of struts 47. The lower wing sections 46 are fixed to a rod 48 journalled in the fuselage and the wing sections 46 are controlled in a similar manner to that already described with reference to Figure 1, the only difference is that the corresponding fixed stops 49 are located at different points on the fuselage.
The manner in which the aeroplane is con trolled will now be apparent to those skilled in the art and is as follows.
If the aviator is taking-off from the ground and desires to rise quickly in the air, he presses downward on the foot treadle 13, thereby releasing the locking plungers 9. He then pulls the joy stick 28 rearwardly, thereby rocking downwardly the side wings 5 of the mono-' plane or both wings 45 and 46 of the biplane and at the same time rocks upwardly the tail plane 44.
It will be apparent that the tail wing or plane 44 can be operated independently of the swinging movement of the wings by the aviator pressing downwardly on the rod 35 thereby releasing the plunger 29 and disengaging the joy stick from its connection with the block 26.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that in accordance with this invention the angular position of the supporting wing or plane may i l' h HEHUNHU l [U be varied relatively to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage. The supporting wing can thus be secured in any desired adjustable position in accordance with the course which it is desired to have the aeroplane take. The movable section of the tail plane can also be swung upwardly or downwardly on its hinge connection with the body portion and this control of the movable section of the tail plane can be accomplished either independently of or simultaneously with the varying of the angle of the supporting wing.
l/Vhen the main supporting wing or wings are locked in their neutral or normal position it will be apparent that the aeroplane is operated in the well known and conventional manner and I have deemed it unnecessary to illustrate and describe in detail the conventional mechanism for such purposes.
It will now be apparent that I have devised a new and useful aeroplane which embodies the features of advantage enumerated as desirable in the statement of the invention and the above description, and while I have, in the present instance, shown and described preferred embodiments thereof which will give in practice satisfactory and reliable results, it is to be understood that these embodiments are susceptible of modification in various particulars without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention or sacrificing any of its advantages.
Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. An aeroplane having a fuselage, wings pivotally connected with said fuselage, stops fixed to opposite sides of said fuselage in the path of the upward movement of said wings to positively limit their upward movement, locking mechanism for said wings, and means under the control of the aviator to cause said wings to assume an inclined position relatively to said fuselage.
2. An aeroplane having a fuselage, wings pivotally connected to said fuselage, locking mechanism for said wings comprising a pair of plungers movable in opposite directions, resilient means to cause the plungers to move the aviator to effect the releasing movement of said locking mechanism and eflect the adjustment of said wings.
3. An aeroplane having a fuselage, a supporting wing at each side of and fulcrumed on said fuselage, a stop at each side of and carried by said fuselage to limit the upward movement of said wings, means guided in said fuselage and under the control of the aviator to release said wings and permit their adjustment relatively to said stops, and
means under the control of the aviator to move said wings on their fulcrums to cause them to have a desired angular positon re liitively to the longitudinal axis of the fuseage.
4. An aeroplane having a fuselage, side supporting wings pivoted at their forward portions to said fuselage, and stops fixed to opposite sides of said fuselage above said wings and in the path of upward movement of said side wings.
5. An aeroplane having a fuselage, side supporting wings pivoted at their forward portions to said fuselage, stops on the fuselage in the path of said wings to limit their upward movement, a rock shaft extending laterally through said fuselage, rock arms on said rock shaft connected with said side wings to turn them, a tail plane, and a single joy stick controlling at the will of the operator said rock shaft or tail plane or both rock shaft and tail plane.
6. An aeroplane having a fuselage, side supporting Wings pivoted at their forward portions to said fuselage, stops on the fuselage in the path of said wings to limit their upward movement, a rock shaft extending laterally through said fuselage, rock arms on said rock shaft connected with said side wings to turn them, a tail plane, a single joy stick controlling at the will of the operator said rock shaft or tail plane or both rock shaft and tail plane, an individual locking member for each side wing, and means to control said members.
WILLIAM S. INGRAM.
into locking position, and means accessible to 4