US 1771626 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
'July 29, 1930. E. H. HAMILTON 157711626 ATOMIZING DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES l Filed Macn 1e, 1925 2 sheets-sneer 1 maf/1ra.
July 29, 1930. E. H. HAMILTON ATOMIZI-NG DEVICE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Marchy 1s, 1925 2 Sheets-Sheet .2
INVENTOR ATTORNEYS Patented my 29,* 1930 UNITED yslAi'r. s'mii-zN'r.caricia:
ENWIN 'HUGH HAM'ILroN, or 'iCiAsriNGs-oN-nuiisoN, New Yoan,- AssIoN'oaor oNN- 'rnmn To 'EDGAR T. WAGNER AND ONE-Tami To wnm'rm u. irALIsorr, non: or
NEW Yoan, N. Y,
VroniitiiiNa mivrcii ron nirnnNALfcounUsrroN ENGINES Application ma irarcnis, 1s25. semi in. 15,742.
Thisinvention relates to the atomization of fuel for internal combustion engines, and more particularly to atomizing d evices adapted for use asl an auxiliary in con]unction with the standard-equipment ofinternal combustion engines;
This invention has for its object 'generallyA an improved' construction and arrangement of-partsof the character referred. to, which is efficient, economical and readily manufactured.
More specifically. an object ofthe invention is to provide an arrangemeiitof paits adapted tol sustain a relatively highdegree of atomization 'of fluid fuels, particularly hy- Y drocarbons such as 4arecommonly-supplied for combustion purposes 1n internal combustion engines.
. Another object is 'to provide an arrangementof apparatus adapted for use as an auxiliary for efecting the maintenance of a relatively high degree of atomization of fluid fuels, particularly hydrocarbons over a comparatively large range of gravities, thereby malngavailable for Ifuel purposes in iiiterna] combustion engines'- iluid fuels of relatively high speciiic gravities.
Other objects of the invention-will inpartV be obvious and will in partl appear hereinafter,
The invention accordingly comprises the features of'construction, combinations of elements, and arrangement of parts., which will be exemplified'in the constructions hereinafter set forthi'and the scope of theapplication ,of which will bey indicated in the VFor a fuller understanding of 'the nature and objects of the invention, reference Vs hoi'ild behad to the following detaileddescri-pt'ion taken in connection with .the accompanying drawing, in which: l
Figure 1 shows, partly in section and partly diagrammatically, an. arrangement of parts tion;
Fig. 2 shows mainly vdiagrai fimat1cally an arrangement embodying a modification of the f invention'shown in Fig.' 1 Fig. 3Y shows still another modification combustion engines.
adapted for use in conjunction withDiesel type internal combustion engines;
Figs'. 4 Vand 5 show still furtherV modifica'- tions for use in connectionA with four-cycle' internal combustion engines; While Figs.6 and 7 show modiicati'onsv adapted for use in conjunction with carburetorscommonly employed with four-cycle internal` Referring now to the drawing ajnd particularly to Fig. 1 10 denotes the' cylinder of an internal combustion engine havingv an intake connection 11 and an exhaust connection 12. The intake connection is adapted to be supplied with a fuel mixture, for ex :sample a-mixture of air and an atomized hydrocarbon vapor, through the supply connection shown at 13. Between the intake 11 and the supply connection 13 is disposed a mpple or intermediate connection 14 having an insulating lining 15 through which is car-' ried a properly insulated electrode 16. This electrode as shown has pronged discharge terminals 17. The electrode 16 is-connected for. an electric discharge 'of current at a relatively high potential and ccurrent density, Vand arranged so that-there 1s a preponder-V ance of discharged electricity of one polarity over that of the opposite polarity.- The preferred arrangement is one employing a' unilateraldischarge. To this end, the arrange- `ment hereV shownlcoinprises analternating current generator 18, having one terminalv 19 grounded in any convenient manner, for example, grounded on the end ofthe exhaust pipe shown at 20;, The potential dilerence maintained acrossthe generator while prefcharge fromany constant source oflE. M. F., for example, the battery shown "at 23 connected .across the terminals of the cathode filament; inseries with the cathode filamentl is also preferably located a regulating resist-l anceas shown at 24. The anode of the ther- Aerably high, may be as low as 100 volts. In
. type,`arranged tobe heated forl electronic disconstructed in accordance with the invenmionic discharge tube 21 is shown in plate f orm at 25 and is directly connected to the electrode 16. The alternating current generator is preferably coupled mechanically so as to be actuated when the internal combus 17, thus become electrified with like charges and ionized, and repel one another, so that there is no longer a tendency to coalesce subsequently into large globules under the iniluence of the compression in the combustion chamber. A high state of atomization is thus sustained substantially until the instant at which combustion takes place. The charges thus attained by the hot gases are dissi ated through the cylinder walls or in the ex aust through the grounded'connection 19.
In Fig. 2 the means for supplying the electrode 16 with a preponderance ofV electric charges of onepolariy is shown in the form of av high potential irect current magneto 31, i. e., the generated current is mechanically rectified. One brush 32 of the magneto is directly connected to the electrode 16. The other brush 33 is shown as grounded on the exhaust pi 20. t
In the orm of the invention shown in Fig. 1, the arrangement of connections is such Y that a discharge of negative electricity takes place from the pronged terminals 17. This is generally preferable since the negative electricity discharges or leaks off more readily from pronged terminals such as shown at 17,
but it isby no means essential, and the connections may be reversed; the direct current' magnetoshown at 31 may consequently be connected as shown in Fig. 2 irrespective of the `polarity of the brushes 32 and 33. Also alternating current source, may in some inst-ances be used without a rectifying means, since the selective leakage may ofv itself be suilicient to provide the desired preponderance of charges" of one polarity. By a suitable choice and arrangement of materials this selectiveleakage may be made to yield a p reponderance of either positive or negative electricity. l
In order that some of the charge accumulating on the exhaust pipe 20 shall be readily dissipated to the atmosp ere, the exhaust pipe in Fig. 2 is shown as provided witha prong 35. This enables the hot gases issuing-therefrom to carry off a portionof the electric VSuch source is here shown as an electrostaticl machine, for example, a Wimshurst machine, shown diagrammatically within a casing 37.
The -Wimshurst machine is shown as com prising two oppositelyA rotating discs or cylinders 38 and 39 which carry res ectively 'conducting strips or se ments 40 a apted to have charges frictiona ly produced thereon by means of the brushlike wipers 41 and 42..
As indicated, there is a pair of brushlike wipers 41 electrically connected together, but independent of the. other pair of brushlike wipers 42; these four brushlike wipers being preferably disposed in respectively different quadrants in order to facilitate the maximum production of frictionally induced electricity. The charges produced are icked up by pairs of oppositely disposed nee e-point collectors indicated at 43 and 44 respectively. collectors 44 are shown as electrically connected throu h the lead 45 with the electrode 16; the ead 45 passing throu h an insulating plug 46 in the casing 47. rom the collectors 43 a similar lead 47 leads to a ground connection on the frame of the machine at 48. Within the casing 37 is a spark gap, comprising a pair of spaced ball-electrodes 49, which are connected across the collectors 43 and 44. This enables the potential difference across the collectors 43 and 44 to be stabilized and prevents it from exceeding a safe value. The discharge from the Wimshurst machine may be further stabilized by providing condensers to collect the charges connected across the collectors 43 and 44. Such arrangement is preferable although by no means essential, and is here s own as comprising a air connected in cascade at 49.
The Wims urst machine thus arranged is,
also preferably arranged to be 'driven by means of a belt indicated at 50 when the internal combustion engine is set into rotation.
In Fig. 5 is illustrated a still further modiiication in which hydrocarbon vapors are electrified from a frictional source of electricity in a very simple manner, which may be availed of in some instances. Here the connection 14 is shownas provided interiorly with a foraminous member of dielectric material- 51. The fuel globules which pass through the passages 52 in the member 51 by frictional contact with the dielectric material generate and pick up a charge, which is here indicated as ne ative; the positive charge leaking to groun by Way of the connection 53. Whether the charge picked up by the uel globules is lus or minus' however, depends as is readil understood upon the choice of the dielectric material.
In Fig. 6`the electrode 16 is shown as'leadmg dlreetly to the carburetor instead vof to an intermediate connection as inthe 4fore oing instances. Here the prong terminals 1 are disposed directly over the s ray nozzle 55 in the carburetor 56. In Fig. there is shown still another modification in'which the electrode 16 is shown as inserted in the air supply entrance. Here the pronged terminal 17 1s arranged to discharge electrici into and ionize the air drawn into thev car uretor 56 for combustion` purposes.
In Fig. 3 there is shownan adaptation ofA likely tocoalesce inr the highly compressed gas within the combustion chamber 62.
While a pronged discharge terminal has beenshown as t e preferable form for electri'fying the vapor or gas in accordance with this invention, it will be observed that an tween, o'f means in said passage and insulated therefrom* to ionize said vaporizfed or atomized fuel and a source of electriccurrent connected thereto, said ionizing means constituting oneterminal only of the electrical circuit.
In testimon whereof I' allix my si ature.
ER NHUGH- HAMIL N.
form of discharge terminal may be employe l for example, r1n discs or balls. These, however, are well own in the electrical art and illustration thereof has been avoided in the interests of clearness.
`Since certain changes may be made in the above construction and. dijerent embodiments ofthe invention could be made without .departing from the scope thereof, 1t is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accox n` p(anying` drawingshall be interpreted as 1l,
lustrative' and not in a limiting sense. It is also to be understood that the 'following claims. are intended to cover all of thel generic and specific features of the invention herein described, andall statements of the scope of the invention whch'as axmatter of language might be said to fall therebetween.VV
Having described my` invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In combination `with a-source of 'fuel supply andan ionization chamber connected thereto, of an electrode disposed therein, an insulated wall for said chamber about said electrodePand means for placing a proper charge 'upon said electrode.
2. The combination with a source of vaporized or atomized fuel, a work chamber therefor and a connecting passage therebe- "los