US 1772492 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
mama Au 12,1930
UNITED sTATss PATE T or-Pics can; 11.1mm, or mico'r'r, imw 'zonx, .assmxon m m rnm'rmo nonmacomm, OIEHDIOO'IT, NEW YORK, A CORPORATION 01' mm mm ucoan mm m "rnumrnte momma a ummmea my so, 1928. Serial Io. 204,110.
This invention is directed to the general and of providing an improved means of placing a greater amount of statistical, or like data, upon a given record card than hasbeen heretofore possible, resulting in increased efficiency and benefits accruin from tabulating, or like machines prefera ly employed in connection with such record cards. Where card cost and filing space are'important considerations, it is possible, by means of the present improvements 'to place on a record card of appreciably smaller dimensions the same statistical or tabular data placed on record cards of a size heretofore employed.
In machines of the Hollerith type, for example, it has been the practice to provide,
record cards with index points thereon arranged in columns and with the index points 7 all laterally spaced fromeach other and arv the ranged in transverse rows. -It has also been the practice to space the perforations, which are usually circular, an appreciable and suitable distance apart laterally in order to prevent the brush cooperating with one column of holes from accidentally contacting through the holes of an adjacent column.
While the natural solution of placin more data on a given card is to make the circular perforations smaller in diameter it has been observed that cards having relatively small circular perforationswere not satisfactory with respect to machine operation and strength or durability.
In tabulating and sorting machines of the electrical type a certain length of time is required for.- establishing the circuit through holes in the card. This length of time and other requirements of the machinehave, without resorting to other mechanical expediences, governed the diametrical dimensions of circular card perforations and when the smallest size that could be used was determined it was found that the additional data that could be placed on the new record was, to all extents, not appreciable;
It has also been discovered in practice that as the circular perforations were reduced in diameter and placed closer together a straight line of such perforations would act 59 in the manner of a line-perforated stub card and record cards weakened in this manner did not possess the necessary characteristics of strength and durability.
It is then a main object of the present invention to provide an improved means of providing a' greater quantity of perforated data upon a record card of a given size without sacrificing card strength or durability as well as to produce a record card that is satisfactory with respect to machine operation and one that may be employed in connection with machines now in commercial use without material changes in the mechanisms therein. 4
It is a still further object of the present inventlon to provide an index pointhaving the necessary characteristics and requirements for proper analyzing operations for deriving tabular data from a record card.
In carrying out the present invention the spacing of adjacent card columns is reduced in order to provide a more data on a given card, and to provide for the necessary time element for electrical contact the holes are elongated in the direction of card feed. The form and spacings of the perforations are such that considerable resistance to tearing by a series of such perforations is eifected.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 represents a card having the usual form and spacings employed in connection with Hollerith tabulating and sorting machines;
Fig. 2 is a plan view of a perforated record card having index points constructed accordlng to the present invention;
Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view of the brush section of a tabulator, sorting machine or the like, showing the cooperation of an analyz- 1ng brush with the preferred form of perforation of an improved record card as the card is fed-thereto;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary portion of a record card employing small circular perforations;
Figs. 5 and 6 are fragmentary portions of record cards illustrating modifications of the present invention.
The improved record card 10 (Fig. 2) is of the usual construction except that the index point designations 11 are spaced closer toof data required stren h-of the perforated card but The numbe upon a car by the closeness to which adjacent brushes may be brought together withoutjthe resultant danger' of-a brush associated .wlth one column, engaging an adjacent brush or column-perforation resulting in irregular accounting machine 0 erations. The resent column width has een adopted with the above in mind and with slight modifications the brushes and holders now employed may be satisfactorily used in connection with the new form of record cards. a
, Where a series of perforations 11 are required itwill be apparent that the card will be weakened along the line of perforations and this is particularly true if the perforations are circular, as indicated by numeral 14 in Fig. 4 which are-shown as smalLas may be practical to..use. Such form of perfora tions materially weaken the card since the circular perforations converge naturally to a tearing line as is readily evidenced by the preferred employment of such perforations for stub cards.
It has been observed that if the perforations areelongated as those indicated by nu meral 11 in Fig. 2 and have adjacent substantially straight. edges that the resistance totearing a record card along a horizontal line of perforations is substantially increased. The preferred form of index point perforations 11 are substantially rectangular in which the len h is considerably greater than the width. ther forms may be. used with similar marked advantages and may besubstantially oval-shaped holes 16- shown in Fig. 5 or have adjacent straight edges along the longer sideand be substantially circular or elliptical on the other edges such as shown by numeral 17 in Fig. 6. i 7
Considering Fig. 2 it will be apparent that the separation as mdicated by A is considerably less than the separation B, the latter being substantially equivalentto' a corre-- sponding spacing of the index points of Fig.
-1. This requires no change in the timingof the mechanical or electrical parts of the a paratus and the new t pe of cards" may readily substituted wit a similar de cc of efliciency in-operation. It will be 0 vious that since .a vertical line of elongated perforations never occurs due to the fact that but one perforation in a vertical, card column is used the separation at B may also be reduced without materially weakening the card.
Thus the same amount of data may be placed on a card of still smaller dimensions.
Observing Fig. 4 it will be apparent that if a card having small circular holes 14 should be fed downwardly by feeding rollers 18 to son of the fact that the wires of brush 19 are in contact with the contact member 20 for a greater length of time while, the perforationis passing between the brush and the contact member. a
In other words, between the time the brush falls into the leading edge of the hole and the time the brush is lifted by the rear edge of the hole a greater length of time will have transpired than when 'circular holes having a diameter equivalent .to the width of the elongated holes are used. Atuthe sametime since the card columns may be closer a greater amount of data may be placed on a given card and thecard will still be satisfactory with re spect to machine operation and structural strength. 7
By a comparison of Figs. 1 and 2', it will be apparent that a card formed according to thepresentinvention may represent considerable more tabular data than heretofore.
In the present instance 80 columns of data may be placed on a card compared to a 45 column card used heretofore. It will be ap parent that. when a card having 40 columns is suitable for all purposes record cards constructed according to the present embodi ment will be about half the size of regular Hollerith cards giving marked advantages with respect to card cost, ease in handling,
reduction in filingspace, etc.
While there has been shown and described and pointed outthe fundamental novel features of the invention asfapplied to a single modification it will be understood that various changes in the form and details of the device illustrated and in its operation may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the'intention, therefore, to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims. 7 r
Iclaim i 1. A tabulating card having oblong con.
trol apertures arranged in vertical columns and horizontal lines with the greater dimension in the vertical direction whereby the card is stronger and contains more perforations than a similar card having similarly r -arran ed and spaced circular, perforations o f a iameter equal to said vertical iimen- S1011.
2. A card as in claim 1 in which the'apertures are rectangular.
"In testimony whereof I'hereto afix my signature.