US 1773579 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 19, 1930. o, 5, mm 1,773,579
GRIBBING Filed Nov. 1a, 1926 2 Sheets-Sheet -1 I Aug. 19, 1930. o, s, FLATH 1,773,579
CRIBBING Filed Nov. 18, 192s 2 Shgets-Sheet 2 Patented Aug. 13, 1930 weave or'ro SQFLATH, or orrrcheo, ILLINOIS CRIBBING Application filed November 18,1926. sria no. 149,051.
My invention relates to concrete cribbing especially intended for use inthe construction of retaining walls for supporting embanlrnients or fills and particularlyin situa- 5 tions where the construction of an ordinary retaining wall is impracticable.
My invention has for its object the provision of an economical construction composed of afew standard units or elements of. such" formation as not only to be adaptable to vary ing conditions, but which will also permit easy transportation thereof as well as the ready'assembling; while at the same time providing a? construction wherein the respective 15 units or elements will have an interlocking relation with each other and be so arrangedas to withstand the strains and stresses to which the cribbing is ultimately subject, with the result that necessity for cementing or grouting is eliminated.
The objects and advantages of my improved cribbing will be readily comprehended from the detailed description of the accompanying drawings, wherein Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view of the cribbing assembled, illustrating its application to an embankment or fill.
' Figure 2 is a front elevation of a portion of the cribbing composed of my improved 3) headers and stretchers and illustrating the use of my improved filler block. I Figure 3 is a perspectiveview of the type of headeremployed in Figure 1.
' Figure l is a detail perspective view of the supporting block as employed in the front elevation shown inFigureQ.
Figure-5 is a detail perspective view with portions broken away, illustrating the interengaging portions of the stretchers and headers employed in Figure 1.
" Figure 6 is a perspective view of a portion of cribbing with parts shown in sectionand broken away illustrating a modified form.
Figure 7' is a vertical sectional elevation of 45 a portion of-cribbing employing headers'substantially like those in Figure 6,-except that the lugs are like those shown in Figure 3;
and employing stretchers being like those shown in Figure 6; the figure illustratesthe 5 application of the cribbing to an embankment;
or: fill and shows the use of additional pressure blocks. 7 f V "In the exemplification of the invention as.
illustrated in the firstfive'figures of the drawings',ithe' cribbing comprises a plurality of: uniform elements formed to permit assembly in lnterlockmg IQlZllllOIl' with each other to produce a cribbing adapted to support em- 7 bankm'ents or fills and constructed to withstand the COIIlPlGSSIOHflIlCl lateral strains; the
elements being S0 constructed as to permit them to adjust themselves without rupture or 1n ury. v
The cribbing, as shown in thesefigures, consists of a suitablefnumber of headers 10, illustrated in perspective in Figure 3 and a suitable numberof stretchers shown at 11;
the stretchers like'the headers being prefer} made of uniform length for economy in manufacture'and to enable easy transportation and handling;
i The stretchers in the cribbing shown in 1 Figures 1, 2 and 5 are preferably made with their vertically disposed faces arranged-par allel with'ea chother, of equal height, and at a slopinginclination as shown at 12 in Fig; ure 5; while'thetop and bottom faces are ofequalwidth and arranged parallel with each other-, I v y headers employed in the cribbing shown in Figures 1 to 5 have their main body portions substantially, rectangular in crosssection,:while the upper face, adjacent to one end, is provided with an upstanding lug or portion 139f width equal to the width of the.
. main bodyfportion and providedwith; the
upwardlyinclining side faces 14, converging or sloping toward each othercand terminat ing' in the'upper flat surface 15. Theupg standing lug jot-portion 13 isarrangedat ag predetermined: distance from the adjacent end --16 ofjthefheader sis-clearly shown in Figure 3;;and this en iof the header on its lower face,(asillustratedin Figure 3,'is provided with; a pair of-projections ;or lugs 17 and 18 arranged inspacedrelation with each other so as to .p r'ovide an intermediate channelongroove'19 lthere between'.v The projection or lug li is shown formed integralwith the immediate end lfiiofthe headers, with the both top and bottom surfaces thereof are disposed on the inner face of the lug arranged at an inclination as shown at 20. The lug or projection 18 is arranged in slight staggered relation with the lug or portion 13 on the upper face and is of a construction similar to the lug or projection 13; that is to say, the two side faces 21 are arranged at an inclination, converging downwardly toward each other, terminating in the lower flat face 22. As will be seen in Figure 3, the one sloping face 21, namely the one disposed toward lug or projection 17, at its base or juncture with the body of the header is substantially in vertical alignment with the juncture of the inner slop-' ing face 14 (namely the face disposed to.-
ward the opposite end of the header). with the top face 15 of the lug or projection 13. The opposite end of, the header is provided with similar projections or lugs 13,17 and 1.8, except that the lug 13 is formed on the lower sideof the header as viewed in Figure 3, while the lugs and projections 17 and 18 are upper side. It is apparent, both ends of the header and each provided with three projections or lugs, with one pair of said lugs arranged in spaced relation to provide the intermediate channels or grooves 19. It is obvious that the header is therefore, that reversible and that either end may be distil posed at the outer vertical face of the cribbing by a proper placing of the header.
In assembling the units toprovide the desiredcribbing, it is usual to place asufiicient 7 number of headers 10 substantially at right angles tothe embankment or fill; the number of courses employed depending upon the nature of'jthe embankment or fill which the cribbing is to support.- In Figure 1, I merely illustrate a single course of headers, with the right hand end of the header as viewed in Figure 3 constituting the outer end so that the single upstanding projection or lug 13 will be disposed adjacent to the outer face of thecribbing. With this arrangement it is apparent that the upstanding portion or lug 13 will enter thegroove 19 formed intermediate of the lugs or projections 17 and 18 on the lower forward end of the superposed header.- The slant or slope of 'theside walls ofthe stretchers ll'aremade'to conformwith the degree of slope or slant of the side faces of the'lugs or'proj ections formed on the head;
ers', with the result that the stretcher'sf llwill lie flush with the outer sloping'sideface 141' of the upwardly projecting portion or lug 13 and with theinner side sloping face of the end projection or lug 17, of the superposed lieader,- while the other slopingside face of lug or projection 1-3 will lie flush with the sloping face of the lug orprojection'18 of the superposed header. As a result, a firm interlocking relation is not onlyprovided between theifsup erposed' headers, but the stifetchers' likewise will'be firmly held in interlocking r'elation with the adjacent headers; the stretchers and lugs or projections on the headers being arranged so as to be substantially in alignment with the downward and outward thrusts of the embankment or fill, the sloping faces deflecting the strains and constituting an easement for the pressures so that breakage at the bearing points of the crib bing will be prevented as there are no direct or right angles to be subjected to shearing strains or pressures.
' li ith the arrangement of the elements as just described, the spaced lugs or projections 17 and 18 at theother or inner end of the headers as arranged in Figure 1- will be disposed upwardly, as shown to the right in Figure 1, with the lug or projection 18 of the header engaging the lug or projection 13 Of the superposed header; While the stretchers at the inner end. of the cribbing will be in tel-posed between the end lug or projection 17 of the lower header and the lug or projection 13 of the superposed header and firm interlockingrelation between the elements or units thus provided.
here the length of the embankment or cribbing is greater than the length of the stretchers, the latter are preferably arranged so as to stagger the abutting en ds of the superposed stretchers in order that all joints between superposed stretchers will not come in the same vertical plane. That is to say, the abutting ends of aligned stretchers in one course may be arranged to be in alignment with the vertical. axis of the end of a header as shown at 23 in Figure 2, while the abutting ends of aligned stretchers 11. may come at a. point intermediate of the adjacent rows of headers as shown at 2st in Figure 2. To provide proper support for the abutting ends of the stretchers insuch instances and at the same time provide a more economical construction obviatingthe necessity of employing a full lengthheader, I provide a supporting block 25. shown in detailin Figure 41, formed to correspond with the ends of the headers previously described; namely, the block 25, likewise of reenforced concrete and of length somewhat greater than the width of the strctchers, has its upper side (as viewed in Figure 4) provided with an upstanding portion or lug 26 disposed at a predetermined distance from-the forward outer end 27 corre sponding to the distance of lug 13 fronrthe end'lG of the header shown in Figure 3. This lug or projection 26 is identical in construction and dimensions with the lug 13 of the headers; while the lower side of the block 25, as viewed in Figure 1, has the projections or lugs 28 and 29 integral with the ends of'th'e block with their inner opposing faces 3'0 made slopin upwardly toward each other to correspond withthe faces 20 and 21 of'th'e lugs 17 and1'8 of the'lieaders, while the diesrespective headers are made with the up the width of the stretchers11 so as to straddle the stretcher on which it is superposed; while the distance between the end 27 of the block and the; lugor portion 26 is slightly greater than the width of the superposed stretcher 11. lVhere the stretchers are of the inclining construction employedin Figures 1' and 5,'the-superposed stretchers will lie fiush with the forward-sloping sideof the lug 26*of the block: while the-sub-stretcher will lie flush with the sloping inner face 30 of the lug 28 at the forward end of theblock 25.
With the sloping abutting faces of the lugs and ofthe stretchers contacting as shown in Figures 1 to 5, it is apparent that the strains and stresses will be taken care of by the comthe blocks at points where the latter are bined headers and stretchers, as well as by employed;'the sloping faces providing easement for the pressure and breakage of the lugs prevented as, however, would be the case where right angular lugs are employed. Furthermore, a firm gripping or interlocking relation between the headers and stretchers or between the stretchers and blocks is provided and shifting of the members in a direction transversely of the cribbing prevented.
In Figure 6 I show a modified form of the invention wherein the stretcher-s32 aresomewhat of a truncated triangular construction in cross-section, namely with the one longitudinal or lower surface ofgreater width, as shown at 33, than the top longitudinal edges 34 withthe result that the two opposite sides of the stretchers are arranged at a converging inclination as shown at 35 in Figure 6;
- the inclination of the sides being substantially similar to the degreeof inclination of the side faces of the stretchers 11' previously referred to. lVith this type of construction, the headers 36 are provided adjacent their ends with a transversely disposed groove 37 of width sufficient to receive the bottom or base portion 33 of the stretchers 32 to provide a seat for the strecthers and thus prevent any movement of the stretchers lengthwise of the headers; or conversely speaking, movementof the headers transversely of the stretchers. The upper surface of the headers 36 at a predetermined distance from the groove or channel 37 are each provided with an upstanding lug 38 corresponding substantially tothe lug. 13 formed on the previously, described headers; namely the lugs 38 ofthe 5 made of vertical dimensions or height substantially equal to the height or vertical dimensions of the stretchers 32 in order that.
the lug 3 8 of 'a sub-header will'come into bearing relation with the body portion-of the superposed header. The lower side of the headers 36 is provided with the lugs or portionsc39 and 40 which are substantially similar to thepairv of lugs 17 and 18 formed on the headers 10 in Figure 3,-exeept that the vertical dimensions of the lugs 40, like the lugs 38, are of vertical dimensions slightly less than the vertical dimensions of the stretchers 32, in order that the lugs 40 may come into bearing relation with the top surface of the sub-header; the vertical dimen-' sions of the lugs 38 and 40 being to a degree less than the vertical height or dimension ofthestretcher 32 corresponding with the depth ofthegroove or channel 37. The lugs 38 and 40, as will be seenin Figure 6, are arranged in the offset or staggered relation, namely with the lugs 40 on the lower surface arranged in a vertical plane forward of the lugs 38, relative to the end of the header, so that the lugs 40will lap the sides of the lugs 38 of the sub-header and be disposed inter-' mediate of the lug 38 and the stretcher 32 and thus provide an interlocking relation between stretchers and -headers; a construction wherein the full bearing strains will be transmitted to the main body portions of the headers. c 7 In Figure 7 I illustratera vertical sectional view of a portion of a cribbing applied to an embankment or fill generally indicated at 41, wherein the stretchers '32 are of the construction illustrated in Figure 6; the figfore do not contact with the body portions of the superposed headers.
These headers are also intended to be reversible or interchangeable and for that reason the opposite end of the headers, namely the inner ends as illustrated in Figure 7, have their upper sur- 1 faces provided with the lugs 44 and 45, while the lower surface is provided with the lug 43, all arranged at the same distances from the ends of the headers like those previously described with reference to the outer'forward 1:
ends of the headers and therefore having the lower surface of the headers 42 at the inner ends in Figure 7, like the upper forward ends, provided with the transverse grooves '37 toreceive the wide longitudinal surface or base v of the stretchers 32 whichat the innerend of the cribbing as viewed in Figure? are reversed so as to have the wide or base portion disposed upwardly in order that the 'narrower longitudinal side of the stretchersmay 1:
than the vertical dimensions of the lugs 43,
44 and 45' on the headers, the slight space between the ends of the downwardly disposed lugs 44 at the front and the body portion of the adjacent header, may be filled with spacer or filler block 46 as shown to the left in Figure 7. These filler blocks 46 are also of precast concrete and provided with depending ends to straddle or overlap the sides of the sub-header and prevent lateral shifting of the blocks;
In the e'xemplification in Figure 1, the vertical depth of the stretchers are shown somewhat greater than" the vertical depth of the lugsor projections on the headers, but it is apparent that the vertical depth of the stretchers as well as the lugs on the headers may correspond so that the lugs of one header may bear on the main body portion of the sub-header in order that the stretchers and the lugs of the headers may take all of the compression strains.
I have shown various adaptations of my invention and have described the same in terms employed merely as terms of description: and not as terms of limitation, as structural modifications are possible and may be made without, however, departing from the spirit of my invention.
What I claimis:
1. A cribbing comprising a plurality of headers and stretchers of precast concrete arranged in superposed rows with the stretche'rs'extendingintermediate of adjacent tiers of headers, the headers adjacent to the ends beingprovidecl' with vertically disposed lugs extending throughout the width of the headers, one lug at each end of the header being arranged on'one face of the header at a predetermined distance from tiie end of the header while a pair of lugs are arranged in spaced relation on the opposite face of the header, with the lugs on the two faces arranged in staggered relation with each other.
2. A cribbing comprising a plurality of" precast concrete headers and stretchers arranged in superposed spaced courses, the stretchers being provided with sloping sides,
and each of the headers having a plurality of vertically disposed lugs on the upper and lower faces having sloping sides correspond ing to the slopeof thesides of the stretchers, one lug on each face being arranged at a predetermined distance from the adjacent but opposite end-ofthe header while the other lugs are arranged in pairs on each face adjacent the ends of theheade'r opposite to the ends where said first mentioned lugs is located, the
lugs of each pair being in predetermined.
spaced relation to receive the ends of the stretchers therebetween, with one lug of each pair being disposed at theend of the header.
3; A cribbing comprising a plurality of precast concrete headers and stretchers arranged in superposed spaced courses, with the course of stretchers positioned between adj acent courses of headers, the stretchers having sloping sides while each header has a plurality of vertically disposed lugs on the-upper and the lower faces having sloping sides corresponding to' the slope of the sides of the stretchers and adapted to lap the sides of the stretchers, two of the lugs on the top and on the bottom faces of the headers being of greater vertical dimensions than the other lugs so as to contact with the main or body portion of the adjacent headers in the same course of headers.
4. A cribbing comprising a plurality of precast concrete headers and stretchers arranged in superposed spaced courses with the courses of stretchers positioned between adjacent courses of headers, the headers being provided with a plurality of vertically disposed lugs-on both'upper and lower faces, one lug on eachface being'arranged at a predetermined distance from the adjacent end greater than the width of the stretchers, while a pair of lugs are arranged at the other end of the header in spaced relation sufficient to receive spaced courses of headers, the headers beingprovided with three vertically disposed lugs on both-top and bottom faces, two ofsaid'lugs being arranged in spaced relation at one end on one face and at the other end on the opposite face of the headers, said pair of lugs being spacedito receive a'stretcher therebetween while the third lug on the opposite face of the header is disposed at the inner vertical side of the adjacent stretcher.
6. A cribbing comprising headers, stretchers and supporting blocksof precastconcrete, the stretchers having-sloping sides, thehead'- ershaving a plurality of vertically disposed lugson both topand bottom faces, with a pair of lugs adjacent to one end on one face and adjacent to the other end on the'oth'er face of theheader, while a third lu'gisarrangedat a distance removed from the adj acent opposite end, said lugs having sloping. sides corresponding to the slope of the stretcher sides, said third lug being arranged to lap the side of the inner lug ofsaid pair of lugs on theadjacent header, the supporting blocks being of length greater than the thickness of the stretchers and having one lug intermediate. of the ends on one face to lap the inner side of a superposed stretcher, and a pair of lugs at the ends on the opposite side of the block OTTO S. FLATH.
adapted to lap both sides of a, sub-stretcher.